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LEARNING
DISABILITY
LD VIDEO
LEARNING DISABILITY
   Means a disorder in one or more of
   the basic psychological processes
   involved in understanding or in using
   language, spoken or written, that may
   manifest itself in an imperfect ability to
   listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, o
   r to do mathematical
   calculations, including conditions such
   as perceptual disabilities, brain
   injury, minimal brain
   dysfunction, dyslexia, and
   developmental and developmental
Disorders not included–
term does not include
learning problems that are
primarily the result of
visual, hearing of motor
disabilities, of mental
retardation, emotional
disturbance or
environmental, cultural or
economic disadvantage.
LD VIDEO
Characteristics
 of Learning
  Disability
The following is a list of
conceptual deficits often
noted in students with a
learning disability:
   Doesn't make connections
   in similar learning concepts.
   E.g., 5+3=8 becomes an
   unknown when asked what
   3+5 equals.
Has difficulty comparing
things or classifying and
sorting items according to a
specific criteria

Time concepts present
difficulty, before, after,
tomorrow, last week, etc.
Often doesn't get jokes or
ideas in humorous situations


Creativity and imagination is
usually limited


Often slow to respond
Difficult time predicting what
may happen next, or answering
comprehension type questions.


Comments are often off track


Difficulty thinking in a logical
or sequential manner.
Difficulty with number
concepts


Often requires a great deal
of clarification and one to one
support
Some Types of
Learning Disabilities –
  Specific Learning
      Disorders
 Some types of learning
disabilities are more
specifically defined by
education-based labels
such as
reading, writing, language,
and math. These more
specified types of learning
disabilities are categorized
as follows:
Dyslexia
A reading disability
(the student has
trouble reading
written words
fluently, out loud).
dyslexia video
Sign and symptoms of Dyslexia
Difficulty learning the
alphabet
Commonly very poor in
spelling, spell words
inconsistently, but in highly
phonetic word
People with dyslexia may also reverse the
order of two letters especially when the
final, incorrect, word looks similar to the
intended word.
Dysgraphia
A writing disability
(the student has
difficulty with forming
letters and legibility).
Sign and symptoms of Dysgraphia
Cramping of fingers while writing short
entries
Odd wrist, arm, body, or paper orientations
such as creating an L shape with your arm
Excessive erasures
Inconsistent form and size of letters, or
unfinished letters
Misuse of lines and margins
Having a hard time translating ideas to
writing, sometimes using the wrong words
altogether
May feel pain while writing
Dyscalculia
A math disability
(the student
struggles with math
problems and
concepts).
Dyscalculia Video
Sign and symptoms of Dyscalculia
Frequent difficulties with arithmetic
Difficulty with everyday tasks like
reading analog clocks
Inability to comprehend financial
planning or budgeting, sometimes
even at a basic level; for example,
estimating the cost of the items in a
shopping basket or balancing a
checkbook
Difficulty with multiplication-tables,
and subtraction-tables, addition tables,
division tables, mental arithmetic, etc.
Dyspraxia
A motor
coordination disability
(also known as
Sensory Integration
Disorder).
Sign and symptoms of Dyspraxia
Adults with dyspraxia may have
difficulty carrying out tasks such as
driving, cooking, and household chores
or grooming.
Children with dyspraxia may be late in
reaching developmental milestones, such
as rolling over, sitting, standing and
walking. They may frequently fall over,
and when older may avoid PE and
swimming lessons at school or any other
sporting activity.
Dysphasia
A language
disability (the student
has difficulty with
reading
comprehension).
The majority of symptoms will be
         language related, including:
Difficulty remembering words
Difficulty naming objects and/or
people
Difficulty speaking in complete
and/or meaningful sentences
Difficulty speaking in any fashion
Difficulty reading or writing
Difficulty expressing thoughts and
feelings
Difficulty understanding spoken
language
Aphasia
A language disability
(the student has
difficulty
understanding spoken
language).
Sign and symptoms of Aphasia
inability to comprehend
language
inability to pronounce, not
due to muscle paralysis or
weakness
inability to speak
spontaneously
inability to form words
inability to name objects
Central Auditory
   Processing Disorder
A sensory
disability related
to processing
sounds .
Sign and symptoms of Central Auditory
                 Processing Disorder
have trouble paying attention to and remembering
information presented orally, and may cope better with
visually acquired information
have problems carrying out multi-step directions
given orally; need to hear only one direction at a time
have poor listening skills
need more time to process information
have low academic performance
have behavior problems
have language difficulties (e.g., they confuse syllable
sequences and have problems developing vocabulary
and understanding language)
have difficulty with reading, comprehension, spelling,
and vocabulary
Visual Processing
         Disorder
A sensory
disability related
to processing
images.
Some symptoms of Visual
         Processing Disorder
Mixing up letters (i.e. ‘d’ and ‘b’)
Mixing up words by changing letters
around (i.e. ‘saw’ and ‘was’)
After reads a story they cannot
always tell the detail what the story
was about.
Skipping words, letters or
paragraphs when reading.
Learner would get headaches during
and after reading.
Non-Verbal Learning
        Disorder
A visual-spatial
disability related
to body control.
Sign and symptoms of Non-Verbal
             Learning Disorder
delay in understanding or using spoken language;
difficulty understanding simple instructions;
lengthy pauses before naming objects and colors;
limited awareness or interest in books;
difficulty coloring or drawing;
short attention span (won't sit through one storybook).
difficulty understanding and following instructions;
trouble remembering what someone just told them;
lacking motor coordination when walking, playing sports,
holding a pencil or trying to tie a shoelace;
frequently losing or misplacing homework, schoolbooks or
other items;
unable to understand the concept of time (confused by the
difference between “yesterday,” “today,” and “tomorrow.”
Causes and Risk
    Factors of LD
The causes for learning
disabilities are not well
understood, and sometimes
there is no apparent cause for
a learning disability. However,
some causes of learning
disability include:
Heredity
Learning disabilities
often run in the family.
Children with learning
disabilities are likely to
have parents or other
relatives with similar
difficulties.
Problems during
     pregnancy and birth
 Learning disabilities can
result from anomalies in the
developing brain, illness or
injury, fetal exposure to alcohol
or drugs, low birth
weight, oxygen deprivation, or
by premature or prolonged
labor.
Accidents after birth
Learning disabilities can
also be caused by head
injuries, malnutrition, or
by toxic exposure (such as
heavy metals or
pesticides).
Brain Damage or
         Dysfunction
Some professionals
believe that all children
with learning disabilities
suffer from some type of
brain injury or dysfunction
of the central nervous
system.
Biochemical Imbalance
 It was once theorized that
biochemical disturbances within
a child’s body caused learning
disabilities. For
example, Feingold (1975, 1976)
claimed that artificial colorings
and flavorings in many of the
foods children eat can cause
learning disability and
Environmental Factors
Although very difficult to document as primary causes of
learning disabilities, environmental factors—particularly
impoverished living conditions early in a child’s life and poor
instruction—probably contribute to the achievement deficits
experienced by many children in this special education
category. The tendency for learning disabilities to run in
families suggests a correlation between environmental
influences on children’s early development and subsequent
achievement in school. Evidence for this relationship can be
found in longitudinal research such as that conducted by Hart
and Risley (1995), who found that infants and toddlers who
received infrequent communication exchanges with their
parents were more likely to show deficits in vocabulary,
language use, and intellectual development before entering
school.
Diagnosis
IQ-Achievement Discrepancy
Learning disabilities are often identified by
psychiatrists, school psychologists, clinical
psychologists, and neuropsychologists through a
combination of intelligence testing, academic
achievement testing, classroom performance,
and social interaction and aptitude. Other areas
of assessment may include perception, cognition,
memory, attention, and language abilities. The
resulting information is used to determine
whether a child's academic performance is
commensurate with his or her cognitive ability.
The IQ-achievement discrepancy model assesses
whether there is a significant difference between a
student’s scores on a test of general intelligence
(e.g., an IQ test such as the WISC-IV) and scores
obtained on an achievement test (e.g., the
Woodcock Johnson Achievement Test). The IQ
achievement discrepancy model is the approach
traditionally used to identify children with learning
disabilities. If a student’s score on the IQ test is at
least two standard deviations (30 points) higher
than his or her scores on an achievement test, the
student is described as having a significant
discrepancy between IQ and achievement and,
therefore, as having a learning disability.
Response to Intervention (RTI)
Response to Intervention is an alternative method, other
than IQ tests, for identifying learning disabilities. Introduced
in the reauthorization of IDEA in 2004, Response to
Intervention is a 3-tiered process that provides academic
support to needy students before referring for special
education evaluation.


