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Chapter 2 Cell
 

Chapter 2 Cell

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    Chapter 2 Cell Chapter 2 Cell Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 2 Cell
    • History of Cytology
      • Anton Van Leeuwenhoek – invented microscope – discovered the presence of cell while observing a drop of rainwater .
      • Robert Hooke – invented a compound microscope – coined the word “cell” –
      • Robert Brown - he discovered the nucleus of the cell.
      • Matthias Scheiden ( Botanist ) & Theodore Schwann ( Zoologist ) concluded that plants and animals are made up of cells.
      • Rudolf Virchow – Considered cells as the basic units of structure and function – discovered the process of cell division – cells came from the division of pre-existing cells.
      • Walter Fleming – he discovered aster formation and condensation of the chromatins
      • Peirre-Joseph Van Beneden – he discovered meiosis .
      History of Cytology
    • Parts of the Cell Theory
      • (Rudolf Virchow)
      • The cell is the unit of structure in all living things.
      • The cell is the unit of function in all living things.
      • All cells come from preexisting cells.
    • Generalized Functions of the Cell
      • Irritability – the ability to respond to stimuli.
      • Contractility – the ability to change shape.
      • Absorption – is the imbibitions of substances for assimilation by the cell
      • Secretion & Excretion – are processes involved when the cell excludes material.
      • Respiration – the process involved in the release of energy through the biological oxidation of food.
      • Reproduction – is the increase in the number of cells through cell division.
      Generalized Functions of the Cell
    • Cell Size
      • Macroscopic – cells that are big enough to be seen by unaided eyes.
        • Example
          • Frog’s egg cell
          • Chicken egg
      • Microscopic -
        • Example
          • Liver cell – 7 microns
          • Blood cell
    • Shape
      • Spherical – round or oval
      • Squamous – flat & tile-like
      • Cuboidal – Square & equidimensional
      • Columnar – rectangular, upright
      • Fusiform – Tapering at both ends
      Shape
      • Stellate – Star-like
      • Spiderlike – oval shaped surrounded with cytoplasmic extensions
      Shape
      • Netlike –, Branching & interlacing
      • Filamentous – Threadlike & long
      • Amorphous – irregular, no definite shape
      Shape
    • Animal Cell Nuclear pore Nuclear Membrane Nucleolus Chromatins Nucleus Centriole Pinocytic Vesicle Lysosome Cytoplasm Cell Membrane Vacuole Ribosomes Mitochondrion Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Complex Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Nucleoplasm
    • Cell membrane
      • - selectively regulates the materials moving to and from the cell
    • Cell Wall
      • – present only in plant cells
      • Structure    - a non-living secretion of the cell membrane, composed of cellulose
      •    - cellulose fibrils deposited in alternating layers for strength
      •    - contains pits (openings) that make it totally permeable
      • Function    - provides protection from physical injury    - together with vacuole, provides skeletal support
    • Nucleus
      • The nucleus consists of the nuclear envelope, nucleolus, chromatin, and nucleoplasm.
      • Nuclear Envelope
      • Structure
        • -two unit membranes with a fluid-filled space
        • - nuclear pores present
        • -outer membrane may be continuous with endoplasmic reticulum
      • Function
        • -selectively permeable to control movement in or out
        • -contains nuclear contents
    • Chromosomes
      • Structure
      • -composed of long thin strands of DNA
      • Function
      • -contains instructions that control cell metabolism and heredity
    • Nucleolus
      • Structure
      • -non-membraneous matrix of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and protein
      • Function
      • - instructions in DNA are copied here
      • - works with ribosomes in the synthesis of protein
    • Centriole
      • Structure
      • - nine triplets of microtubules form one centriole
      • - two centrioles form one centrosome
      • Function 
      • - forms spindle fibres to separate chromosomes during cell division
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
      • Structure
      • - sheets of unit membrane with ribosomes on the outside
      • - forms a tubular network throughout the cell
      •   Function
      • - transports chemicals between cells and within cells
      • - provides a large surface area for the organization of chemical reactions and synthesis
    • Ribosome
      • Structure
      • - non-membraneous, spherical bodies composed of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and protein enzymes
      • Function
      • - site of protein synthesis
    • Golgi Apparatus
      • Structure
      • - stacks of flattened sacs of unit membrane
      • - vesicles pinch off the edges
      • Function
      • - modifies chemicals to make them functional
      • - secretes chemicals in tiny vesicles
      • - stores chemicals
      • - may produce endoplasmic reticulum
    • Mitochondrion
      • Structure
      • - composed of modified double unit membrane (protein, lipid)
      • - inner membrane infolded to form cristae
      • Function
      • - site of cellular respiration ie. the release of chemical energy from food
      • Glucose  +  Oxygen  ------>
      • Carbon Dioxide  +  Water  + Energy (ATP)
    • Lysosome
      • Structure
      • - membrane bound bag containing hydrolytic enzymes
      • - hydrolytic enzyme = (water split biological catalyst) i.e. using water to split chemical bonds
      • Function
      • - break large molecules into small molecules by inserting a molecule of water into the chemical bond  
    • Microfilaments/Neurotubules
      • - system of transport for materials within a neuron and may be used for structural support
    • Vacuole
      • Structure    - a single layer of unit membrane enclosing fluid in a sack
      • Function    - produces turgor pressure against cell wall for support    - stores water and various chemicals    - may store insoluble wastes
      • food vacuole
      • -stores and digests food
      • contractile vacuole
      • -pumps out wastes and excess water from the cell
    • Chloroplast
      • Structure    - composed of a double layer of modified membrane (protein, chlorophyll, lipid)    - inner membrane invaginates to form layers called "grana" (sing., granum) where chlorophyll ( green ) is concentrated
      • Function - site of photosynthesis
      •                                            chlorophyll   Carbon Dioxide + Water -------------------> Glucose + Oxygen + radiant energy   (food)
      • Chromoplasts have carotenoids, which impart red -to- yellow colors to plant parts, but no chlorophyll.
      • Amyloplasts have no pigments. They store starch grains in plant parts such as potato tubers.
    • Two Types of vacuole
      • 1. Food vacuole
      • -stores and digests food
      • 2. Contractile vacuole
      • -pumps out wastes and excess water from the cell
    • Nucleus control center of the cell contains DNA which directs the synthesis of proteins by the cell Mitochondrion carries on the process of cell respiration converting glucose to ATP energy the cell can use Endoplasmic Reticulum transport channels within the cell Ribosome found on the endoplasmic reticulum and free within the cell  responsible for the synthesis of proteins for the cell cell membrane selectively regulates the materials moving to and from the cell
    • Food Vacuole stores and digests food Contractile vacuole pumps out wastes and excess water from the cell Chloroplast found in plant cells and algae  carries on the process of photosynthesis Cell wall surrounds and supports plant cells
    • Some Cell Organelles Cell Organelle Function nucleus control center of the cell contains DNA which directs the synthesis of proteins by the cell mitochondrion carries on the process of cell respiration converting glucose to ATP energy the cell can use endoplasmic reticulum transport channels within the cell ribosome found on the endoplasmic reticulum and free within the cell  responsible for the synthesis of proteins for the cell cell membrane selectively regulates the materials moving to and from the cell food vacuole stores and digests food contractile vacuole pumps out wastes and excess water from the cell chloroplast found in plant cells and algae  carries on the process of photosynthesis cell wall surrounds and supports plant cells
    • Plant Cell Animal Cell
    • Vacuole Thylakoid membrane Starch grain Chloroplast Plasmodesmata Cell Wall
      • THE END
      • NEXT MEETING - EXAM
    • http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm