*   OUR ANATOMY *              Looking Inward
Anatomical awareness as a powerful tool     Maybe sometimes we build up our position base on how we see it from the outsid...
Index                                                                                                                  Our...
Index                                                                                                             Our Anat...
Index                                                     Our Anatomy          Appendicular skeleton            upper extr...
Index                                                                                                                 Our ...
Index                                                                         Our Anatomy          Structural elements    ...
Index                                                                                                     Our Anatomy  3. ...
Index                                         Our Anatomy          Acromioclavicular joint (p. 108)            location   ...
Index                                                                                                            Our Anato...
Index                                                   Our Anatomy          Volume and pressure            inhalation    ...
Index                                                                                                         Our Anatomy ...
Index                                                                         Our Anatomy                 transversal axis...
Index                                                                                             Our Anatomy  6. Arms and...
Index                                                                                                         Our Anatomy ...
Index                                                                                                                   Ou...
Index                                                                                                                 Our ...
Index                                                                                                              Our Ana...
Index                                                                                           Our Anatomy  8. Abs and th...
Index                                                                                                               Our An...
Index                                                       Our Anatomy        Obturator externus                         ...
Index                                                                                                                    O...
Index                                                                                      Our Anatomy  11. Deep hip muscl...
Index                                                                                                                   Ou...
Index                                                                                                                Our A...
Index                                                              Our Anatomy        Trapezius (p. 74-118)               ...
Index                                                                                Our Anatomy  16. Deep glenohumeral (s...
Index                                                                                                                     ...
ABC Anatomy                                                                    Our Anatomy     ABC ANATOMY  1. Anatomical ...
ABC Anatomy                                                                    Our Anatomy  2. Planes of movement (p. 2)  ...
ABC Anatomy                                                        Our Anatomy        FRONTAL OR CORONAL plane (p. 3)     ...
ABC Anatomy                                                                   Our Anatomy        TRANSVERSE OR HORIZONTAL ...
ABC Anatomy                                                                  Our Anatomy        Other anatomical reference...
ABC Anatomy      Our AnatomyLooking Inward             6
BONES AND WIRES                                                                     Our Anatomy     BONES AND WIRES  The s...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                 Our Anatomy             usually instructor...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                   Our Anatomy           APPENDICULAR AND A...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                    Our Anatomy           The APPENDICULAR ...
BONES AND WIRES                    Our Anatomy          AXIAL SKELETON     Forms the bony axis of body            skull   ...
BONES AND WIRES                                            Our Anatomy            rib cage            sternum    When alig...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                   Our Anatomy        Ideas from Anatomy of...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                  Our Anatomy            alveolar (spongy) ...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                        Our Anatomy          JOINTS (p. 9) ...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                    Our Anatomy           CARTILAGE (p. 11)...
BONES AND WIRES                                    Our Anatomy                 intervertebral disks                 hip   ...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                     Our Anatomy          JOINT CAPSULE (p....
BONES AND WIRES               Our Anatomy          LIGAMENTS (p. 13)Looking Inward                         13
BONES AND WIRES                                                                     Our Anatomy             they are dense...
BONES AND WIRES                                                      Our Anatomy  2. Yoga and the Spine (p. 30)        Int...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                   Our Anatomy          Only true biped req...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                      Our Anatomy             head goes thr...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                  Our Anatomy             12-18 months    a...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                     Our Anatomy        Intrinsic equilibri...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                Our Anatomy        Vertebral structure (p. ...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                    Our Anatomy          TWO MAIN PARTS:   ...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                    Our Anatomy          INTERVERTEBRAL FOR...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                     Our Anatomy        VERTEBRAL LIGAMENTS...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                    Our Anatomy           THE 24 VERTEBRAE ...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                       Our Anatomy        VERTEBRAL MOVEMEN...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                      Our Anatomy           LET’S GO DEEPER...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                     Our Anatomy          TYPES OF SPINAL M...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                    Our Anatomy                     SPATIAL...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                      Our Anatomy             SPATIAL and S...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                      Our AnatomyTalking about the 5th move...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                Our Anatomy  3. Shoulder and shoulder girdl...
BONES AND WIRES                          Our Anatomy             acromioclavicular joint     Shoulderblade + clavicle (p. ...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                      Our AnatomyWe define two regions with...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                     Our Anatomy        MOVEMENTS OF THE SC...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                 Our Anatomy          With all these mobili...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                   Our Anatomy        MOVEMENTS OF THE ARM ...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                   Our Anatomy           LATERAL ROTATION: ...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                   Our Anatomy        LIGAMENTS          Gl...
