KCB201 Week 10 Slidecast: Citizen Journalism
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Like this? Share it with your network


KCB201 Week 10 Slidecast: Citizen Journalism

Uploaded on

Week 10 Slidecast for KCB201 Virtual Cultures in the Creative Industries Faculty at Queensland University of Technology, semester 1/2008.

Week 10 Slidecast for KCB201 Virtual Cultures in the Creative Industries Faculty at Queensland University of Technology, semester 1/2008.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads


Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 46

http://blackboard.qut.edu.au 46

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. Citizen Journalism Dr Axel Bruns KCB201 Virtual Cultures [email_address]
  • 2. 1999 “Battle of Seattle”
    • Emergence of Indymedia :
      • World Trade Organisation meeting in Seattle, 1999
      • large ‘alternative globalisation’ protests by broad coalition of activists
      • fear that mainstream media (MSM) would focus only on riots and unrest
      • development of DIY journalism projects – “become the media”
      • established as Independent Media Center (IMC, Indymedia )
      • based on software built for activist group in Sydney
      • key features:
        • DIY media content: stories, images, video sourced from activists
        • open publishing: all stories made available immediately
        • public discussion: strong role for comments, adding further information
  • 3. Citizen Journalism
    • Part of a longer trend:
      • hand-printed and photocopied pamphlets and newsletters
      • as old as the printing press itself
      • but boosted by simplicity and reach of online publishing
    • Emergence of key citizen journalism sites:
      • Indymedia – political activism, alternative globalisation
      • Slashdot – technology news, privacy, governance, legal issues
      • Kuro5hin , Plastic – politics and Zeitgeist
      • OhmyNews – South Korean politics, now also International and Japan
      • Wikipedia and Wikinews – general news (but problems with the latter)
      • Current.tv – video news and documentaries
      • news blogs – more or less consistent news coverage and discussion
  • 4. Produsing the News?
    • Traditional news process: gatekeeping
    • (from Bruns, Gatewatching: Collaborative Online News Production , 2005)
  • 5. Gatewatching
    • Citizen journalism news process: gatewatching
      • content generated by ‘average’ users, not professional journalists and editors
      • CJs watching the output gates of news publications and other sources, in order to identify important material as it becomes available
      • limited editorial oversight:
        • very basic checking of stories (e.g. Slashdot ), or
        • immediate posting for commentary, rating, and voting by wider community
      • repurposing, recombining, recontextualising, reinterpreting mainstream news
      • discussing, debating, deliberating on the news
      • continuous update of stories after publication – through comments or revisions
      • collaborative content creation model, harnessing community knowledge
      • providing multiperspectival insight and commentary
      • acting as a corrective to the mainstream
  • 6. News Produsage
    • Gatewatcher news process
    • (adapted from Bruns, Gatewatching: Collaborative Online News Production , 2005)
    • Variations on the process are possible
  • 7. Open Source Journalism
    • Strong similarities between citizen journalism and open source:
      • opening out production process to all participants
      • belief that cream will rise to the top – through ‘power of eyeballs’
      • reconceptualisation and acceptance of content as always unfinished, constantly updated
      • application of alternative licencing schemes to enable flexible update and distribution of products
    • But need for effective systems and methodologies:
      • Indymedia problem: lack of open editing tools to enable collaborative quality control
      • Wikinews problem: failure to offer space for debate and deliberation to facilitate the development and update of stories
  • 8. Citizen Journalism as Produsage
    • Citizen journalism, open source, and others are examples of produsage :
      • Open Participation, Communal Evaluation – the community as a whole, if sufficiently large and varied, can contribute more than a closed team of producers, however qualified
      • Fluid Heterarchy, Ad Hoc Meritocracy – produsers participate as is appropriate to their personal skills, interests, and knowledges; this changes as the produsage project proceeds
      • Unfinished Artefacts, Continuing Process – content artefacts in produsage projects are continually under development, and therefore always unfinished; their development follows evolutionary, iterative, palimpsestic paths
      • Common Property, Individual Rewards – contributors permit (non-commercial) community use and adaptation of their intellectual property, and are rewarded by the status capital gained through this process
  • 9. Futures for Citizen Journalism
    • Where to from here?
      • variety of very well established news produsage models
        • from Slashdot to OhmyNews
        • further opportunities in using wiki-based systems
        • increasing potential for audiovisual news – Current.tv etc.
      • long-term economic sustainability remains a significant question
        • how do news produsage sites meet their running costs?
        • how do individuals become self-supporting news produsers?
        • where does original content come from?