*   OUR ANATOMY *              Looking Inward
Anatomical awareness as a powerful tool     Maybe sometimes we build up our position base on how we see it from the outsid...
Index                                                                                                                 Our ...
Index                                                                                                            Our Anato...
Index                                                     Our Anatomy          Appendicular skeleton            upper extr...
Index                                                                                                                Our A...
Index                                                                        Our Anatomy          Structural elements     ...
Index                                                                                                    Our Anatomy  3. S...
Index                                         Our Anatomy          Acromioclavicular joint (p. 108)            location   ...
Index                                                                                                           Our Anatom...
Index                                                   Our Anatomy          Volume and pressure            inhalation    ...
Index                                                                                                        Our Anatomy  ...
Index                                                                         Our Anatomy                 transversal axis...
Index                                                                                            Our Anatomy  6. Arms and ...
Index                                                                                                        Our Anatomy  ...
Index                                                                                                                  Our...
Index                                                                                                                Our A...
Index                                                                                                             Our Anat...
Index                                                                                          Our Anatomy  8. Abs and the...
Index                                                                                                              Our Ana...
Index                                                       Our Anatomy        Obturator externus                         ...
Index                                                                                                                   Ou...
Index                                                                                     Our Anatomy  11. Deep hip muscle...
Index                                                                                                                  Our...
Index                                                                                                               Our An...
Index                                                              Our Anatomy        Trapezius (p. 74-118)               ...
Index                                                                                Our Anatomy  16. Deep glenohumeral (s...
Index                                                                                                                     ...
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Index anatomy manual

  1. 1. * OUR ANATOMY * Looking Inward
  2. 2. Anatomical awareness as a powerful tool Maybe sometimes we build up our position base on how we see it from the outside, in a superficial way, so we try to copy what we see and to fit our body, forcefully, into that external image. We invite you to focus on that look inward and to build up our posture from there. We are going to create a positive image more refined, more subtle, more detailed each time. “The images are like bombs of big expansion wave in that, when they explode, they tear difficulties apart#### (hacen pedazos) and create the desired change. ” Whatever is contained in that inner image, the body will reproduce it.” Anatomy can help us to visualize the structure in the positions, to the pure instruction we add the intention. “Before practice, theory is useless. After practice, it´s obvious.” Anatomy, in the end, is a fascinating, profound and funny opportunity to know ourselves. “If you teach an individual to be aware of his/her physical organism and to use it in the way it was designed for, very often you can change completely his/her attitude towards life and heal his/her neurotic tendencies.” Aldous Huxley
