Yang, Alyssa Marie
What is Dyscalculia?
• Formerly known as Mathematics Disorder
• Under Specific Learning Disorders (DSM-5)
• Problems with numbers
• Inability to acquire arithmetic skills
• Severe difficulty in learning math concepts
Types of Dyscalculia (Kosc)
• Verbal- difficulty using math orally
• Practognostic- difficulty manipulating concrete
• Lexical- difficulty reading mathematics symbols
• Graphical- difficulty writing mathematics symbols
• Ideognostic- difficulty understanding
• Operational- difficulty in performing specified
Types of Dyscalculia (Guillemot)
• Developmental Dyscalculia- impairment in
• Acalculia- lost sense of meaning of numbers ;
being able to understand numbers but not the
• Pseudo-dyscalculia- finding math difficult
based on emotional blockage or confidence
– Can learn the sequence of counting words
– Difficulty navigating back and forth, especially in 2s and 3s
– Learning and recalling number facts are difficult.
– Lack confidence when they produce the correct answer
• Numbers with zeros
– Difficulty to have grasp with ten, hundred, and thousand
have the relationship to each other as well as numbers 10,
100, and 1000
– Often have difficulty with operations ( e.g time,
money, temperature, speed)
– Difficulty understanding spatial orientation
• They are vulnerable when the teacher follows
an interactive whole-class method of teaching
• Frustration and embarrassment when asked
simple math questions in public
• use immature strategies (counting on fingers)
• no intuitive number sense
• lack of intuitive grasp of number
• working memory difficulties in relation to
numerical information (Butterworth & Yeo,
• competent in other areas of curriculum (Bird,
• Genes and heredity: a child with dyscalculia often
has a parent or sibling with similar math issues.
• Brain development: difference in the surface
area, thickness and volume parts of the brain that
are linked to learning and memory.
• Environment: exposure to alcohol in the womb,
prematurity and low birth weight.
• Brain injury: injury to certain parts of the brain
results to acquired dyscalculia.
Skills Affected by Dyscalculia
• Social skills: failing repeatedly can result to low self
esteem that can affects your child’s willingness to make
• Sense of direction: distinguishing left from right,
children with dyscalculia have trouble picturing things
in their minds.
• Physical condition: difficulty in judging distances
• Money management: difficulty in budgeting, counting
change and estimates costs.
• Time management: difficulty in estimating time,
keeping track of time.
Conditions Related to Dyscalculia
• Math anxiety
• Genetic disorders
• A child diagnosed with dyscalculia should receive
special education and there are way that parents
can help their child at home:
• Using visual aids when solving a problem
• Using concrete examples that connect math to
• Using graphing papers
• Playing math related games
• Draw pictures of word problems
• Use diagrams and draw math concepts
• Butterworth, B. (2003). Dyscalculia Screener (1st ed.). London:
nferNelson. Retrieved from
• Cornwall Dyslexia Association (2011). Dyscalculia, Dyslexia, and
Maths. Retrieved from cornwalldyslexia.org.uk
• Guillemot, T. (n.a). Dyscalculia- An Overview of Research on
• Gupta, N. (2011) Dyscalculic Co-morbidity in Secondary School
Going Children-A Comprehensive Study of Predicting Parameters
• Kelly, K., Phillips, S., & Symes, L.. (2013). Assessment of Learners
with Dyslexic-Type Difficulties. London: SAGE.