BONES AND WIRES                                                               Our Anatomy            the capsule (quite lo...
BONES AND WIRES                                                            Our Anatomy            ligaments of the capsule...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                   Our Anatomy             Much of the stab...
BONES AND WIRES                                                                    Our Anatomy           Acromioclavicular...
BONES AND WIRES                           Our Anatomy  4. Thoracic cage: breathing I (p. 81)        Introduction INTROLook...
Anatomy Manual
Anatomy Manual
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Anatomy Manual

  1. 1. * OUR ANATOMY * Looking Inward
  2. 2. Anatomical awareness as a powerful tool Maybe sometimes we build up our position base on how we see it from the outside, in a superficial way, so we try to copy what we see and to fit our body, forcefully, into that external image. We invite you to focus on that look inward and to build up our posture from there. We are going to create a positive image more refined, more subtle, more detailed each time. “The images are like bombs of big expansion wave in that, when they explode, they tear difficulties apart#### (hacen pedazos) and create the desired change. ” Whatever is contained in that inner image, the body will reproduce it.” Anatomy can help us to visualize the structure in the positions, to the pure instruction we add the intention. “Before practice, theory is useless. After practice, it’s obvious.” Anatomy, in the end, is a fascinating, profound and funny opportunity to know ourselves. “If you teach an individual to be aware of his/her physical organism and to use it in the way it was designed for, very often you can change completely his/her attitude towards life and heal his/her neurotic tendencies.” Aldous Huxley
  3. 3. Index Our AnatomyINDEX ABC ANATOMY The structure 1. Anatomic position (p. 1) .......................................................................................................1 Introduction 1 Principal systems 1 Bones Articulations Muscles 2. Planes of movement (p. 2) ................................................................................................... 2 Median or midsagittal 2 Flexion, dorsiflexion Extension, plantarflexion Frontal or coronal (p. 3) 3 Adduction Abduction Lateral flexing or side-bending Fingers and toes hand foot Transverse or horizontal (p. 4) 4 Lateral rotation, supination Medial rotation, pronation Right/left rotation Other anatomical reference terms (p. 6) 5 Anterior Posterior Superior Inferior Medial Lateral Internal or deep External or superficial Proximal DistalLooking Inward i
  4. 4. Index Our Anatomy BONES AND WIRES The structure 1. Talking about bones in general ...........................................................................................1 Ideas from B4L (Bones for Life) 1 Mobile framework & rigid support Gravity Organization Dynamic movement Bone growth pressure configuration cooperation transmission, domino effect structure and function positioning alignment restorative ability biological optimism Ideas from Anatomy of Hatha Yoga 1 The scar of evolution Characteristics the upright posture the capacity to hold it up Relaxation and balance the lock in the knees relaxation extension instructors students NO lock Alignment, the plumb line of gravity through the cervical spine through the lumbar spine behind the axial centre of the articulations of the hips in front of the locked articulations of the knees centre of the heel Appendicular and axial skeleton appendicular axial both togetherLooking Inward ii
  5. 5. Index Our Anatomy Appendicular skeleton upper extremities lower extremities Axial skeleton skull vertebral spine rib cage sternum Ideas from Anatomy of Movement 7 Skeleton (p. 7) basic shapes components subjected to pressure Internal anatomy of a bone (p. 8) alveolar (spongy) structure hollow structure marrow periosteum compact bone articular cartilage Joints (p. 9) different degrees of mobility articulating surfaces congruency articular cartilage and synovial cavity dislocation o luxation Cartilage (p. 11) types of stress may be damaged blood vessels other formations Joint capsule (p. 12) what is it? reinforcements areas outer layer inner layer Ligaments (p. 13) what are they? function in the joint proprioceptive sensitivity excessive movement or traumaLooking Inward iii
  6. 6. Index Our Anatomy 2. Vertebral column (p. 30) .................................................................................................... 15 Introduction 15 Vertebral spine Human spine primary, kyphosis secondary, lordosis Primary curve, a bit of prehistory undulations parallels In the individual development Intrinsecum equilibrium 19 With no muscles Deep changes Energy waste against gravity Vertebral structure (p. 32) 20 Shapes Two main parts posterior, VERTEBRAL ARCH anterior, VERTEBRAL BODY Vertebral holes foramen Intervertebral foramina Vertebral linkage (p. 33) 1 intervertebral disc 2 articular facets Ligaments of the spine (p. 34) 23 Continuous anterior longitudinal ligament posterior longitudinal ligament supraespinous ligament Discontinuous ligament flava intertransverse ligaments interspinous ligaments The 24 vertebrae vertebral bodies archesLooking Inward iv
  7. 7. Index Our Anatomy Structural elements compression forces tension forces Vertebral movements (p. 36) 25 Effect in discs and ligaments sthira y sukha in flexion in extension in lateral flexion in rotation Let´s go deeper compression and decompression forces if compression force is too strong asymmetrical movements pushing back anterior longitudinal ligament posterior longitudinal ligament Types of spinal movement 4 possible movements flexion and extension, primary and secondary curves, exhalation and inhalation basic movement perspective breathing spatial and spinal perspective in forward/backward positions flexion y extension forward and backward spatial and spinal perspective in lateral movements and twists TRIKONASANA PARIVRITTA TRIKONASANA Axial extension, bandhas, mahamudra axial extension bandhas mahamudraLooking Inward v
  8. 8. Index Our Anatomy 3. Shoulder and shoulder girdle (p. 97) …......................................................................... 31 Introduction 31 Shoulder glenohumeral (p. 112) acromioclavicular (p. 108) sternoclavicular (p. 106) Shoulder girdle (p. 105) differences what is it? Movements of the scapula (p. 109) 34 Scapula Mobility elevation depression abduction or protraction adduction or retraction downward rotation upward rotation The great mobility of the arm Gliding planes Movements of the arm (p. 101) 36 Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction External rotation Medial rotation Ligaments 38 Glenohumeral joint (p. 112) from the bone point of view the capsule reinforcement instability resting position of the joint Sternoclavicular joint (p. 106) location movements ligamentsLooking Inward vi
  9. 9. Index Our Anatomy Acromioclavicular joint (p. 108) location movements gliding opening and closing the capsule and 4 ligaments superior inferior coracoclavicular ligaments trapezoid conoidLooking Inward vii
  10. 10. Index Our Anatomy 4. Thoracic cage: breathing I (p. 81) .................................................................................... 43 Introduction 43 Elements 44 Ribs + sternum Ribs + vertebrae the 12 thoracic vertebrae head, neck, tubercule of the rib vertebral level The bucket handle (p. 83) movement different levels direction superior thoracic vertebrae inferior thoracic vertebrae lower part of the sternum Mobility in the dorsal region (p. 54) D.1 to D.7 D.8, D.9 and D.10 special mobility in the dorsal-lumbar region D.12 and L.1 D.11 and D.12 Breathing I 49 Introduction about breathing breathing, spine and ribs in the yoga practice about Sukha y Dukha Breathing, gravity and yoga in the uterus birth initial expansion the weight of the body in the space postural development breathing and posture Definition of breathing what is it? the two cavities similarities differences inverse proportionLooking Inward viii
  11. 11. Index Our Anatomy Volume and pressure inhalation exhalation active exhalation 3D changes in the shape in breathing volume and shape in the chest shape in the abdomen influence on each other during breathing Amplified definition of breathing More elements in the mechanism of breathing lungs air lungs heart breathing and circulation metabolism oxygen moving oxygen Mental aspects neurons the path remedy for stress mental benefits of a correct breathing concentration and mental clarity handle difficulties without stress emotional control and balance physical control and coordination the two brains right side left side Pranic benefits ChakrasLooking Inward ix
  12. 12. Index Our Anatomy 5. The pelvic girdle: the bowl in balance ............................................................................. 62 Introduction (p. 40 + p. 175) 62 Elements 63 Iliac (p. 41) lateral view symphysis pubis shapes and pelvic proportions (p. 43) Sacrum and coccyx (p. 45) lateral view relation with L5 pendulum movements constant micro-movement coccyx or tailbone Sacroiliac joint (p. 47) what is it? combined movement of sacrum and ilium top of sacrum backwards=contranutation anterior superior iliac spine forward s.I. stability Sacroiliac ligaments (p. 48) posterior anterior-inferior sacrum-cranial connexion traumatism and consequences pain prevention Lumbosacral joint (p. 51) instability factors bad postures why does it hurt? Some ideas acute chronic frequently, sudden movements sprain lumbosacral pinching Hip joint (p. 175) what is it? femur (p. 178)Looking Inward x
  13. 13. Index Our Anatomy transversal axis anterior-posterior axis vertical axis neck axis and body axis, inclination angle neck axis and knee axis, declination angle long type short type Articular surfaces of the hip (p. 180) femoral head acetabulum transmission area central area Capsule and ligaments (p. 184) articular capsule in the iliac in the femur ligaments ligamentum teres reinforcing the capsule anterior ligaments in the movement (p. 185) in flexion-extension in lateral-medial rotation in adduction-abduction its role in the articular stability Movements of hip 85 Pelvis is fixed and the femur is moving (p. 186) flexion extension adduction abduction rotation Movements of the pelvis at the hip joint and femur fixed (p. 190) anteversion retroversion lateral flexion medial flexion medial rotation lateral rotation Sacroiliac joints Gravity centreLooking Inward xi
  14. 14. Index Our Anatomy 6. Arms and hands: Tools of movement I …………................................................................95 Parts of the arm 95 Views anterior posterior lateral Elbow (p. 131) joint transversal section of the forearm right ulna (anterior view) proximal ulna (anterior view) right ulna (posterior view) distal ulna (lateroinferior view) right radius (posterior view) ligaments Hand (p. 147) bones ligaments joints (anterior view) joints (posterior view) Elbow charts humeral ulnar joint humeral radial joint radioulnar proximal joint radioulnar distal jointLooking Inward xii
  15. 15. Index Our Anatomy 7. Legs and feet: Tools of movement II ............................................................................... 109 Parts of the leg 109 Views anterior posterior Knee (p. 192) ligaments intrinsic extrinsic joints ventral view posterior view Tibia Fibula Bones of the foot phalanges calcaneus talus jointsLooking Inward xiii
  16. 16. Index Our Anatomy MUSCLES, TENDONS AND WILL Movement 1. Talking about muscles in general (p. 14) ........................................................................... 1 Movements 1 Origen and insertion 1 Tendon 1 Myofibers 2 Contraction 2 Elasticity 2 Passive property Tendency to return 2. Muscle shapes (p. 16) .......................................................................................................... 3 Different attachments 3 Muscle fibers Aponeurosis (broad tendon) Tendon Tendon under a fibrous band Several origins (heads) 4 Multiple insertions (rare) 4 Sizes and shapes 4 Orientation 4 Long and short 4 Monoarticular 4 Polyarticular 4Looking Inward xiv
  17. 17. Index Our Anatomy 3. Muscle contraction (p. 20) ................................................................................................... 5 Agonist and antagonist 5 Synergetic 5 Resistance 5 Gravity Some external weight The force of another person Tension of the antagonist Few extra things 9 Contractions Muscle cells Types of muscles Motor unit agonists antagonists synergists 4. Types of contraction (p. 22) ............................................................................................... 15 Concentric shortening and eccentric lengthening 15 Concentric contractions Eccentric contractions Daily activities Isotonic and isometric activity 16 Isotonic Isometric Relaxation, stretching and mobility 17 Factors related to SSC (Stretching Shortening Cycle) 18 Golgi tendon organ 19 What is it? Body Mechanism Training Protection Effects of agonist shortening 22 Stretching a muscle Relaxing a muscle Strengthening a muscleLooking Inward xv
  18. 18. Index Our Anatomy 5. Phasic muscles and postural muscles .............................................................................. 23 Restorative alignment 23 Deficient alignment Excessive/insufficient use Importance of stretching Two groups 24 Phasic, movement Postural, stability Complementary work Common muscle imbalances 25 Standard patterns Upper body patterns neck, middle and upper back, and shoulder griddle opposite muscle groups shoulders common patterns Lower body patterns lumbar and pelvic areas tight hip flexors chain reaction 6. Deep back muscles (p. 64) ............................................................................................... 28 Long and short muscles 28 Usually action 29 Shoulder girdle action 30 Weak points 30 Strengthening 32 Stretching 33 7. Lateral muscle of the lumbar spine: Quadratus lumborum (p. 63) ................................ 35 Function 35 What affects its role 35 Its action in Trikonasana 35Looking Inward xvi
  19. 19. Index Our Anatomy 8. Abs and the rest. Anterolateral muscles of the abdomen ............................................. 37 Place and function 37 Transversus abdominis (p. 92) 38 Location and function Action if the vertebrae are fixed if the aponeurosis is the fixed point Internal oblique (p. 93) 39 Location and origin Action unilateral contraction bilateral contraction if both the vertebrae and pelvis are fixed External oblique (p. 94) 40 Location and origin Action unilateral contraction bilateral contraction Synergic action in Trikonasana 40 Vertical fibers plus quadratus lumborum Obliques in synergy Fulcrum in rotation Inner abdominal pressure Action in the lower back Rectus abdominis, 6-pack (p. 95) 41 Location Action Using gravity force 42 Flexion in the trunk 42 Leg abdominal work 42Looking Inward xvii
  20. 20. Index Our Anatomy 9. Deep hip muscles I (p. 208) ............................................................................................... 45 Group of six muscles 45 Piriformis (p. 209) 45 Location Action if the sacrum is fixed if the femur is fixed bilateral contraction unilateral contraction Structures Sciatic nerve Function Piriformis syndrome Symptoms Sacrum rotation Somatic dysfunctions Tensions Injures Difficulties More symptoms Right leg, driving Quadratus femoris (p. 210) 53 Location Action if the iliac is fixed if the femur is fixed bilateral contraction unilateral contraction Obturator internus (p. 210) 53 Location Action if the iliac is fixed if the femur is fixed bilateral contraction unilateral contraction Gemellus superior and inferior (p. 211) 54 Location ActionLooking Inward xviii
  21. 21. Index Our Anatomy Obturator externus 54 Location Action if the iliac is fixed if the femur is fixed bilateral contraction unilateral contraction Obturators and gemelli: the hammock (p. 212) 54 Location Action if the pelvis is fixed if the femur is fixed bilateral contraction unilateral contraction Either wayLooking Inward xix
  22. 22. Index Our Anatomy 10. Deep hip muscles II ........................................................................................................... 55 Iliopsoas (p. 62-213) 55 Psoas major and iliacus, location Psoas or psoas major arises action if the vertebrae are fixed if the femur is fixed (bilateral contraction, unilateral contraction) Iliacus arises action if the iliac is fixed if the femur is fixed (bilateral contraction, unilateral contraction) Relations Action if the vertebrae are fixed if the femur is fixed unilateral contraction bilateral contraction Gluteus minimus (p. 216) 63 Location Action if the iliac is fixed if the femur is fixed bilateral contraction unilateral contraction Gluteus medius (p. 215) 63 Location Action if the iliac is fixed if the femur is fixed bilateral contraction unilateral contractionLooking Inward xx
  23. 23. Index Our Anatomy 11. Deep hip muscles III (+ 1 of the hip and knee): The adductors (p. 224) ...................... 64 Group of five muscles 64 Location Action These muscles Pectineus 65 Adductor brevis 65 Adductor longus 66 Adductor magnus (p. 225) 66 The anterior portion The posterior portion Gracilis 67 Action of the group as a whole 67 If the iliac is fixed If the femur is fixedLooking Inward xxi
  24. 24. Index Our Anatomy 12. Hip and knee muscles I: The superficial ......................................................................... 70 Tensor fasciae latae (229) Gluteus maximus (228) Deltoid gluteus (superficial portion of gluteus maximus and tensor fasciae latae)(p. 22) 13. Hip and knee muscles II ................................................................................................... 71 Quadriceps femoris (p. 217) 71 As a whole Vastus intermedius Vastus medialis and lateralis Rectus femoris if the pelvis is fixed if the femur is fixed For stretching Sartorius (p. 220) 75 Location Action if the iliac is fixed if the femur is fixed bilaterally unilaterally 14. Hip and knee muscles III: The hamstrings (p. 221) ......................................................... 76 Location 76 Action as a whole 76 For stretching 77 Differentiated action 78 Polyarticular muscles 78 Problems due to lack of de flexibility 78 Shoulder girdle muscles .................................................................................................... 79 Intro 79 Importance of its mobility for the arm mobility 79 Common dysfunctional pattern 79 Working in pairs 80Looking Inward xxii
  25. 25. Index Our Anatomy 15. Shoulder muscles (p. 114) ................................................................................................. 81 A group of five muscles 81 From 1 to 5, from the deepest to the most superficial 2 towards the front of the chest 3 in the back Its important role in inversions Serratus anterior 82 Location Origins upper portion middle portion lower portion Insertions upper fibers middle fibers lower fibers Function if the ribs are fixed upper fibers middle fibers lower fibers if the scapula is fixed Pectoralis minor (p. 116) 84 Location Action if the ribs are fixed if the scapula is fixed Rhomboids (p. 117) 84 Location Action if the spine is fixed if the scapula is fixed Levator scapulae (p. 117) 86 Location Action if the spine is fixed if the scapula is fixed bilateral contraction unilateral contractionLooking Inward xxiii
  26. 26. Index Our Anatomy Trapezius (p. 74-118) 88 Location Origins upper fibers middle fibers lower fibers Insertions upper fibers middle fibers lower fibers Function if the spine is fixed simultaneous contraction of all the fibers upper fibers middle fibers lower fibers if...what does it...? Between T.7 and T.10 In the shoulders Arms Articular trauma Actions and excessive use Subclavius (p. 116) 92 Location Action Questions about its utility Sternocleidomastoid (p. 116) 93 Location Origin Insertion Nerves Actions when the skull is fixed when the thoracic cage is fixed unilateral contraction bilateral contraction StretchingLooking Inward xxiv
  27. 27. Index Our Anatomy 16. Deep glenohumeral (scapulohumeral) muscles of shoulder joint (p. 120) ................. 96 Subscapularis 96 Supraspinatus 96 Infraspinatus (p. 121) 96 Teres minor 96 Rotator cuff muscles (p. 122) 96 Coracobrachialis description location action Biceps brachii (p. 123-139) 97 Location Two origins Insertion short head long head insertion Function proximal radioulnar joint humeroulnar joint glenohumeral joint Triceps brachii (p. 123-140) 99 Location Origin long head lateral head medial head (deep head) Insertion Function on the shoulder joint on the elbow the lateral head Antigravitational In synergy Connecting shoulder and elbow Other movementsLooking Inward xxv
  28. 28. Index Our Anatomy 17. Glenohumeral joint muscles ........................................................................................... 105 Pectoralis major (p. 124) Latissimus dorsi (p. 125) Teres major (p. 125) Deltoid (p. 126) 18. Breathing II ................................................................................................................... 19. Legs + knee + ................................................................................................................. 20. Arms + elbow + ............................................................................................................... 21. Few extra things... .......................................................................................................Looking Inward xxvi
  29. 29. ABC Anatomy Our Anatomy ABC ANATOMY 1. Anatomical position (p. 1) It’s a REFERENCE position as a starting point to describe movements. The anatomy of movement involves 3 main systems: BONES, elements of the skeleton ARTICULATIONS, the link between bones MUSCLES, that move the bonesLooking Inward 1
  30. 30. ABC Anatomy Our Anatomy 2. Planes of movement (p. 2) MEDIAN OR MIDSAGITTAL plane We see the movements in profile; the middle line divides the body into symmetrical right and left halves Forward, FLEXION (ankle: DORSIFLEXION) Backward, EXTENSION (ankle: PLANTARFLEXION)Looking Inward 2
  31. 31. ABC Anatomy Our Anatomy FRONTAL OR CORONAL plane (p. 3) It divides the body into anterior and posterior parts. Towards the median plane, ADDUCTION Away from the median plane, ABDUCTION For the trunk or neck, lateral flexion or side-bending Fingers and toes, the reference is: axis of the hand (middle finger) axis of the foot (2d toe)Looking Inward 3
  32. 32. ABC Anatomy Our Anatomy TRANSVERSE OR HORIZONTAL plane (p. 4) It divides the body into superior and inferior (upper and lower) parts Outward, LATERAL ROTATION (forearm: SUPINATION) Inward, MEDIAL ROTATION (forearm: PRONATION) For the trunk or neck, right/left rotationLooking Inward 4
  33. 33. ABC Anatomy Our Anatomy Other anatomical reference TERMS (p. 6) ANTERIOR: facing toward or located at the front POSTERIOR: “ “ “ “ at the back SUPERIOR: “ “ “ “ at the top INFERIOR: “ “ “ “ at the bottom MEDIAL: closer to the median plane LATERAL: further for the median plane INTERNAL or DEEP: inside the body (note: the deep muscles of the foot form the superior layer and the superficial ones the inferior layer) EXTERNAL or SUPERFICIAL: surface of the body PROXIMAL: closer to the trunk or some major joint DISTAL: further from “ “ “ “Looking Inward 5
  34. 34. ABC Anatomy Our AnatomyLooking Inward 6
  35. 35. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy BONES AND WIRES The structure 1. Talking about bones in general Ideas from B4L (Bones for Life) The bones support the whole body. The SKELETON is a mobile framework of bones providing rigid support for the body. Strong bones are built by dynamic confrontation with gravity ((bum-bum)) b u m- b u m The SKELETON outsmarts gravity by UNIFYING the whole body in an ORGANIZATION that supports SPRINGY walk. We need to develop an organization for a good alignment in our POSTURE. At a cellular level, DYNAMIC MOVEMENT enables the blood that is filled with nutrients and oxygen to penetrate the bone and support the growth of new cells. DYNAMIC MOVEMENT that STIMULATES BONE GROWTH: springy, rhythmic PRESSURE(= dynamic walking) CONFIGURATION of movement derived from evolution that are EFFICIENT and ECONOMICAL COOPERATION of ALL the body in HARMONY transmission of pressure (from one polarity to another) in a DOMINO EFFECT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION- are INTERDEPENDENT, we need to avoid COMPRESSION and DESVIATION primary condition: SECURE a SAFE POSTURE align posture into safe-weight-bearing uprightness to develop the ability to RESTORE the equilibrium. enhance pleasure of moving BIOLOGICAL OPTIMISM Ideas from Anatomy of Hatha Yoga “The scar of evolution” (Elaine Morgan) The first bipedalists were not semi human creatures. They were animals opting to walk on their hind legs. It was a costly option for them to take up, and we are still paying the price Two defining characteristics of the modern human form: the upright two-legged posture the ability to stand erect with minimal muscular activity in our thighs, hips and backs We can relax when we stand because we can lock our knees and balance on our hip joints without much muscular activity. We can balance our weight on top of the relaxed thighs. “locking the knees” has 2 implications: hamstrings will be relaxed additional extension will be stop by ligamentsLooking Inward 1