  3. 3. Index Our AnatomyINDEX ABC ANATOMY The structure 1. Anatomic position (p. 1) .......................................................................................................1 Introduction 1 Principal systems 1 Bones Articulations Muscles 2. Planes of movement (p. 2) ................................................................................................... 2 Median or midsagittal 2 Flexion, dorsiflexion Extension, plantarflexion Frontal or coronal (p. 3) 3 Adduction Abduction Lateral flexing or side-bending Fingers and toes hand foot Transverse or horizontal (p. 4) 4 Lateral rotation, supination Medial rotation, pronation Right/left rotation Other anatomical reference terms (p. 6) 5 Anterior Posterior Superior Inferior Medial Lateral Internal or deep External or superficial Proximal DistalLooking Inward i
  4. 4. Index Our Anatomy BONES AND WIRES The structure 1. Talking about bones in general ...........................................................................................1 Ideas from B4L (Bones for Life) 1 Mobile framework & rigid support Gravity Organization Dynamic movement Bone growth pressure configuration cooperation transmission, domino effect structure and function positioning alignment restorative ability biological optimism Ideas from Anatomy of Hatha Yoga 1 The scar of evolution Characteristics the upright posture the capacity to hold it up Relaxation and balance the lock in the knees relaxation extension instructors students NO lock Alignment, the plumb line of gravity through the cervical spine through the lumbar spine behind the axial centre of the articulations of the hips in front of the locked articulations of the knees centre of the heel Appendicular and axial skeleton appendicular axial both togetherLooking Inward ii
  5. 5. Index Our Anatomy Appendicular skeleton upper extremities lower extremities Axial skeleton skull vertebral spine rib cage sternum Ideas from Anatomy of Movement 7 Skeleton (p. 7) basic shapes components subjected to pressure Internal anatomy of a bone (p. 8) alveolar (spongy) structure hollow structure marrow periosteum compact bone articular cartilage Joints (p. 9) different degrees of mobility articulating surfaces congruency articular cartilage and synovial cavity dislocation o luxation Cartilage (p. 11) types of stress may be damaged blood vessels other formations Joint capsule (p. 12) what is it? reinforcements areas outer layer inner layer Ligaments (p. 13) what are they? function in the joint proprioceptive sensitivity excessive movement or traumaLooking Inward iii
  6. 6. Index Our Anatomy 2. Vertebral column (p. 30) .................................................................................................... 15 Introduction 15 Vertebral spine Human spine primary, kyphosis secondary, lordosis Primary curve, a bit of prehistory undulations parallels In the individual development Intrinsecum equilibrium 19 With no muscles Deep changes Energy waste against gravity Vertebral structure (p. 32) 20 Shapes Two main parts posterior, VERTEBRAL ARCH anterior, VERTEBRAL BODY Vertebral holes foramen Intervertebral foramina Vertebral linkage (p. 33) 1 intervertebral disc 2 articular facets Ligaments of the spine (p. 34) 23 Continuous anterior longitudinal ligament posterior longitudinal ligament supraespinous ligament Discontinuous ligament flava intertransverse ligaments interspinous ligaments The 24 vertebrae vertebral bodies archesLooking Inward iv
  7. 7. Index Our Anatomy Structural elements compression forces tension forces Vertebral movements (p. 36) 25 Effect in discs and ligaments sthira y sukha in flexion in extension in lateral flexion in rotation Let´s go deeper compression and decompression forces if compression force is too strong asymmetrical movements pushing back anterior longitudinal ligament posterior longitudinal ligament Types of spinal movement 4 possible movements flexion and extension, primary and secondary curves, exhalation and inhalation basic movement perspective breathing spatial and spinal perspective in forward/backward positions flexion y extension forward and backward spatial and spinal perspective in lateral movements and twists TRIKONASANA PARIVRITTA TRIKONASANA Axial extension, bandhas, mahamudra axial extension bandhas mahamudraLooking Inward v
  8. 8. Index Our Anatomy 3. Shoulder and shoulder girdle (p. 97) …......................................................................... 31 Introduction 31 Shoulder glenohumeral (p. 112) acromioclavicular (p. 108) sternoclavicular (p. 106) Shoulder girdle (p. 105) differences what is it? Movements of the scapula (p. 109) 34 Scapula Mobility elevation depression abduction or protraction adduction or retraction downward rotation upward rotation The great mobility of the arm Gliding planes Movements of the arm (p. 101) 36 Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction External rotation Medial rotation Ligaments 38 Glenohumeral joint (p. 112) from the bone point of view the capsule reinforcement instability resting position of the joint Sternoclavicular joint (p. 106) location movements ligamentsLooking Inward vi
