Eukaryotic Cell Organelles
<ul><li>Organelle  – “little organs”; the parts of the cell that act as if they are specialized little organs. </li></ul><...
1.  Nucleus <ul><li>Control center of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains most of the cells genetic material (DNA) </li><...
2.  Ribosome <ul><li>The site of  protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins are assembled on the ribosome. </li></ul><u...
3.  Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>Tubular membrane system </li></ul><ul><li>Rough ER  is studded with ribosomes </li></ul>...
4.  Golgi Apparatus <ul><li>A system of flattened sacs that modifies, sorts, and packages macromolecules in vesicles for  ...
5.  Lysosome <ul><li>A sac containing strong digestive enzymes ( vesicle ) </li></ul><ul><li>Is used for  intracellular di...
6.  Vacuole <ul><li>A large storage sac </li></ul><ul><li>May occupy more than 50% of volume in plant cells. </li></ul><ul...
7.  Mitochondria <ul><li>Double membrane organelle </li></ul><ul><li>Convert the chemical energy stored in food into compo...
8.  Chloroplast <ul><li>A double membrane organelle </li></ul><ul><li>They capture the energy from sunlight and convert it...
9.  Cytoskeleton <ul><li>Support network made of protein. </li></ul><ul><li>Two main types: </li></ul><ul><li>Microfilamen...
<ul><li>Microfilaments  – threadlike structures made of the protein  actin .  </li></ul><ul><li>They provide a tough yet f...
10.  Centrioles <ul><li>Cylindrical structures formed of microtubules </li></ul><ul><li>Occur in pairs during animal cell ...
<ul><li>Two main types of eukaryotic cells… </li></ul><ul><li>A  plant cell  has… </li></ul><ul><li>- a cell wall (made of...
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Organelles

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Organelles

  1. 1. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles
  2. 2. <ul><li>Organelle – “little organs”; the parts of the cell that act as if they are specialized little organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm – the portion of the cell that is outside the nucleus in the eukaryotic cell. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Nucleus <ul><li>Control center of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains most of the cells genetic material (DNA) </li></ul><ul><li>(DNA is in chromatin form.) </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by a membrane called the nuclear envelope (w/pores) </li></ul><ul><li>May contain several nucleoli </li></ul><ul><li>(ribosome assembly ) </li></ul>
  4. 4. 2. Ribosome <ul><li>The site of protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins are assembled on the ribosome. </li></ul><ul><li>Each ribosome is made up of two subunits. (assembled in the nucleolus - made of RNA) </li></ul>
  5. 5. 3. Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>Tubular membrane system </li></ul><ul><li>Rough ER is studded with ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth ER lacks ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>ER is the site where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled (along with proteins and other materials exported from the cell.) </li></ul><ul><li>Materials can travel through the ER or can be pinched off of the ER (origin of intracellular transport vesicles that carry proteins) </li></ul>
  6. 6. 4. Golgi Apparatus <ul><li>A system of flattened sacs that modifies, sorts, and packages macromolecules in vesicles for secretion or for delivery to other organelles. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 5. Lysosome <ul><li>A sac containing strong digestive enzymes ( vesicle ) </li></ul><ul><li>Is used for intracellular digestion and the recycling of older cell organelles. </li></ul><ul><li>They originate (pinch off) from the Golgi Apparatus. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 6. Vacuole <ul><li>A large storage sac </li></ul><ul><li>May occupy more than 50% of volume in plant cells. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to water, may store nutrients and waste materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps maintain pressure in the plant cell – e.g. keeps plant from wilting when full of water… </li></ul>
  9. 9. 7. Mitochondria <ul><li>Double membrane organelle </li></ul><ul><li>Convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use. </li></ul><ul><li>(Cell Respiration) </li></ul><ul><li>Contain small amounts of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Can be hundreds per cell </li></ul><ul><li>Inherit from mom! </li></ul>
  10. 10. 8. Chloroplast <ul><li>A double membrane organelle </li></ul><ul><li>They capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis . </li></ul><ul><li>(solar power plants) </li></ul><ul><li>Light absorbing pigments are found in the chloroplasts. ( chlorophyll ) </li></ul>
  11. 11. 9. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>Support network made of protein. </li></ul><ul><li>Two main types: </li></ul><ul><li>Microfilaments </li></ul><ul><li>Microtubules </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Microfilaments – threadlike structures made of the protein actin . </li></ul><ul><li>They provide a tough yet flexible framework that supports a cell. </li></ul><ul><li>They are constantly dissolved and rebuilt – movement in amoeba </li></ul><ul><li>Microtubules – hollow structures made of tubulin proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>They help the cell maintain its shape. </li></ul><ul><li>Important in cell division – form the mitotic spindle. </li></ul><ul><li>They also help build projections from the cell surface – cilia and flagella. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 10. Centrioles <ul><li>Cylindrical structures formed of microtubules </li></ul><ul><li>Occur in pairs during animal cell division – produce mitotic spindle </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Two main types of eukaryotic cells… </li></ul><ul><li>A plant cell has… </li></ul><ul><li>- a cell wall (made of cellulose) outside of its membrane </li></ul><ul><li>- chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><li>- no centrioles </li></ul><ul><li>- a large vacuole </li></ul><ul><li>- no lysosomes </li></ul><ul><li>An animal cell … </li></ul><ul><li>- will never have a cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>- will never have chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><li>- will always have centrioles </li></ul><ul><li>- will have small vacuoles (if any at all…) </li></ul><ul><li>- has lysosomes </li></ul>

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