Objectives for this topica. Stimulate your thoughts about what you do in this area.b. Help to make you aware of strengths and weaknessesc. Encourage an ‘active learning’ approach
Definition we use the words note-making rather than note- taking as it more accurately reflects a process where you are actively involved, rather than the idea of passively copying the words of others word-for-word without thought or discrimination. Note-making from written sources involves reading, questioning, evaluating, summarising and paraphrasing. Whether you are at university or at work you will need to make notes to help you remember and understand complex issues. By actively engaging in the process you will find that note-making is not a painful or boring process, but is one of the steps on the road to understanding.
Where do we take notes from? From written sources: books, articles. From lectures. From audio devices: Radio, TV, telephone.
Why do we need to make notes? To record and store information Permanent record of lecture Relevant information from book To organise information - revision To act as memory hooks - retention To aid understanding, process ideas Efficient note-making is absolutely essential to effective learning.
Importance of Notes Purpose is crucial – have questions to answer Variety of styles for varying needs active learning – helps concentration Creates material for later use in exams or essays/projects – aids retention Personal record of understanding (cf using somebody else’s notes). Own words – avoids plagiarism Make bibliographic record - at this stage!
Notes from lecturesActive or Passive? Copying down what you see on a screen or black board. A or P? Writing down things the lecturer says. A or P? Writing down your own thoughts and ideas. A or P? Asking the lecturer questions. A or P? Asking yourself questions-jotting them down to research later. A or P? Answering questions posed by the lecturer Doing calculations, solving problems, evolving a personal response Yawning, shuffling, fidgeting, watching fellow students Thinking about other things Looking at the lecturer, blackboard or the screen Discussing things with students near you, when directed to do so by the lecturer.
Using SQ3R Survey. Question. Read / Listen Recall, Review See “Efficient Reading” on S4L or attend the workshop
Survey - Lectures Are the lecture notes available in advance (e.g. on WebCT)? You can however still prepare for the lecture in advance. What is the lecture going to be about? Title? Where does this fit in to the subject area/module? What do you know about this topic already? Can you read a book chapter or an article beforehand? General background? This will give you an overall map or framework in your mind; can fit the new information into this.
Question - Lectures Pose questions in your mind or on paper - before the lecture. What do you expect to learn? Amend the list as lecture progresses what is not clear? further reading suggests itself You may even get the opportunity to pose the questions directly.
Listen Attend Listen Participate Make notes Ask questions if opportunity Talk to other people (when appropriate!) Remember, listening is an active learning process not a passive process of mere recording of information
Listening Skills Many people admit to being a bit “hard of hearing”, but fewer admit to the much more common condition of being “hard of listening”. Phil Race Professor of Education Development University of Glamorgan
Making Notes - Lectures Don’t try to write everything down Listen for ‘sign-posts’ “Secondly,…” What is the main point of this bit? Summarise in own words Flag topics you want to re-visit further reading, alternative view Leave room for re-visiting wide margin; double spacing
Survey – Printed Material Read the ‘blurb’ or preface (book) Read the abstract (journal article) Look at the table of contents of relevant chapter or section Are there sub-headings? What do I know already? (e.g. lectures) Any summaries? Bullet points? List of learning outcomes? Tables? Charts? Diagrams? Identify what needed – NOT whole book!
Question – Printed Material Have in mind the questions you want answered by your reading Will give purpose and focus brainstorm on the essay topic For research proposal I need…. Write a list of questions Continue to question… How does this fit with prior knowledge? Is this information useful to my purpose? What further questions have arisen?
Read “Pre –read” Title, date, abstract, conclusion (article) List of objectives, introduction, any “boxes”, summary at end of section Skim-read or scan for relevance Read only relevant text Tables, charts are information-rich Read actively – critically, evaluate. Make notes in next stage
Making Notes – Printed Material This assists in Recall Write down key-words from each paragraph/section Express the main ideas in your own words – counters plagiarism Full bibliographic ref. for that source See “Quote, Unquote” for details Direct quotation – copy exactly Remember page number if from a book
Ways to make notes from writtensources. 1.Key word outlines. 2.Prose summaries. 3.Diagrammatic notes. (spider diagrams, mind maps) Leave room to add comments later Half width of page; well spaced Write critically – question arguments Author’s perspective? Alternative views? relate to own existing knowledge Everything needed from that source Should not need that book, article again!
Review Re-read lecture notes within 24 hours Great aid to long-term memory Handwriting, spelling, abbreviations! Critically review your notes: Are the original questions answered? More information needed? What sources? Relate to previous learning; look back at earlier lecture, or other, relevant notes Do you need to expand on your notes so that you can use them better later?
Create your own short hand. greater than ..... less than very much greater/less than leads to/causes, implies increase(s) ..... decrease(s) about (concerning) therefore ..... because six hundred thousand about (approximately) Question (strongly!) subject-specific terms: e.g. psychology, -ical: consistent abbreviations !
Create your own short hand. greater than ..... less than > < very much greater/less than » « leads to/causes, implies → => increase(s) ..... decrease(s) ↑ ↓ about (concerning) re therefore ..... because six hundred thousand 600K about (approximately) c. ~ Question (strongly!) ? (? ? ?) subject-specific terms: e.g. psychology, -ical: Ψ consistent abbreviations !