  9. 9. Index Our Anatomy Acromioclavicular joint (p. 108) location movements gliding opening and closing the capsule and 4 ligaments superior inferior coracoclavicular ligaments trapezoid conoidLooking Inward vii
  10. 10. Index Our Anatomy 4. Thoracic cage: breathing I (p. 81) .................................................................................... 43 Introduction 43 Elements 44 Ribs + sternum Ribs + vertebrae the 12 thoracic vertebrae head, neck, tubercule of the rib vertebral level The bucket handle (p. 83) movement different levels direction superior thoracic vertebrae inferior thoracic vertebrae lower part of the sternum Mobility in the dorsal region (p. 54) D.1 to D.7 D.8, D.9 and D.10 special mobility in the dorsal-lumbar region D.12 and L.1 D.11 and D.12 Breathing I 49 Introduction about breathing breathing, spine and ribs in the yoga practice about Sukha y Dukha Breathing, gravity and yoga in the uterus birth initial expansion the weight of the body in the space postural development breathing and posture Definition of breathing what is it? the two cavities similarities differences inverse proportionLooking Inward viii
  11. 11. Index Our Anatomy Volume and pressure inhalation exhalation active exhalation 3D changes in the shape in breathing volume and shape in the chest shape in the abdomen influence on each other during breathing Amplified definition of breathing More elements in the mechanism of breathing lungs air lungs heart breathing and circulation metabolism oxygen moving oxygen Mental aspects neurons the path remedy for stress mental benefits of a correct breathing concentration and mental clarity handle difficulties without stress emotional control and balance physical control and coordination the two brains right side left side Pranic benefits ChakrasLooking Inward ix
  12. 12. Index Our Anatomy 5. The pelvic girdle: the bowl in balance ............................................................................. 62 Introduction (p. 40 + p. 175) 62 Elements 63 Iliac (p. 41) lateral view symphysis pubis shapes and pelvic proportions (p. 43) Sacrum and coccyx (p. 45) lateral view relation with L5 pendulum movements constant micro-movement coccyx or tailbone Sacroiliac joint (p. 47) what is it? combined movement of sacrum and ilium top of sacrum backwards=contranutation anterior superior iliac spine forward s.I. stability Sacroiliac ligaments (p. 48) posterior anterior-inferior sacrum-cranial connexion traumatism and consequences pain prevention Lumbosacral joint (p. 51) instability factors bad postures why does it hurt? Some ideas acute chronic frequently, sudden movements sprain lumbosacral pinching Hip joint (p. 175) what is it? femur (p. 178)Looking Inward x
  13. 13. Index Our Anatomy transversal axis anterior-posterior axis vertical axis neck axis and body axis, inclination angle neck axis and knee axis, declination angle long type short type Articular surfaces of the hip (p. 180) femoral head acetabulum transmission area central area Capsule and ligaments (p. 184) articular capsule in the iliac in the femur ligaments ligamentum teres reinforcing the capsule anterior ligaments in the movement (p. 185) in flexion-extension in lateral-medial rotation in adduction-abduction its role in the articular stability Movements of hip 85 Pelvis is fixed and the femur is moving (p. 186) flexion extension adduction abduction rotation Movements of the pelvis at the hip joint and femur fixed (p. 190) anteversion retroversion lateral flexion medial flexion medial rotation lateral rotation Sacroiliac joints Gravity centreLooking Inward xi
  14. 14. Index Our Anatomy 6. Arms and hands: Tools of movement I …………................................................................95 Parts of the arm 95 Views anterior posterior lateral Elbow (p. 131) joint transversal section of the forearm right ulna (anterior view) proximal ulna (anterior view) right ulna (posterior view) distal ulna (lateroinferior view) right radius (posterior view) ligaments Hand (p. 147) bones ligaments joints (anterior view) joints (posterior view) Elbow charts humeral ulnar joint humeral radial joint radioulnar proximal joint radioulnar distal jointLooking Inward xii
  15. 15. Index Our Anatomy 7. Legs and feet: Tools of movement II ............................................................................... 109 Parts of the leg 109 Views anterior posterior Knee (p. 192) ligaments intrinsic extrinsic joints ventral view posterior view Tibia Fibula Bones of the foot phalanges calcaneus talus jointsLooking Inward xiii