  36. 36. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy usually instructors advise against this, but not all is negative students, too frequently, rather than experimenting with the nuances of partially relaxing hamstrings, alternating this with tightening both quads and hamstrings at the same time, take the “easy” way out by simply locking their knees, ending up with a sense of vague discomfort in their knees the students, (they may use a combination of active quads and relaxed hamstrings, or they may hyperextend their knees and support the posture with no more than bony stops and ligaments) so…NOT locking, but EXTENSION of the KNEES (connected to the idea of pushing from the heels to stretch the sitting bones…) Our relatively relaxed upright posture is possible because a plumb line of gravity drops straight down from head to foot: through the cervical spine through the lumbar spine behind the axial centre of the hip joints in front of the extended knee joints centre of the heel Because the ankle joints do not lock, keeping balance requires holding some tension in calf muscles and in the front. You can both relax or tense in standing poses… “From the perineum to the crown, Standing poses extension through all the chakras and parallel hips Sitting poses flexion that go well with the ribs Lying poses rotation and the shoulders middle line. We move around that axis” forward (Iyengar) Inversions backwardLooking Inward 2
  37. 37. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy APPENDICULAR AND AXIAL SKELETON appendicular The bones of the appendages (upper and owe extremities). It is appended to the axial skeleton, the upper extremities attached to the sternum at the STERNOCLAVICULAR joints and the lower to the sacrum at the SACROILIAC joints. axial The bones that lie in the central axis of the body, skull, vertebral column and rib cage including the sternum. together, the two units form the frame upon which the entire body is organized. Hip joints (sites for flexing, extending and rotating thighs) do NOT form axial- appendicular junctions, both femur and pelvic bone are appendicular skeleton and the pelvic bone alone articulates with the axial skeletonLooking Inward 3
  38. 38. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy The APPENDICULAR SKELETON LOWER extremities form the foundation for standing positions pelvic bones with the sacrum comprise the pelvic bowl which is thus an axial-appendicular combination of 3 bones femur patella (kneecap) tibia (the shine is the anterior border of it) fibula (laterally, deep to calf muscles) bones of ankle and feet including tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges UPPER extremities used for manipulating objects and often an important accessory for bracing difficult standing poses clavicle (collarbone) the only bone of upper extremities that forms a joint (sternoclavicular joint) with the axial skeleton. It is the most commonly broken humerus (bone of arm) radius (thumb side) ulna (little finger side) the last two are the bones of the forearm: * in supination: they are parallel * in pronation: they form a long skinny X bones of wrist and hand including: carpals, metacarpals and phalangesLooking Inward 4
  39. 39. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy AXIAL SKELETON Forms the bony axis of body skull vertebral spineLooking Inward 5
  40. 40. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy rib cage sternum When alignment fails…later on problems with muscles.Looking Inward 6
  41. 41. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy Ideas from Anatomy of Movement SKELETON (p. 7) It is a mobile framework of bones providing rigid support for the body. The bones also serve as levers for the action of muscles 3 basic shapes: long (ulna) short (talus) flat (scapula) components: 2/3 mineral (mostly calcium salts) RIGIDITY 1/3 organic ELASTICITY subjected to mechanical strain: gravitational pressure from the body itself movement (muscle contraction)against resistance (lifting a heavy object) gravitational pressure (traction) from external objects (supporting a heavy object) Let’s do a research on the weight of the different parts of the body Internal anatomy of a BONE (p. 8) Bones have evolved to withstand all these types of strainLooking Inward 7
  42. 42. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy alveolar (spongy) structure: fibers are arranged in rows along the lines of greatest mechanical stress hollow tube: sturdier than a solid structure marrow (contained in the dyaphisis): red in children becomes yellow in adults. Where blood cells are manufactured periosteum: covers the external surface, carries blood vessels and functions in bone repair compact bone: thickest in the middle section of the dyaphisis where mechanical strains are greatest articulating cartilage: that covers articulating surfacesLooking Inward 8
  43. 43. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy JOINTS (p. 9) Joints are areas where bones are linked together different degrees of mobility little: bones are linked simply by fibrous connective tissue or cartilage (ribs- sternum) ANPHIARTHROSES freely-movable joints: discontinuous joints or DIARTHROSES. There is space in between them, a fluid-filled cavity. The components are enclosed in a sleeve like structure. The outer layer is composed of dense connective tissue and represents a continuation of the periosteum; they are the ligaments that hold the bones together. The inner layer, the SYNOVIAL membrane, secretes synovial fluid which fills the articular cavity and lubricates the joint. That’s why they are called synovial joints nothing: the bones are in close contact separated only by a thin layer of fibrous connective tissue (cranium bones)SINARTHROSES articulating surfaces (sometimes called facets) These surfaces are shaped to fit together but also allow movement congruency The articulating surfaces do not always make a snug fit, some joints are more stable and less likely to be injured than others: shoulder shallow, looser (less stable) hip deep, snug-fitting (more protected) articular cartilage and synovial cavity Gap (virtual) between the articulating ends of the two bones in a joint (area of the articular cartilage and synovial cavity NOT opaque to X-rays) dislocation or subluxation A bone is moved completely or partially from its normal position due to some trauma. There is associated damage to ligaments. The most common dislocations are in fingers, thumb and shoulder joints.Looking Inward 9
  44. 44. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy CARTILAGE (p. 11) Shiny, whitish connective tissue that covers articulating surfaces Its composition is similar to the bone but more hydrated and elastic. It protects the underlying bone. types of stress: gravitational pressure friction from the movement itself It is well-adapted to these stresses, being strong, resilient and smooth. Thus it can absorb shock allow some sliding of the bones relative to each other may be damaged trauma excessive wear (when the ends of the bones do not provide a good “fit”) OSTEOARTHRITIS, REUMATOID ARTHRITIS Inflammation, pain, stiffness of the joints and surrounding muscles it does not contain blood vessels. It receives nutrients from the synovial fluid and from blood vessels of the perichondrium and periosteum FIBROCARTILAGE contains high concentration of collagenous (white) fibers and is specially adapted for absorbing shock. It is found in:Looking Inward 10
  45. 45. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy intervertebral disks hip menisci symphysis pubisThey protect and improve articulating congruency Look for different types of cartilageLooking Inward 11
  46. 46. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy JOINT CAPSULE (p. 12) sleeve like structure enclosing the joint that prevents loss of fluid and binds together the ends of the articulating bones (watertight) it is stronger where movement must be prevented. Fibers of the outer capsule are often arranged in parallel bundles (ligaments) the capsule may be arranged loosely or in folds where movement is allowed the outer layer is composed of dense connective tissue and represents a continuation of the periosteum the inner layer (SYNOVIIAL membrane) is composed of loose connective tissue. This membrane secrets SYNOVIAL fluid, which fills the articular cavity. This fluid lubricates the joint, provides nutrients to the cartilage and contains phagocytic cells which remove debris and microorganisms from the cavityLooking Inward 12
  47. 47. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy LIGAMENTS (p. 13)Looking Inward 13
