Animal cells are eukaryotic cells, or cells with amembrane-bound nucleus. Unlike prokaryoticcells, DNA in animal cells is housed within the nucleus.In addition to having a nucleus, animal cells alsocontain other membrane-bound organelles, or tinycellular structures, that carry out specific functionsnecessary for normal cellular operation. Organelleshave a wide range of responsibilities that includeeverything from producing hormones and enzymesto providing energy for animal cells.
Cell Membrane The cell membrane is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment. The cell membrane is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells. It basically protects the cell from outside forces. It consists of the lipid bilayer with embedded proteins.
Fungi, bacteria and plants also have the cell wall which provides a mechanical support for the cell and precludes the passage of larger molecules. The cell membrane also plays a role in anchoring the cytoskeleton to provide shape to the cell, and in attaching to the extracellular matrix and other cells to help group cells together to form tissues.
Cytoplasm The cytoplasm is the gel-like substance residing between the cell membrane holding all the cells internal sub-structures (organelles), except for the nucleus. All the contents of the cells of prokaryote organisms are contained within the cytoplasm. It is within the cytoplasm that most cellular activities occur, such as many metabolic pathways including glycolysis, and processes such as cell division.
The main function of the cytoplasm is to hold the cell organelles of the cell. Cell organelles are basically components of the cell which control all the activities of the cell. For example, mitochondria are cell organelles which control almost all of the cells metabolic activities.
NecleusIn cell biology, the nucleus is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. It contains most of the cells genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes.
The main function of the cell nucleus is to control gene expression and mediate the replication of DNA during the cell cycle. The nucleus provides a site for genetic transcription that is segregated from the location of translation in the cytoplasm, allowing levels of gene regulation that are not available to prokaryotes.
ENDOPLASMICRETICULUMThe endoplasmic reticulum (ER) isan organelle of cells in eukaryotic organisms that formsan interconnected network oftubules, vesicles, and cisternae. The general structureof an endoplasmic reticulum is a membranousnetwork of cisternae (sac-like structures) heldtogether by the cytoskeleton. The endoplasmicreticulum serves many general functions, includingthe facilitation of protein folding and the transport ofsynthesized proteins in sacs called cisternae.
Golgi Apparatus The Golgi apparatus, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. It was identified in 1898 by the Italian physician Camillo Golgi and named after him. Part of the cellular endomembrane system, the Golgi apparatus packages proteins inside the cell before they are sent to their destination; it is particularly important in the processing of proteins for secretion. It synthesise a large number of different macromolecules.
The Golgi apparatus is integral in modifying, sorting, and packaging these macromolecules for cell secretion or use within the cell. It primarily modifies proteins delivered from the rough endoplasmic reticulum but is also involved in the transport of lipids around the cell, and the creation of lysosomes. In this respect it can be thought of as similar to a post office; it packages and labels items which it then sends to different parts of the cell.
Lysosome Lysosomes are cellular organelles that contain acid hydrolase enzymes to break down waste materials and cellular debris. They can be described as the stomach of the cell. They are found in animal cells, while their existence in yeasts and plants are disputed.
Lysosomes function as the digestive system of the cell, serving both to degrade material taken up from outside the cell and to digest obsolete components of the cell itself. In their simplest form, lysosomes are visualized as dense spherical vacuoles, but they can display considerable variation in size and shape as a result of differences in the materials that have been taken up for digestion .
Mitochondria In cell biology, a mitochondrion is a membrane- enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. These organelles range from 0.5 to 1.0 micrometre in diameter. The most prominent roles of mitochondria are to produce the energy currency of the cell ATP , through respiration, and to regulate cellular metabolism. The central set of reactions involved in ATP production are collectively known as the citric acid cycle, or the Krebs Cycle. However, the mitochondrion has many other functions in addition to the production of ATP.
• A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells. Vacuoles are essentially enclosed compartments which are filled with water containing inorganic and organic molecules including enzymes in solution, though in certain cases they may contain solids which have been engulfed.Vacuole
• Some Vacuole functions are as follows: 1) Removing unwanted structural debris 2) Isolating materials that might be harmful to the cell 3) Containment of waste products 4) Maintaining internal hydrostatic pressure or turgor within the cell 5) Maintaining an acidic internal pH 6) Containing small molecules 7)Exporting unwanted substances from the cell. 8)Enabling the cell to change shape.
Animal Cell Plant CellNucleus: Present PresentCilia: Present It is very rareShape: Round (irregular shape) Rectangular(fixed shape)Chloroplast: Animal cells dont have Plant cells have chloroplasts chloroplasts because they make their own foodCytoplasm: Present PresentEndoplasmic Reticulum Present Present(Smooth and Rough):Ribosomes: Present PresentMitochondria: Present Present
Animal Cell Plant CellGolgi Apparatus: Present PresentCell wall: Absent PresentPlasma Membrane: only cell membrane cell wall and a cell membraneMicrotubules/ Present PresentMicrofilaments:Flagella: May be found in some May be found in some cells cellsLysosomes: Lysosomes occur in cytoplasm.Vacuole: One or more small One, large central vacuole vacuoles (much smaller taking up 90% of cell than plant cells). volume.Centrioles: Present in all animal cells Only present in lower plant forms.Plastids: Absent Present