  16. 16. Index Our Anatomy MUSCLES, TENDONS AND WILL Movement 1. Talking about muscles in general (p. 14) ........................................................................... 1 Movements 1 Origen and insertion 1 Tendon 1 Myofibers 2 Contraction 2 Elasticity 2 Passive property Tendency to return 2. Muscle shapes (p. 16) .......................................................................................................... 3 Different attachments 3 Muscle fibers Aponeurosis (broad tendon) Tendon Tendon under a fibrous band Several origins (heads) 4 Multiple insertions (rare) 4 Sizes and shapes 4 Orientation 4 Long and short 4 Monoarticular 4 Polyarticular 4Looking Inward xiv
  17. 17. Index Our Anatomy 3. Muscle contraction (p. 20) ................................................................................................... 5 Agonist and antagonist 5 Synergetic 5 Resistance 5 Gravity Some external weight The force of another person Tension of the antagonist Few extra things 9 Contractions Muscle cells Types of muscles Motor unit agonists antagonists synergists 4. Types of contraction (p. 22) ............................................................................................... 15 Concentric shortening and eccentric lengthening 15 Concentric contractions Eccentric contractions Daily activities Isotonic and isometric activity 16 Isotonic Isometric Relaxation, stretching and mobility 17 Factors related to SSC (Stretching Shortening Cycle) 18 Golgi tendon organ 19 What is it? Body Mechanism Training Protection Effects of agonist shortening 22 Stretching a muscle Relaxing a muscle Strengthening a muscleLooking Inward xv
  18. 18. Index Our Anatomy 5. Phasic muscles and postural muscles .............................................................................. 23 Restorative alignment 23 Deficient alignment Excessive/insufficient use Importance of stretching Two groups 24 Phasic, movement Postural, stability Complementary work Common muscle imbalances 25 Standard patterns Upper body patterns neck, middle and upper back, and shoulder griddle opposite muscle groups shoulders common patterns Lower body patterns lumbar and pelvic areas tight hip flexors chain reaction 6. Deep back muscles (p. 64) ............................................................................................... 28 Long and short muscles 28 Usually action 29 Shoulder girdle action 30 Weak points 30 Strengthening 32 Stretching 33 7. Lateral muscle of the lumbar spine: Quadratus lumborum (p. 63) ................................ 35 Function 35 What affects its role 35 Its action in Trikonasana 35Looking Inward xvi
  19. 19. Index Our Anatomy 8. Abs and the rest. Anterolateral muscles of the abdomen ............................................. 37 Place and function 37 Transversus abdominis (p. 92) 38 Location and function Action if the vertebrae are fixed if the aponeurosis is the fixed point Internal oblique (p. 93) 39 Location and origin Action unilateral contraction bilateral contraction if both the vertebrae and pelvis are fixed External oblique (p. 94) 40 Location and origin Action unilateral contraction bilateral contraction Synergic action in Trikonasana 40 Vertical fibers plus quadratus lumborum Obliques in synergy Fulcrum in rotation Inner abdominal pressure Action in the lower back Rectus abdominis, 6-pack (p. 95) 41 Location Action Using gravity force 42 Flexion in the trunk 42 Leg abdominal work 42Looking Inward xvii
  20. 20. Index Our Anatomy 9. Deep hip muscles I (p. 208) ............................................................................................... 45 Group of six muscles 45 Piriformis (p. 209) 45 Location Action if the sacrum is fixed if the femur is fixed bilateral contraction unilateral contraction Structures Sciatic nerve Function Piriformis syndrome Symptoms Sacrum rotation Somatic dysfunctions Tensions Injures Difficulties More symptoms Right leg, driving Quadratus femoris (p. 210) 53 Location Action if the iliac is fixed if the femur is fixed bilateral contraction unilateral contraction Obturator internus (p. 210) 53 Location Action if the iliac is fixed if the femur is fixed bilateral contraction unilateral contraction Gemellus superior and inferior (p. 211) 54 Location ActionLooking Inward xviii
  21. 21. Index Our Anatomy Obturator externus 54 Location Action if the iliac is fixed if the femur is fixed bilateral contraction unilateral contraction Obturators and gemelli: the hammock (p. 212) 54 Location Action if the pelvis is fixed if the femur is fixed bilateral contraction unilateral contraction Either wayLooking Inward xix
  22. 22. Index Our Anatomy 10. Deep hip muscles II ........................................................................................................... 55 Iliopsoas (p. 62-213) 55 Psoas major and iliacus, location Psoas or psoas major arises action if the vertebrae are fixed if the femur is fixed (bilateral contraction, unilateral contraction) Iliacus arises action if the iliac is fixed if the femur is fixed (bilateral contraction, unilateral contraction) Relations Action if the vertebrae are fixed if the femur is fixed unilateral contraction bilateral contraction Gluteus minimus (p. 216) 63 Location Action if the iliac is fixed if the femur is fixed bilateral contraction unilateral contraction Gluteus medius (p. 215) 63 Location Action if the iliac is fixed if the femur is fixed bilateral contraction unilateral contractionLooking Inward xx
