Chapter 2 cells 2011

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  • Figure 2.4 page 22
  • Figure 2.20 page 27
  • Figure 2.20 page 27
  • Figure 2.20 page 27
  • Figure 2.20 page 27
  • Chapter 2 cells 2011

    1. 1. Chapter 2: Cells Chapter 2- Cells
    2. 2. The discovery of cells <ul><li>Robert Hooke </li></ul><ul><li>Anton van Leeuwenhoek </li></ul><ul><li>Schleiden & Schwann (Cell Theory) </li></ul>
    3. 3. The animal cell (3-D) Nucleus Vacuoles Plasma Membrane Mitochondrion Nucleolus Cytoplasm Golgi apparatus Rough endoplasmic reticulum
    4. 4. Label the parts of an animal cell.
    5. 5. The plant cell (3-D) Cell wall Plasma Membrane Central vacuole Chloroplasts Mitochondrion Nucleus Cytoplasm Nucleolus Golgi apparatus Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    6. 6. Label the parts of a plant cell.
    7. 7. <ul><li>C = Chloroplast </li></ul><ul><li>(next slide) </li></ul><ul><li>ER = Endoplasmic Reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>G = Granum </li></ul><ul><li>(next slide) </li></ul><ul><li>M = Mitochondrion </li></ul><ul><li>S = Starch Grain </li></ul><ul><li>T = Thylakoids (next slide) </li></ul><ul><li>V = Vacuole </li></ul><ul><li>W = Cell Wall </li></ul>Plant Cell – 22 500 X (electron micrographs)
    8. 8. 3-D structure of a chloroplast
    9. 9. <ul><li>Nuclear envelope </li></ul><ul><li>Separates the contents of the nucleus from the rest of the cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Dense material within the </li></ul><ul><li>nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatin threads </li></ul><ul><li>Network of long thread-like structures </li></ul><ul><li>Condenses to become rod-like chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Each thread is made up of proteins and DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleolus </li></ul><ul><li>Plays a part in the making of proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Controls the activities of the cell such as cell </li></ul><ul><li>growth & repair of worn-out parts </li></ul><ul><li>Essential for cell division </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear envelope </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatin threads </li></ul><ul><li>One nucleolus or more nucleoli </li></ul>Nucleus Function Structure Organelle
    10. 10. <ul><li>Regulate the passage of substances entering and exiting the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Partially-permeable membrane that forms a boundary between the cytoplasm of the cell and the outside. </li></ul><ul><li>Have pores (small holes) on it </li></ul>Plasma Membrane / Cell surface membrane Function Structure Organelle
    11. 11. <ul><li>Part of the cell where most cell activities occur </li></ul><ul><li>Jelly-like complex material that contains all the organelles of a cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Is the part of the protoplasm between the cell surface membrane and nucleus. </li></ul>Cytoplasm Function Structure Organelle
    12. 12. ATP = Adenosine triphosphate <ul><li>‘ Power house’ of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>During aerobic respiration, energy is released </li></ul>Contains many folds to increase surface area for synthesis of ATP molecules / energy molecules Mitochondria (plural) Mitochondrion Function Structure Organelle
    13. 13. <ul><li>Synthesizes fats and steroids (eg. sex hormones) </li></ul><ul><li>Detoxifies harmful substances </li></ul>No ribosomes attached. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) <ul><li>Ribosomes on it make proteins that are enclosed in vesicles transported to the Golgi apparatus for secretion out of the cell. </li></ul>Ribosomes attached on RER Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) Function Structure Organelle
    14. 14. <ul><li>Make proteins that are used within the cytoplasm of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>In the cytoplasm </li></ul>Free ribosomes (a type of proteins made in the nucleolus) Function Structure Organelle
    15. 15. <ul><li>Stores and modifies substances / proteins made by the RER </li></ul><ul><li>Packages these substances / proteins in vesicles for secretion out of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of flattened spaces surrounded by membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Vesicles seen fusing with one side of GA and pinching off from the opposite side </li></ul>Golgi Apparatus (GA) [Vesicle movement] http://biologica.concord.org/webtest1/Shout3d_cell_6_1_00/v2_frameset.htm Function Structure Organelle
    16. 16. 1. Vesicles transport substances within the cell. Small vesicles containing substances made by the ER are pinched off from the ER. How substances made by the endoplasmic reticulum enter the Golgi apparatus and are finally secreted out of the cell rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle forming Processes in the Golgi Apparatus
    17. 17. 1. Vesicles transport substances within the cell. Small vesicles containing substances made by the ER are pinched off from the ER. How substances made by the endoplasmic reticulum enter the Golgi apparatus and are finally secreted out of the cell rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle forming vesicle pinched off Processes in the Golgi Apparatus
    18. 18. 1. Vesicles transport substances within the cell. Small vesicles containing substances made by the ER are pinched off from the ER. 2. Vesicles then fuse with the Golgi apparatus and release their contents into the Golgi apparatus. The substances made by the ER may be modified inside the Golgi apparatus. How substances made by the endoplasmic reticulum enter the Golgi apparatus and are finally secreted out of the cell rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle forming vesicle fusing with Golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus vesicle pinched off Processes in the Golgi Apparatus
    19. 19. 1. Vesicles transport substances within the cell. Small vesicles containing substances made by the ER are pinched off from the ER. 4. Secretory vesicles fuse with the cell surface membrane and their contents are released outside the cell. How substances made by the endoplasmic reticulum enter the Golgi apparatus and are finally secreted out of the cell 3. Secretory vesicles containing these modified substances are pinched off from the Golgi apparatus. They then move to fuse with the cell surface membrane. rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle forming secretory vesicle pinched off substances released outside the cell secretory vesicle fuses with cell surface membrane Processes in the Golgi Apparatus vesicle pinched off 2. Vesicles then fuse with the Golgi apparatus and release their contents into the Golgi apparatus. The substances made by the ER may be modified inside the Golgi apparatus . vesicle fusing with Golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus
    20. 20. In animal cells organize the assembly of spindle microtubules during cell division. Consists of two short cylinders, facing right angles at each other Centrioles Function Structure Organelle
    21. 21. In animal cells <ul><li>Stores dissolved sugars, mineral ions and other solutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid filled space bound by a partially permeable membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Usually exists temporarily </li></ul>Vacuole Function Structure Organelle
    22. 22. In plant cells contains cell sap such as nutrients and mineral salts Fluid filled space surrounded by a partially membrane known as tonoplast Vacuole Function Structure Organelle
    23. 23. In plant cells <ul><li>Contains chlorophyll </li></ul><ul><li>(green pigment which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis). </li></ul>Chloroplast Function Structure Organelle
    24. 24. In plant cells <ul><li>Gives plant cell a fixed shape </li></ul><ul><li>Gives protection from injury </li></ul><ul><li>Fully permeable layer of non-living material found outside the plasma membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains cellulose </li></ul>Cell wall Function Structure Organelle
    25. 25. Differences between animal and plant cell Animal Plant Cell wall absent present Chloroplasts absent present Vacuoles small and many usually large and central Stores food as glycogen granules starch granules
    26. 26. Specialized cells <ul><li>Specialized cells are slightly different from typical cells in that they have been modified and adapted to better carry out certain functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red blood cell in mammals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xylem cell in plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Root hair cell in plants </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Specialised / Differentiated cells Differentiation: A process in which the zygote undergoes a change from a simple to complex structure. (contains DNA from both parents)
    28. 28. cell membrane Cytoplasm with a red pigment protein called haemoglobin. It carries oxygen.
    29. 29. Red blood cells <ul><li>Structure of RBC in relation </li></ul><ul><li>to its function? </li></ul>Adaptation: Circular, biconcave shape Function: Increases surface area to volume ratio . Thus, oxygen diffuse in and out at a faster rate.
    30. 30. Red blood cells <ul><li>Structure of RBC in relation </li></ul><ul><li>to its function? </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation: Nucleus is absent </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Carry more haemoglobin and hence more oxygen . </li></ul><ul><li>It also enables them to fold easily to squeeze through narrow capillaries. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Root hair <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted for the absorption of water and mineral salts from the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Anchor the plant firmly to the ground. </li></ul>Cellulose cell wall nucleus Central vacuole Plasma membrane Cytoplasm
    32. 32. Structure of the root hair cell in relation to its function <ul><li>Structure: Long and narrow protrusion </li></ul><ul><li>Function:Increases surface area to volume ratio forabsorption of water and mineral salts. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure:Large vacuole </li></ul><ul><li>Function:Increases the concentration of salts and sugars. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, higher rate of absorption of water. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Root hair cell
    33. 33. The Xylem Vessel
    34. 34. Xylem cells <ul><li>Dead cells which have lost their nucleus and cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Hollow and placed end-to-end to conduct water and dissolved mineral salts from the roots to the rest of the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Contain lignin , a woody substance that increases the strength of the vessel. This helps in the support of the plant. </li></ul>
    35. 35.
    36. 36. <ul><li>Hollow long vessel </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow lumen </li></ul>Xylem Vessel
    37. 37. Young Xylem vessels Matured xylem vessels
    38. 38. The Xylem Vessel <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide mechanical strength to plant body. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To conduct water & mineral salts from root to all parts of plant. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is its adaptation to its function? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lignified cell wall for strength to support the plant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow lumen & hollow , long vessel for water and mineral salts transport. </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Division of labour <ul><li>Multi-cellular organism </li></ul><ul><li>each cell types specialises in performing one particular function </li></ul><ul><li>the more highly developed the organism is, the greater is the degree of division of labour </li></ul>
    40. 40. Division of labour <ul><li>Advantage : </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures smooth and efficient functioning of the organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Different function can be performed at the same time. </li></ul>
    41. 41. Specialised Cells, Tissues, Organs & Systems A group of cells work together to form a tissue . intestinal epithelium (tissue) made up of intestinal epithelial cells epithelium in the trachea (tissue) made up of epithelial cells and gland cells cartilage in the trachea (tissue) made up of connective tissue cells epithelium in the lungs (tissue) made up of epithelial cells connective tissue in the lungs made up of connective tissue cells muscle cell neurones intestinal epithelial cell epithelial cell gland cell muscle tissue made up of muscle cells nervous tissue made up of neurones (nerve cells) connective tissue cell connective tissue cell epithelial cell
    42. 42. Specialised Cells, Tissues, Organs & Systems Different tissues combine to form an organ . trachea (organ) lungs (organs) stomach (organ) intestine (organ) muscle tissue cartilage (tissue) muscle tissue connective tissue nervous tissue intestinal epithelium (tissue) epithelium (tissue) epithelium (tissue)
    43. 43. Specialised Cells, Tissues, Organs & Systems Several organs work together to make up an organ system . lungs (organs) trachea (organ) intestine (organ) stomach (organ) digestive system (organ system) respiratory system (organ system)
    44. 44. Specialised Cells, Tissues, Organs & Systems human (organism) digestive system (organ system) respiratory system (organ system) Various organ systems work together to make up an organism .

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