Students are first informally evaluated or referred by
teachers or parents for the need for additional, small
group, scientifically-based instruction. After a few weeks of
careful data-keeping, needs are reevaluated and more
intensive instruction provided. The 3rd tier allows for one-
to-one instruction and a referral to special education
services
Assessment
The purpose of assessment is to
determine what is needed for
intervention, which also requires
consideration of contextual variables
and whether there are comorbid
disorders that must also be identified
and treated, such as behavioural issues
or language delays.
Many normed assessments can be used in evaluating skills
in the primary academic domains: reading, including word
recognition, fluency, and comprehension;
mathematics, including computation and problem solving;
and written expression, including handwriting, spelling and
composition.

The most commonly used comprehensive achievement
tests include the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III), Wechsler
Individual Achievement Test II (WIAT II), the Wide Range
Achievement Test III (WRAT III), and the Stanford
Achievement Test–10th edition. These tests include
measures of many academic domains that are reliable in
identifying areas of difficulty.
In the reading domain, there are also specialized tests that
can be used to obtain details about specific reading deficits.
Assessments that measure multiple domains of reading
include Gray's Diagnostic Reading Tests–2nd edition (GDRT
II) and the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Assessment.
Assessments that measure reading subskills include the Gray
Oral Reading Test IV – Fourth Edition (GORT IV), Gray Silent
Reading Test, Comprehensive Test of Phonological
Processing (CTOPP), Tests of Oral Reading and
Comprehension Skills (TORCS), Test of Reading
Comprehension 3 (TORC-3), Test of Word Reading Efficiency
(TOWRE), and the Test of Reading Fluency. A more
comprehensive list of reading assessments may be obtained
from the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
Treatment and Intervention

Interventions Include:
Mastery model:

•Learners work at their own level of
mastery.
•Practice
•Gain fundamental skills before moving
onto the next level
Direct Instruction:

•Highly structured, intensive instruction
•Scripted lesson plans
•Rapid-paced interaction between teacher and students
•Correcting mistakes immediately
•Frequent progress assessments




 Classroom adjustments:

 •Special seating assignments
 •Quiet environment
Special equipment:

•Word processors with spell checkers and dictionaries
•Talking calculators
•Books on tape
•Computer-based activities



 Classroom assistants:

 •Note-takers
 •Readers
 •Proofreaders
 •Scribes
Special Education:

•Prescribed hours in a resource room
•Enrollment in a special school for learning
disabled students
•Individual Education Plan (IEP)
•Educational therapy
Famous person with
 Learning Disability
dyslexic video
Leonardo da Vinci
 Little is known about Da Vinci’s early
life, but he’s considered to have had
learning disabilities including dyslexia and
ADD. His journals were mostly written in
mirror-image cursive and are known to
have many spelling errors. He received an
informal education in Latin, geometry and
mathematics but did not show any
particular signs of aptitude. Da Vinchi
overcame his learning disabilities by
focusing his thoughts into creating art and
developing ideas. He even conceptualized a
helicopter which was not feasible during
his lifetime.
Pablo Picasso
  Pablo Picasso, born in 1881 in Spain,
  was a painter, draughtsman, and
  sculptor. He is one of the best-known
  figures in 20th century art. It has been
  said that Picasso had difficulties
  reading the orientation of the letters
  and therefore was labeled as dyslexic.
  It’s also believed that he was showing
  symptoms of ADHD. School was very
  difficult for him, he lacked discipline
  and disliked formal instruction.
Alexander Graham Bell

      Invented the telephone,
      but struggled with
      traditional schooling. It’s
      believed that he had some
      form of learning disability,
      possibly dyslexia.
Whoopi Goldberg
Whoopi Goldberg born Caryn Elaine Johnson is an
outstanding American comedian, actress, singer-
songwriter, political activist, and talk show host.
Whoopi was really struggling in school, she had a lot of
problems reading and because of that was called "slow",
“dumb” and "retarded". She even dropped out of school
at the age of 17.
Woopie knew that was neither slow nor dumb, but was
facing a problem that wasn’t well defined. Finally as an
adult discovered that she was dyslexic and with the help
of a teacher learned the proper strategies to overcome
her disability. Despite her dyslexia, Whoopi Goldberg
became an incredibly successful entertainer. She has
been awarded an Oscar, an Emmy, a Tony, and a Grammy.
Tom Cruise
- a very successful actor.
Thomas Cruise Mapother IV, better known as Tom Cruise
was born July 3, 1962 in Syracuse, New York. He’s the son of
Mary Lee Pfeiffer, a special education teacher, and Thomas
Cruise Mapother III, an electrical engineer.
Like his mother, Tom Cruise suffered from dyslexia and as he
explains was really struggling in school:
“When I was about 7 years old, I had been labeled dyslexic.
I'd try to concentrate on what I was reading, then I'd get to
the end of the page and have very little memory of anything
I'd read. I would go blank, feel anxious, nervous, bored,
frustrated, dumb. I would get angry. My legs would actually
hurt when I was studying. My head ached. All through
school and well into my career, I felt like I had a secret.
When I'd go to a new school, I wouldn't want the other kids
to know about my learning disability, but then I'd be sent off
to remedial reading.”

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LEARNING DISABILITY

  • 3. LEARNING DISABILITY Means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, o r to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental and developmental
  • 4. Disorders not included– term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing of motor disabilities, of mental retardation, emotional disturbance or environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage.
  • 7. The following is a list of conceptual deficits often noted in students with a learning disability: Doesn't make connections in similar learning concepts. E.g., 5+3=8 becomes an unknown when asked what 3+5 equals.
  • 8. Has difficulty comparing things or classifying and sorting items according to a specific criteria Time concepts present difficulty, before, after, tomorrow, last week, etc.
  • 9. Often doesn't get jokes or ideas in humorous situations Creativity and imagination is usually limited Often slow to respond
  • 10. Difficult time predicting what may happen next, or answering comprehension type questions. Comments are often off track Difficulty thinking in a logical or sequential manner.
  • 11. Difficulty with number concepts Often requires a great deal of clarification and one to one support
  • 12. Some Types of Learning Disabilities – Specific Learning Disorders
  • 13.  Some types of learning disabilities are more specifically defined by education-based labels such as reading, writing, language, and math. These more specified types of learning disabilities are categorized as follows:
  • 14. Dyslexia A reading disability (the student has trouble reading written words fluently, out loud).
  • 16. Sign and symptoms of Dyslexia Difficulty learning the alphabet Commonly very poor in spelling, spell words inconsistently, but in highly phonetic word People with dyslexia may also reverse the order of two letters especially when the final, incorrect, word looks similar to the intended word.
  • 17. Dysgraphia A writing disability (the student has difficulty with forming letters and legibility).
  • 18. Sign and symptoms of Dysgraphia Cramping of fingers while writing short entries Odd wrist, arm, body, or paper orientations such as creating an L shape with your arm Excessive erasures Inconsistent form and size of letters, or unfinished letters Misuse of lines and margins Having a hard time translating ideas to writing, sometimes using the wrong words altogether May feel pain while writing
  • 19. Dyscalculia A math disability (the student struggles with math problems and concepts).
  • 21. Sign and symptoms of Dyscalculia Frequent difficulties with arithmetic Difficulty with everyday tasks like reading analog clocks Inability to comprehend financial planning or budgeting, sometimes even at a basic level; for example, estimating the cost of the items in a shopping basket or balancing a checkbook Difficulty with multiplication-tables, and subtraction-tables, addition tables, division tables, mental arithmetic, etc.
  • 22. Dyspraxia A motor coordination disability (also known as Sensory Integration Disorder).
  • 23. Sign and symptoms of Dyspraxia Adults with dyspraxia may have difficulty carrying out tasks such as driving, cooking, and household chores or grooming. Children with dyspraxia may be late in reaching developmental milestones, such as rolling over, sitting, standing and walking. They may frequently fall over, and when older may avoid PE and swimming lessons at school or any other sporting activity.
  • 24. Dysphasia A language disability (the student has difficulty with reading comprehension).
  • 25. The majority of symptoms will be language related, including: Difficulty remembering words Difficulty naming objects and/or people Difficulty speaking in complete and/or meaningful sentences Difficulty speaking in any fashion Difficulty reading or writing Difficulty expressing thoughts and feelings Difficulty understanding spoken language
  • 26. Aphasia A language disability (the student has difficulty understanding spoken language).
  • 27. Sign and symptoms of Aphasia inability to comprehend language inability to pronounce, not due to muscle paralysis or weakness inability to speak spontaneously inability to form words inability to name objects
  • 28. Central Auditory Processing Disorder A sensory disability related to processing sounds .
  • 29. Sign and symptoms of Central Auditory Processing Disorder have trouble paying attention to and remembering information presented orally, and may cope better with visually acquired information have problems carrying out multi-step directions given orally; need to hear only one direction at a time have poor listening skills need more time to process information have low academic performance have behavior problems have language difficulties (e.g., they confuse syllable sequences and have problems developing vocabulary and understanding language) have difficulty with reading, comprehension, spelling, and vocabulary
  • 30. Visual Processing Disorder A sensory disability related to processing images.
  • 31. Some symptoms of Visual Processing Disorder Mixing up letters (i.e. ‘d’ and ‘b’) Mixing up words by changing letters around (i.e. ‘saw’ and ‘was’) After reads a story they cannot always tell the detail what the story was about. Skipping words, letters or paragraphs when reading. Learner would get headaches during and after reading.
  • 32. Non-Verbal Learning Disorder A visual-spatial disability related to body control.
  • 33. Sign and symptoms of Non-Verbal Learning Disorder delay in understanding or using spoken language; difficulty understanding simple instructions; lengthy pauses before naming objects and colors; limited awareness or interest in books; difficulty coloring or drawing; short attention span (won't sit through one storybook). difficulty understanding and following instructions; trouble remembering what someone just told them; lacking motor coordination when walking, playing sports, holding a pencil or trying to tie a shoelace; frequently losing or misplacing homework, schoolbooks or other items; unable to understand the concept of time (confused by the difference between “yesterday,” “today,” and “tomorrow.”
  • 34. Causes and Risk Factors of LD The causes for learning disabilities are not well understood, and sometimes there is no apparent cause for a learning disability. However, some causes of learning disability include:
  • 35. Heredity Learning disabilities often run in the family. Children with learning disabilities are likely to have parents or other relatives with similar difficulties.
  • 36. Problems during pregnancy and birth  Learning disabilities can result from anomalies in the developing brain, illness or injury, fetal exposure to alcohol or drugs, low birth weight, oxygen deprivation, or by premature or prolonged labor.
  • 37. Accidents after birth Learning disabilities can also be caused by head injuries, malnutrition, or by toxic exposure (such as heavy metals or pesticides).
  • 38. Brain Damage or Dysfunction Some professionals believe that all children with learning disabilities suffer from some type of brain injury or dysfunction of the central nervous system.
  • 39. Biochemical Imbalance  It was once theorized that biochemical disturbances within a child’s body caused learning disabilities. For example, Feingold (1975, 1976) claimed that artificial colorings and flavorings in many of the foods children eat can cause learning disability and
  • 40. Environmental Factors Although very difficult to document as primary causes of learning disabilities, environmental factors—particularly impoverished living conditions early in a child’s life and poor instruction—probably contribute to the achievement deficits experienced by many children in this special education category. The tendency for learning disabilities to run in families suggests a correlation between environmental influences on children’s early development and subsequent achievement in school. Evidence for this relationship can be found in longitudinal research such as that conducted by Hart and Risley (1995), who found that infants and toddlers who received infrequent communication exchanges with their parents were more likely to show deficits in vocabulary, language use, and intellectual development before entering school.
  • 41. Diagnosis IQ-Achievement Discrepancy Learning disabilities are often identified by psychiatrists, school psychologists, clinical psychologists, and neuropsychologists through a combination of intelligence testing, academic achievement testing, classroom performance, and social interaction and aptitude. Other areas of assessment may include perception, cognition, memory, attention, and language abilities. The resulting information is used to determine whether a child's academic performance is commensurate with his or her cognitive ability.
  • 42. The IQ-achievement discrepancy model assesses whether there is a significant difference between a student’s scores on a test of general intelligence (e.g., an IQ test such as the WISC-IV) and scores obtained on an achievement test (e.g., the Woodcock Johnson Achievement Test). The IQ achievement discrepancy model is the approach traditionally used to identify children with learning disabilities. If a student’s score on the IQ test is at least two standard deviations (30 points) higher than his or her scores on an achievement test, the student is described as having a significant discrepancy between IQ and achievement and, therefore, as having a learning disability.
  • 43. Response to Intervention (RTI) Response to Intervention is an alternative method, other than IQ tests, for identifying learning disabilities. Introduced in the reauthorization of IDEA in 2004, Response to Intervention is a 3-tiered process that provides academic support to needy students before referring for special education evaluation. Students are first informally evaluated or referred by teachers or parents for the need for additional, small group, scientifically-based instruction. After a few weeks of careful data-keeping, needs are reevaluated and more intensive instruction provided. The 3rd tier allows for one- to-one instruction and a referral to special education services
  • 44. Assessment The purpose of assessment is to determine what is needed for intervention, which also requires consideration of contextual variables and whether there are comorbid disorders that must also be identified and treated, such as behavioural issues or language delays.