  48. 48. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy they are dense bundles of parallel collagenous fibers. They are often derived from the outer layer of the joint capsule but they can be outside as well as inside of it they strengthen and stabilize the joint in a PASSIVE way, they cannot actively contract nor can they stretch (except for a few ligaments which contain a high proportion of yellow elastic fibers) PROPRIOCEPTIVE SENSITIVITY Ligaments contain numerous sensory nerve cells capable of responding to the speed, movement and position of the joints, as well as to stretching or pain. This cells constantly transmit such information to the brain, which in turn sends signals to the muscles via motor neurons excessive movement or trauma Sprain or rupture of ligaments CollagenLooking Inward 14
  49. 49. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy 2. Yoga and the Spine (p. 30) Introduction The skeleton spine, a protective structure that allows for free movement but is stable enough to offer protection to those vital yet delicate tisúes, is perhaps nature´s most elegant and intrincate solution to the dual demands of sthira y sukha Human spine is unique among all mammals in that it exhibits both primary and secondary curves PRIMARY CURVES kyphotic: thoracic and sacral SECONDARY CURVE lordotic: cervical and lumbarLooking Inward 15
  50. 50. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy Only true biped requires both pair of curves (primates have some cervical curve, but no lumbar lordosis, which is WHY THEY CANNOT WALKCOMFORTABLY on TWO LEGS for LONG) The primary (kyphotic) curve was the first FRONT-BACK spinal curve to emerge as aquatic creatures made the transition to land. the lateral undulations (fish, snake…) cease to be useful for a creature that supports its belly off the ground on four limbs. The successful early quadrupeds would have been those that arched their bellies away from the earth so that the weight-bearing and movement forces were distributed INTO THE LIMBS and away from the vulnerable center of the spine this parallels the fact that the cervical spine was the site of the first development of a secondary curve as our quadrupeds ancestors found a survival benefit to LIFTING their HEAD and gazing from the ground immediately in front of them, out to the horizon In the individual development: in uterus the entire spine is a primary curveLooking Inward 16
  51. 51. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy head goes through the birth canal the neck experiences its secondary (lordotic) curve for the very first time, negotiating the 90° turn from the cervix into the vaginal passage And what if they are delivered in a caesarean section? 3-4 months postural development proceeds from the head downward, the cervical curve continues to develop after you learn to hold up the weight of your head 3-9 months cervical curve fully forms when you learn to sit upright 9-12 months after crawling and creeping on the floor four months, you must acquire a lumber to bring your weight over the feet What might happen if there is no crawling?...Looking Inward 17
  52. 52. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy 12-18 months as you begin to walk the lumbar spine straightens out of its primary, kyphotic curve 18 months-3 years lumbar spine starts to become concave forward (lordotic) 5-8 years that lordotic curve will be outwardly visible after 10 the lumbar curve fully assumes its adult shape From an engineering perspective, humans have the SMALLEST BASE of SUPPORT, the HIGHEST CENTER of GRAVITY and the HEAVIEST BRAIN. As the only true biped mammals on the planet, humans are also the least mechanically stable creatures. The disadvantage is offset by the advantage of having that big brain: it can FIGURE OUT HOW to make the whole thing work efficiently The STRUCTURAL BALANCING of the forces STHIRA y SHUKA in your living body relates to the principle called INTRÍNSIC EQUILIBRIUM: a deep source of support that can be uncovered through yoga practice The skeleton in TadasanaLooking Inward 18
  53. 53. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy Intrinsic equilibrium Remove all the muscles that attach to the spine it does not collapse, WHY? INTRINSIC EQUILIBRIUM. That is why the spine is a self-supporting structure and also why any spinal movement produces potential energy that returns the spine to neutral (same arrangement in rib cage and pelvis which are bound together under mechanical tension) This fact about the CORE STRUCTURES of the AXIAL SKELETON reveals a DEEPER TRUTH about how yoga practice appears to LIBERATE POTENTIAL ENERGY from the BODY. True to the principles of yoga and yoga therapy, the most profound CHANGES OCCUR WHEN THE FORCES OBSTRUCTING THIS CHANGE ARE REDUCED. In the case of intrinsic equilibrium, a deep level of built-in support for the core body is involved this does not depend on muscular effort because it is derived from the relationship between the non-contractile tissues of cartilage, ligaments and bone when this support assists itself, it is ALWAYS because SOME EXTRANEOUS MUSCULAR EFFORT HAS CEASED TO OBSTRUCT IT It takes a lot of energy to fuel our constant, unconscious muscular exertion against gravity that is why the release of that effort is associated with a feeling of LIBERATED ENERGY and an INCREASED VITALITY in the body. Yoga, the restorative work on the MITRA, can help you to release the STORED POTENTIAL ENERGY of the axial skeleton by identifying and releasing the less efficient EXTRANEOUS MUSCULAR EFFORT that can OBSTRUCT the expression of these DEEPER FORCESLooking Inward 19
  54. 54. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy Vertebral structure (p. 30) Individual vertebrae are different in size and shape based on the functional demands of the varying regions of the spine There are, however, common elements: 1. VERTEBRAL BODY 2. POSTERIOR ARCH 3. 4. ARTICULAR FACETS 5. 6. TRANSVERSE PROCESSES 7. SPINOUS PROCESS 8. 9. PEDICLES 10.11. LAMINALooking Inward 20
  55. 55. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy TWO MAIN PARTS: posterior, VERTEBRAL ARCH 2 pedicles 2 articular processes (with its cartilaginous articulating surfaces or facets) 2 laterally-projecting transverse processes 2 laminae unite posteriorly to form 1 spinous process anterior, VERTEBRAL BODY more or less cylindrical 6 facets VERTEBRAL FORAMEN It is the opening between the body and the arch. Many vertebrae lined up form the VERTEBRAL CANAL through which the SPINAL CORD passes 1. VERTEBRAL CANAL 2. SPINOUS PROCESS 3. INTERVERTEBRAL FORAMINA 4. ARTICULAR FACETS 5. TRANSVERSE PROCESS 6. SPINAL CORDLooking Inward 21
  56. 56. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy INTERVERTEBRAL FORAMINA The spaces between the pedicles of adjacent vertebrae form a series of openings. As spinal NERVES branch off the spinal cord they exit through these foramina VERTEBRAL LINKAGE (p. 33) Each vertebra is attached to its neighbour by three joints (except atlas/axis, p. 60): 1 intervertebral disc (between the bodies) 1. ANNULUS FIBROSUS: concentric rings of fibrocartilage 2. NUCLEUS PULPOSUS: the centre, made of gelatinous substance Shock absorber and weight bearer 2 articular facets (the 2 inferior of the top vertebra contact the 2 superior of the bottom one), they are small and serve mainly to guide movementsLooking Inward 22
  57. 57. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy VERTEBRAL LIGAMENTS (p. 34) Continuous 3 extending the length of the vertebral column (from occipital to sacrum) ANTERIOR longitudinal ligament (front of the vertebral bodies) a brake to extension POSTERIOR longitudinal ligament (back of the bodies) a brake to flexion. In flexion it absorbs the thrust from the disc nuclei SUPRAESPINOUS ligament (along the tips of the spinous process) a brake to flexion Discontinuous the rest ligamenta FLAVA (from lamina to lamina) they are elastic and can be pierced during a spinal tap INTERTRANSVERSE ligaments (connect the transverse processes) sidebending stretches the opposite side INTERSPINOUS ligaments (connect spinous processes)Looking Inward 23