  23. 23. Index Our Anatomy 11. Deep hip muscles III (+ 1 of the hip and knee): The adductors (p. 224) ...................... 64 Group of five muscles 64 Location Action These muscles Pectineus 65 Adductor brevis 65 Adductor longus 66 Adductor magnus (p. 225) 66 The anterior portion The posterior portion Gracilis 67 Action of the group as a whole 67 If the iliac is fixed If the femur is fixedLooking Inward xxi
  24. 24. Index Our Anatomy 12. Hip and knee muscles I: The superficial ......................................................................... 70 Tensor fasciae latae (229) Gluteus maximus (228) Deltoid gluteus (superficial portion of gluteus maximus and tensor fasciae latae)(p. 22) 13. Hip and knee muscles II ................................................................................................... 71 Quadriceps femoris (p. 217) 71 As a whole Vastus intermedius Vastus medialis and lateralis Rectus femoris if the pelvis is fixed if the femur is fixed For stretching Sartorius (p. 220) 75 Location Action if the iliac is fixed if the femur is fixed bilaterally unilaterally 14. Hip and knee muscles III: The hamstrings (p. 221) ......................................................... 76 Location 76 Action as a whole 76 For stretching 77 Differentiated action 78 Polyarticular muscles 78 Problems due to lack of de flexibility 78 Shoulder girdle muscles .................................................................................................... 79 Intro 79 Importance of its mobility for the arm mobility 79 Common dysfunctional pattern 79 Working in pairs 80Looking Inward xxii
  25. 25. Index Our Anatomy 15. Shoulder muscles (p. 114) ................................................................................................. 81 A group of five muscles 81 From 1 to 5, from the deepest to the most superficial 2 towards the front of the chest 3 in the back Its important role in inversions Serratus anterior 82 Location Origins upper portion middle portion lower portion Insertions upper fibers middle fibers lower fibers Function if the ribs are fixed upper fibers middle fibers lower fibers if the scapula is fixed Pectoralis minor (p. 116) 84 Location Action if the ribs are fixed if the scapula is fixed Rhomboids (p. 117) 84 Location Action if the spine is fixed if the scapula is fixed Levator scapulae (p. 117) 86 Location Action if the spine is fixed if the scapula is fixed bilateral contraction unilateral contractionLooking Inward xxiii
  26. 26. Index Our Anatomy Trapezius (p. 74-118) 88 Location Origins upper fibers middle fibers lower fibers Insertions upper fibers middle fibers lower fibers Function if the spine is fixed simultaneous contraction of all the fibers upper fibers middle fibers lower fibers if...what does it...? Between T.7 and T.10 In the shoulders Arms Articular trauma Actions and excessive use Subclavius (p. 116) 92 Location Action Questions about its utility Sternocleidomastoid (p. 116) 93 Location Origin Insertion Nerves Actions when the skull is fixed when the thoracic cage is fixed unilateral contraction bilateral contraction StretchingLooking Inward xxiv
  27. 27. Index Our Anatomy 16. Deep glenohumeral (scapulohumeral) muscles of shoulder joint (p. 120) ................. 96 Subscapularis 96 Supraspinatus 96 Infraspinatus (p. 121) 96 Teres minor 96 Rotator cuff muscles (p. 122) 96 Coracobrachialis description location action Biceps brachii (p. 123-139) 97 Location Two origins Insertion short head long head insertion Function proximal radioulnar joint humeroulnar joint glenohumeral joint Triceps brachii (p. 123-140) 99 Location Origin long head lateral head medial head (deep head) Insertion Function on the shoulder joint on the elbow the lateral head Antigravitational In synergy Connecting shoulder and elbow Other movementsLooking Inward xxv
  28. 28. Index Our Anatomy 17. Glenohumeral joint muscles ........................................................................................... 105 Pectoralis major (p. 124) Latissimus dorsi (p. 125) Teres major (p. 125) Deltoid (p. 126) 18. Breathing II ................................................................................................................... 19. Legs + knee + ................................................................................................................. 20. Arms + elbow + ............................................................................................................... 21. Few extra things... .......................................................................................................Looking Inward xxvi

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