  • 45. Many normed assessments can be used in evaluating skills in the primary academic domains: reading, including word recognition, fluency, and comprehension; mathematics, including computation and problem solving; and written expression, including handwriting, spelling and composition. The most commonly used comprehensive achievement tests include the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III), Wechsler Individual Achievement Test II (WIAT II), the Wide Range Achievement Test III (WRAT III), and the Stanford Achievement Test–10th edition. These tests include measures of many academic domains that are reliable in identifying areas of difficulty.
  • 46. In the reading domain, there are also specialized tests that can be used to obtain details about specific reading deficits. Assessments that measure multiple domains of reading include Gray's Diagnostic Reading Tests–2nd edition (GDRT II) and the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Assessment. Assessments that measure reading subskills include the Gray Oral Reading Test IV – Fourth Edition (GORT IV), Gray Silent Reading Test, Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP), Tests of Oral Reading and Comprehension Skills (TORCS), Test of Reading Comprehension 3 (TORC-3), Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE), and the Test of Reading Fluency. A more comprehensive list of reading assessments may be obtained from the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • 47. Treatment and Intervention Interventions Include: Mastery model: •Learners work at their own level of mastery. •Practice •Gain fundamental skills before moving onto the next level
  • 48. Direct Instruction: •Highly structured, intensive instruction •Scripted lesson plans •Rapid-paced interaction between teacher and students •Correcting mistakes immediately •Frequent progress assessments Classroom adjustments: •Special seating assignments •Quiet environment
  • 49. Special equipment: •Word processors with spell checkers and dictionaries •Talking calculators •Books on tape •Computer-based activities Classroom assistants: •Note-takers •Readers •Proofreaders •Scribes
  • 50. Special Education: •Prescribed hours in a resource room •Enrollment in a special school for learning disabled students •Individual Education Plan (IEP) •Educational therapy
  • 51. Famous person with Learning Disability
  • 53. Leonardo da Vinci Little is known about Da Vinci’s early life, but he’s considered to have had learning disabilities including dyslexia and ADD. His journals were mostly written in mirror-image cursive and are known to have many spelling errors. He received an informal education in Latin, geometry and mathematics but did not show any particular signs of aptitude. Da Vinchi overcame his learning disabilities by focusing his thoughts into creating art and developing ideas. He even conceptualized a helicopter which was not feasible during his lifetime.
  • 54. Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso, born in 1881 in Spain, was a painter, draughtsman, and sculptor. He is one of the best-known figures in 20th century art. It has been said that Picasso had difficulties reading the orientation of the letters and therefore was labeled as dyslexic. It’s also believed that he was showing symptoms of ADHD. School was very difficult for him, he lacked discipline and disliked formal instruction.
  • 55. Alexander Graham Bell Invented the telephone, but struggled with traditional schooling. It’s believed that he had some form of learning disability, possibly dyslexia.
  • 56. Whoopi Goldberg Whoopi Goldberg born Caryn Elaine Johnson is an outstanding American comedian, actress, singer- songwriter, political activist, and talk show host. Whoopi was really struggling in school, she had a lot of problems reading and because of that was called "slow", “dumb” and "retarded". She even dropped out of school at the age of 17. Woopie knew that was neither slow nor dumb, but was facing a problem that wasn’t well defined. Finally as an adult discovered that she was dyslexic and with the help of a teacher learned the proper strategies to overcome her disability. Despite her dyslexia, Whoopi Goldberg became an incredibly successful entertainer. She has been awarded an Oscar, an Emmy, a Tony, and a Grammy.
  • 57. Tom Cruise - a very successful actor. Thomas Cruise Mapother IV, better known as Tom Cruise was born July 3, 1962 in Syracuse, New York. He’s the son of Mary Lee Pfeiffer, a special education teacher, and Thomas Cruise Mapother III, an electrical engineer. Like his mother, Tom Cruise suffered from dyslexia and as he explains was really struggling in school: “When I was about 7 years old, I had been labeled dyslexic. I'd try to concentrate on what I was reading, then I'd get to the end of the page and have very little memory of anything I'd read. I would go blank, feel anxious, nervous, bored, frustrated, dumb. I would get angry. My legs would actually hurt when I was studying. My head ached. All through school and well into my career, I felt like I had a secret. When I'd go to a new school, I wouldn't want the other kids to know about my learning disability, but then I'd be sent off to remedial reading.”