  58. 58. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy THE 24 VERTEBRAE AND ELEMENTS OF LINKIAGE They are bound to each other with intervening zones of cartilaginous discs, capsular joints and spinal ligaments, alternating zones of hard and soft tissue, network of ligaments of spine that connect the arches of adjacent vertebrae Bony tissue passive, stable (STHIRA) vertebrae Soft tissue active, moving (SUKHA) discs, facet (capsular) joints, network of ligaments The intrinsic equilibrium can be found in the INTEGRATION of the passive and active elements column of vertebral bodies deals with weight-bearing, compressive forces (gravity) column of arches deals with the tensile forces (movements) Within each column, in the dynamic relationship of bone to soft tissue, there is a BALANCE of STHIRA and SHUKA. The STRUCTURAL elements of the spinal column are involved in an INTRINCATE DANCE that PROTECTS the CNS by NEUTRALIZING the forces of TENSION and COMPRESSION Vertebral bodies transmit COMPRESSIVE forces to discs and these resist compression by PUSHING BACK The column of arches transmits TENSION forces to all the attached ligaments which resist stretching by PULLING BACKLooking Inward 24
  59. 59. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy VERTEBRAL MOVEMENTS (p. 36) Movement of individual vertebrae are compounded such the entire structure has considerable mobility in 3 dimensions. Type and extend of mobility varies with different spinal regions Effect in discs and ligaments: STHIIRA and SUKHA are revealed in the components of an intervertebral disc. In a STH RA SUKHA healthy disc, the nucleus is completely contained all around by the annulus and the vertebra. The annulus fibrosis is itself contained front and back by the posterior longitudinal ligaments. This results in a strong TENDENCY for the nucleus to always RETURN to the CENTRE of the disc, no matter in which direction the body’s movement propel in FLEXION, the nucleus moves toward the back, tension in the ligaments in the back of the vertebra in EXTENSION, the nucleus moves forward, tension in the anterior ligament in LATERAL FLEXION, the nucleus moves to the opposite side, tension in the ligaments of that side as well in ROTATION, some layers are stressed while others are relaxed. Because of the torsion effect on the fibers, there is a reduction in overall height of the disc (slight compression). The connecting ligaments between the transverse and spinous processes are in tensionLooking Inward 25
  60. 60. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy LET’S GO DEEPER compression and decompression forces Weight-bearing activities and axial rotation (twisting movement) produce symetrical (axial) COMPRESSIVE forces that FLATTEN the nucleus into the annulus which pushes back DESCOMPRENSSIVE REACTION if compressive force is high the nucleus will loose some of its moisture to the porous bone of the vertebral body. When weight is taken off the spine, the HYDROPHILIC nucleus drags water back in, and the disc returns to its original thickness. That is why humans are a bit taller right after getting out of bed connect it with Brigitte’s work the movements of flexion, extension and lateral flexion produce asymmetrical movements of the nucleus; the result is the same: wherever the vertebral bodies move toward each other, the nucleus is pushed in the opposite direction, where it meets the counterpush of the annulus, which causes the nucleus to push the vertebral bodies back to neutral assisting in this counterpush the long ligaments that run the entire length of the spine, front and back. the ANTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT runs all the way from the upper front of the sacrum to the front of the occiput, and it’s fixed tightly to the front surface of each intervertebral disc. When stretched in backward bending tend to spring body back to neutral and the increased tension at its attachment to the disc helps to propel nucleus back to neutral POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT runs from the back of the sacrum to the back of the occiput, stretched in forward bend Note that all this activity occurs in tissues that behave INDEPENDETLY of the circulatory, muscular and voluntary nervous system their actions do NOT present an energy demand on these other systems.Looking Inward 26
  61. 61. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy TYPES OF SPINAL MOVEMENT 4 possible movements: FLEXION, EXTENSION, AXIAL ROTATION (twisting) and LATERAL FLEXION (side bending). They occur more or less spontaneously in life. There are yoga postures that emphasize these movements as well. A more through look shows a 5th possibility: AXIAL EXTENSION. This doesn’t happen spontaneously. You have to learn how to make it happen intentionally Talking about the first four movements: FLEXION AND EXTENSION, PRIMARY AND SECONDARY CURVES, EXHALATION AND INHALATION. the most basic movement of the spine is the one that emphasizes its primary curve: FLEXION. Yoga pose: Child’s Pose-Dharmikasana, replicates the primary curves of the unborn child A simple way to identify all the primary curves: notice all the parts of body in contact with the floor in Shavasana. Consequently: secondary curves are present in all the body parts off the floor from this perspective: Spinal flexion increases primary curve, decreases secondary curve Spinal extension increases secondary curve, decreases primary curve As far as movement is concerned, the relationship between primary and secondary curves is RECIPROCAL. The more you increase or decrease one, the more the other will do the OPPOSITE. Classic yoga exercise: cat/cow or Vidalasana. Supported at both ends by arms and thighs, spine’s curves can move freely in both directions, producing the shape changes of FLEXION and EXTENSION as definition of breathing shows: SPINAL CHANGE IS = BREATHING SHAPE CHANGE Flexion is EXHALATION Extension is INHALATIONLooking Inward 27
  62. 62. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy SPATIAL and SPINAL PERSPERCTIVES in FORWARD/BACKWARD-BENDING POSES flexion and extension refer to the relationship of the spinal curves to each other forward/backward bending refer to movement of the body in space They are NOT interchangeable: Uttkattasana The body flexes forward but the spine is extended. Spine could be in flexion while body moves backward Distinguish movement of spinal curves in relation to each other from the movement of torso in space Exercise from B4L to create curves awareness, 1-III-10, AngelitaLooking Inward 28
  63. 63. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy SPATIAL and SPINAL PERSPECTIVES in LATERAL and TWISTING MOVEMENTS TRIKONASANA Often referred to as lateral stretch and it’s true insofar as it lengthens the connective tissue pathway that runs along the side of the body. It is, HOWEVER, POSSIBLE to ENGTHEN the LATERAL LINE without ANY APPRECIABLE LATERAL FLEXION for more lateral line stretch wide spacing of feet and intention to initiate movement primary from pelvis while maintaining the spine in neutral position this is also more hip-opener for more lateral flexion closer spacing of feet more stabilization of the relationship between PELVIS and THIGHS (which would require the movement to come from lateral bending of spine) PARIVRITTA TRIKONASANA The lumbar spine is almost entirely incapable of axial rotation (only 5°), which in this pose means that it will go wherever the sacrum leads it for the lower spine to twist in the direction of this pose pelvis would have to turn same direction if hips are restricted, lumbar spine appears to be moving in the opposite direction of rib cage and shoulders girdle rotation, and then, most of the twist will originated from first joints above sacrum that can freely rotate: the lower thoracic, T11-T12 and above. In addition the twisting of the shoulder girdle around the rib cage can create the illusion that the spine is twisting more than it really is. So, the body can indeed be twisting in space, but a CAREFUL OBSERVATION of the spine may tell WHERE EXACTLY the twisting is (or IS NOT) coming FROM if the pelvis is free to rotate around the hip joints (femur-iliac), this pose will exhibit a more evenly distributed twist throughout the spine (rather than an overloading T11-T12). The lumber spine will fully participate because the pelvis and sacrum are also turning; the neck and shoulders will be free, and the rib cage, upper back and neck will be open along with the breathing. Connect it with Trikonasana from Bri plus hip alignmentLooking Inward 29
