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Biological science


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Biological science

  1. 1. Biological Science Introduction
  2. 2. Divisions of Biology <ul><li>Cytology – the study of cells, its parts, function, and composition. </li></ul><ul><li>Histology – the study of group of cells performing a specific or specialized function/s. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Divisions of Biology <ul><li>Anatomy – the physical structure, especially the internal structure, of an organism, or of any of its parts </li></ul><ul><li>Physiology –study of the functions and processes of living things including such functions as metabolism, respiration, and reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Morphology - the study of the form and structure of organisms </li></ul>
  4. 4. Divisions of Biology <ul><li>Genetics – heredity and variation in the genetic material of an org </li></ul><ul><li>Embryology – the study of the growth and development of an org. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Divisions of Biology <ul><li>Paleontology – study of life in prehistoric times by using fossil evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution – study of origin and diversification of org from simple to complex structure. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Divisions of Biology <ul><li>Ecology – : the study of the relationships and interactions between living organisms and their natural or developed environment </li></ul><ul><li>Taxonomy – the science of classifying and naming of org </li></ul><ul><li>Biogeography - study of distribution of plants and animals </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sub Sciences Related to Zoology <ul><li>Carcinology - study of crustaceans </li></ul><ul><li>Conchology - shells </li></ul><ul><li>Entomology – insects </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sub Sciences Related to Zoology <ul><li>Helminthology– worms </li></ul><ul><li>Herpetology – reptiles and amphibians </li></ul><ul><li>Ichthyology - Fish </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sub Sciences Related to Zoology <ul><li>Mammalogy – warm-blooded animals </li></ul><ul><li>Malacology – mollusks </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sub Sciences Related to Zoology <ul><li>Parasitology – org. that depends on a host for survival. </li></ul><ul><li>Protozoology – Unicellular org </li></ul><ul><li>Ornithology - birds </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sub Sciences of Botany <ul><li>Mycology – Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Phycology – algae </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteriology - microorganism </li></ul>
  12. 12. Origin of Life <ul><li>Man has always been curious to find answers to the mysteries posed by the reality he lives in. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the deepest and most profound is the one that in itself searches for the answer to how he came to be, to how his world originated, to how and when he and all living beings emerged from the nature they live in. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Theories About the Origin of Life <ul><li>1. Divine Creation Theory – The first form of life was created by a SUPER NATURAL BEING called GOD. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Theories About the Origin of Life <ul><li>2. Spontaneous Generation Theory – held that living organisms are generated by decaying organic substances, </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. that mice spontaneously appear in stored grain or maggots spontaneously appear in meat. </li></ul><ul><li>That plant lice arise from the dew which falls on plants, </li></ul><ul><li>that fleas are developed from putrid matter, </li></ul><ul><li>that mice come from dirty hay, and so forth </li></ul>
  15. 15. The theory was refuted by the following scientist: <ul><li>1. Francesco Redi , </li></ul><ul><li>2. Lazzaro Spallanzani , </li></ul><ul><li>3. Louis Pasteur </li></ul>
  16. 16. Theories About the Origin of Life
  17. 17. Pasteur
  18. 18. Theories About the Origin of Life <ul><li>3. Marine Life Theory – the first form of life originated from the sea. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Theories About the Origin of Life <ul><li>4 . Cosmozoic = Interplanetary = known also as Panspermia is a hypothesis that the seeds of life are prevalent throughout the Universe, and furthermore that life on earth began by such seeds landing on Earth and propagating. </li></ul><ul><li>Panspermia can be said to be either interstellar or interplanetary. </li></ul><ul><li>There is as yet no compelling evidence to support or contradict it, although the consensus view holds that panspermia - especially in its interstellar form - is unlikely given the challenges of survival and transport in space. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Theories About the Origin of Life <ul><li>Hoyle became a staunch critic of hypotheses of Chemical Evolution to explain the naturalistic origin of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Panspermia , per se , is not actually in conflict with the idea of abiogenesis, though Hoyle's interpretation of panspermia does conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, Panspermia simply moves the origin of life elsewhere in the universe. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Theories About the Origin of Life <ul><li>5. Physico-Chemical Theory = Oparin’s Theory – life came from a series of chemical reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Aleksander Oparin and JBS Haldane who in the 1920’s postulated that life formed as a result of &quot;chemical evolution,&quot; where natural reactions between the chemicals present on the early earth eventually formed life. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Oparin’s Theory Formation of the Galaxy Formation of the Solar System Formation of the Earth Formation of atmosphere & Prebiotic Synthesis Polymerization Chemical Origins of Life (“Pre-RNA” World) RNA World DNA / Protein World Bacteria, Invertebrates, Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, Mammals, Primates, Human Big Bang
  23. 23. Chemical Reaction Series H 0 H H C N 0 C + + + + CH 4 H 2 O CO 2 NH 3 C 6 H 12 O 6 Amino Acid Carbohydrates Protein PLANTS ANIMALS
  24. 24. Differentiate Living from Non Living Things <ul><li>1. Metabolism – The vital life processes which includes all the changes that the materials taken as food undergoes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The two Phases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Anabolism – constructive phase, building up phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Assimilation of food, photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 + H 2 O + Sunlight ---  C 6 H 12 O 6 + energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Catabolism – Destructive phase, breaking down phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Digestion, respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 -  CO 2 + H 2 O </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Differentiate Living from Non Living Things <ul><li>2. Reproduction – the ability of organism to create another organism of the same kind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinds of Reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Sexual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Asexual </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Differentiate Living from Non Living Things <ul><li>3. Growth – any increase in size </li></ul><ul><li>Accretion – external growth </li></ul><ul><li>Intussusceptions – internal growth </li></ul><ul><li>4 . Form and Size – </li></ul><ul><li>Shape and structure </li></ul><ul><li>LT - definite </li></ul><ul><li>NLT – vary </li></ul>
  27. 27. Differentiate Living from Non Living Things <ul><li>5. Organization – arrangement of materials </li></ul>Cell Tissues Organs System Atoms Molecules/Compounds Mixture/Complex Molecules
  28. 28. Differentiate Living from Non Living Things <ul><li>6. Chemical Composition – what matter is made of </li></ul><ul><li>LT – organic compounds </li></ul><ul><li> - oil, fats, sugar. Carbohydrates, Nucleic acids, protein </li></ul><ul><li>NLT – inorganic compounds </li></ul><ul><li> - Acid, base, salt, metals, water </li></ul>
  29. 29. Differentiate Living from Non Living Things <ul><li>7. Irritability </li></ul><ul><li>– ability of organisms to react to changes in the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>– anything that will cause an organism to react/respond </li></ul><ul><li>Tropism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– plants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taxis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kinds of Irritability </li></ul><ul><li>Phototropism </li></ul><ul><li>Thermotropism </li></ul><ul><li>Thigmotropism </li></ul><ul><li>Geotropism </li></ul>
  30. 30. Phototropism
  31. 31. Thermotaxis
  32. 32. Differentiate Living from Non Living Things <ul><li>8. Life Span </li></ul><ul><li>– period of existence </li></ul><ul><li>LT- Definite </li></ul><ul><li>NLT - </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li> </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Cosmic evolution — the origin of time, space and matter (essentially referring to the Big Bang ). </li></ul><ul><li>Stellar and planetary evolution — Origin of stars and planets. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical evolution — the origin of higher elements from hydrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>Organic evolution — Origin of life from inanimate matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Macroevolution — Origin of major 'kinds' (for a creationist treatment see Created kinds ). </li></ul><ul><li>Microevolution — Variations within 'kinds'. </li></ul><ul><li>The first four of the above definitions are taken from disparate fields of science, including cosmology , astronomy , geology , and chemistry , and have little to do with the more restrictive definition of biological evolution as per the modern synthesis . Biologists who have responded to creationist criticism dispute that there is any meaningful difference between the last two types, noting that microevolution over a longer span of time is macroevolution. Many creationists currently accept the sixth aspect as being fact (microevolution is defined by them as the creation of new breeds of dog or the divergence of the human races) but tend to reject some or all of the rest. </li></ul>