  64. 64. BONES AND WIRES Our AnatomyTalking about the 5th movement: AXIAL EXTENSION, BANDHAS and MAHAMUDRA axial extension, the 5th spinal, is defined as simultaneous reduction of both primary and secondary curves of the spine, which lengthens the spinal column beyond its neutral alignment ¿How would you illustrate/draw an axial extension? The “natural” movements of flexion/extension primary and secondary curves have a RECIPPROCAL relationship. The “unnatural” axial extension it bypasses this reciprocal relationship by REDUCING ALL 3 curves at ONCE Axial extension does NOT happen all on its own, requires CONSCIOUS EFFORT and TRAINING that action involves a SHIFT in the TONE and ORIENTATION of the BREATHING STRUCTURES known as the BANDHAS – pelvic, respiratory and vocal – the 3 DIAPHRAGMS and surrounding musculature become more STHIRA the ability of abdominal and thoracic cavities to change shape is more limited in axial extension overall effect: ↓ breathing volume, ↑ in length it’s possible to do it from many positions (seated, standing, in arm supports…). Overall yogic term to describe that state of spine and breath: MAHAMUDRA. This seated posture adds twisting action to axial extension and the bandhas. It is considered a supreme accomplishment to do this practice with all 3 bandhas, because it represents a complete merging of asana + pranayamaLooking Inward 30
  65. 65. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy 3. Shoulder and shoulder girdle (p. 97) Introduction INTRO When we talk about the shoulder it’s important to understand that the scapula (p. 107), clavicle (p. 105) and humerus (p. 111) joints function as a biomechanical unit. The forces generated from one or in one of the segments affect the other two It involves three joints: glenohumeral joint Shoulderblade + humerus (p. 112)Looking Inward 31
  66. 66. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy acromioclavicular joint Shoulderblade + clavicle (p. 108) sternoclavicular joint Clavicle + sternum (p. 106)Looking Inward 32
  67. 67. BONES AND WIRES Our AnatomyWe define two regions with different functions: The scapulothoracic region The scapulohumeral region The shoulder girdle (p. 105) is formed by the sternum (front), the clavicles (front) and the scapulae (back) unlike the pelvic girdle, the shoulder girdle is incomplete. The scapulae have only tenuous and indirect connection to the sternum through the small acromioclavicular joints along with the small sternoclavicular joints. the shoulder girdle is merely a framework, even so, it still acts as a foundation for the arms, forearms and hands; and for coming into the headstand that foundation must support the weight of the body (see Bri inversions). How can it do this? The SCAPULA is the keyLooking Inward 33
  68. 68. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy MOVEMENTS OF THE SCAPULA (p. 109) The scapula lies very closet o the back of the rib cage (at the level of the 2nd to the 7th ribs) but it doesn’t articulate with it. It “floats” behind it, suspended in a net of muscles and ligaments If we add the sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular mobility, the scapula can move in the ribcage in many directions ELEVATION: The scapula moves upward and away from the ribcage (like balancing on the top of the shoulder) DEPRESSION: It moves downward and fits more snugly against the ribcage ABDUCTION (protraction): The medial border moves away from the vertebral column and the lateral angle moves anteriorly; it’s not a purely frontal movement because the ribcage is convex (45°) ADDUCTION (retraction): The medial border moves closer to the vertebral column and the lateral angle moves posteriorly (narrowing the shoulders) DOWNWARD ROTATION: The inferior angle moves superomedially while the lateral angle moves inferolateraly, the glenoid cavity is moving downward UPWARD ROTATION: The inferior angle moves superolaterally and the superior angle inferomedially, the glenoid cavity moves upwardLooking Inward 34
  69. 69. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy With all these mobility the glenoid can move in many directions, increasing in this way the range of glenohumeral movements, giving the shoulder a great capacity of movement in space The free movement of the scapula is aided by TWO GLINDING PLANES (fatty layers) (p. 115): between serratus anterior muscle and the ribcage and between subscapularis and serratus anterior musclesLooking Inward 35
  70. 70. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy MOVEMENTS OF THE ARM (p. 101) FLEXION: Anteriorly. Taken to the extreme provokes vertebral extension and ribcage aperture EXTENSION: Posteriorly, much smaller range. To the extreme: tendency to dorsal flexion and closed ribcage ABDUCTION: Laterally. To the extreme: lateral thoracic flexion of the opposite side + aperture of the ribcage on the same side ADDUCTION: Medially, combined with extension (behind the body) or flexion (in front of the body). To the extreme: lateral thoracic flexion on the same side + ribcage closed on the same sideLooking Inward 36
  71. 71. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy LATERAL ROTATION: Of the humerus on its axis (best visualized with the elbow bent). To the extreme: rotation of the spine MEDIAL ROTATION: Same as above, the forearm moves behindexterna interna There will be more in the muscles sectionLooking Inward 37
  72. 72. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy LIGAMENTS Glenohumeral joint (p. 112) from the bone point of view it’s a very movable and instable Joint. The size of the articulating surfaces is disproportionate The function of the glenoid labrum (fibrocartilaginous ring) is to increase the depth of the glenoid cavity creating in such way a better stability in the shoulder joint. The glenohumeral ligaments (whose function is to secure the upper part of the arm to the shoulder) as well as the capsule are attached to the glenoid labrumLooking Inward 38
  73. 73. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy the capsule (quite loose) attaches around the glenoid cavity and around the head of the humerus. Weak points: especially anteroinferiorly where the three glenohumeral ligaments leave in between them a capsule sector with no support from muscles or ligaments (oval foramen), where the head of the humerus can move anteromedially and get dislocated reinforcement: superior: coracohumeral ligament, the strongest anterior: glenohumeral ligamentsLooking Inward 39
  74. 74. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy ligaments of the capsule of the shoulder as a whole is not very strong dislocation, most common: anteromedial movement of the humeral head The ligaments, like security belts, limit excessive translation and rotation of the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity. The main one, the inferior glenohumeral ligament, is similar to a hammock. In rotation, the ligament moves back and forward to keep the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavityLooking Inward 40
  75. 75. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy Much of the stability comes from the compression of the head of the humerus into the cavity by the rotator cuff muscles whose tendons bend with the capsule. The ligaments provide a static stability by limiting passively extreme movements, while the rotator cuff muscles provide a dynamic stability by contracting and pushing the head and the glenoid together. resting position of the joint (allowing maximal relaxation of the ligaments): arm in slight flexion, abduction and internal rotation Sternoclavicular joint (p. 106) the medial end of the clavicle corresponds with the first costal cartilage and fits in the manubrium its movements generally are produced automatically by the movement of the scapula: flexion/extension elevation/depression limited rotation on its axis ligaments: anterior and posteriorLooking Inward 41
  76. 76. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy Acromioclavicular joint (p. 108) between two oval surfaces, in the acromion and in the lateral end of the clavicle. Sometimes includes a meniscus movements: gliding opening and closing of the angle formed by the two bones the capsule is loose and there are 4 ligaments: superior inferior the extrinsic coracoclavicular ligaments, anterolateral (trapezoid) that prevents the closure of the angle and posteromedial (conoid)that prevents the aperture of the angle This light is going to encourage you to startbreathing, enjoy it because that was our intentionwhen we created this manual. The main thing is toenjoy what we do and to breath properly…I startedcollaborating and I got hook on, the same willhappen to you Idoia, de toda la vida “la niña”Looking Inward 42
  77. 77. BONES AND WIRES Our Anatomy 4. Thoracic cage: breathing I (p. 81) Introduction INTROLooking Inward 43

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