Better utilization of the backward areas linking with the advanced areas For rapid industrialization & urbanization For removing the scarcity of goods Easy movement people and bringing them in contact with
The nation has just 13 million cars on its roads which is just over 1% of the country’s population.In addition only 10% of the Indian households own a motorcycle.In India, public transport still remains the primary mode of transport.Indian railways is the largest and fourth most heavily utilized system in the world.
WalkingPalanquinBullock carts and horse carriagesBicyclesHand-pulled rickshawsCycle rickshaws
Modern transportation…These are the major means of transportation now a days: Railways Road ways Air ways Water ways
RailwaysIndian Railways is one of the largest railways under single management.It carries some 18 million passengers and 2 million tons of freight a day and is one of the world’s largest employer.The railways play a leading role in carrying passengers and cargo across Indias vast territory.
The trains were introduced by the British in 1853.The Indian railways improved a lot from then on to become the one of the longest railway networks in the world.There are 16 railway zones in India.There are almost 8000 railway stations in the country.
Zonal Railways HeadquartersCentral Railway Mumbai CSTEastern Railway KolkataNorthern Railway New DelhiNorth Eastern Railway GorakhpurNorth-East Frontier Railway Maligaon (Guwahati)Southern Railway ChennaiSouth Central Railway SecunderabadSouth Eastern Railway KolkataWestern Railway Church Gate, MumbaiEast Central Railway HajipurEast Coast Railway BhubaneswarNorth Central Railway AllahabadNorth Western Railway JaipurSouth East Central Railway BilaspurSouth Western Railway HubliWest Central Railway Jabalpur
The total route length of the railway network is 64,061 km (39,806 mi).About 46% of the railway route is electrified.The Indian railways uses 4 gauges: broad gauge, standard gauge, meter gauge, narrow gauge.
Notable trains and achievements…There are two UNESCO World Heritage Sites on IR — the Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus and the Mountain railways of India.The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, a narrow gauge railway in West Bengal.The Nilgiri Mountain Railway, a meter gauge railway in the Nilgiri Hills in Tamil Nadu.The Kalka-Shimla Railway, a narrow gauge railway in the Shivalik mountains in Himachal Pradesh
Road transport…Roads are the dominant mode of transportation in India today.They carry almost 90 percent of the country’s passenger traffic and 65 percent of its freight.
National highways0 The main roads constructed & maintained by the central government0 It connects ports, state capitals, industrial and tourist centres0 It span about 67,000 km & handle 40% of total road traffic0 National lanes have :0 1.single lanes (width 3.25 m)0 2. multi lanes (each have width 3.5 m)0 3. 14% have 4 or more lanes & 59% have 2 lanes or double lanes0 4.rest 27% single laned
NHAI(National Highway Authority of India)0 It was constituted in 19880 It is responsible for the development , maintenance and management of National Highways0 It is currently undertaking developmental activities under (National Highways Development Project)
Golden quadrilateral 0 It interconnects many cities & ports 0 It give an impetus(importance) to0 It is the largest express truck transport throughout in India highway project in India 0 It helps in the industrial growth of small towns 0 It helps in the transport of agricultural produce from the hinterland to major cities and ports for export0 It consists of building 5,846km of 4 & 6 lane expressways connecting Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata & 0 The often uncharted areas beyond a coastal district or a rivers banks. Chennai 0 An area surrounding a town or port and served by it.
Statistics…. Type of Road Length Expressways 200 km (120 mi) National Highways 66,590 km (41,380 mi) State Highways 131,899 km (81,958 mi)Major District Roads 467,763 km (290,654 mi)Rural and Other Roads 2,650,000 km (1,650,000 mi) 3,300,000 km (2,050,000 mi) Total Length (Approx)
An expressway is a controlled-accesshighway; it is a highway that controlsentrances to it and exits from it byincorporating the design of the sliproads for entry and exit into the designof the highway itself. Access-controlshould not be confused with collectionof toll. An expressway may be free touse and may not collect toll at all.Expressways are the highest class ofroads in the Indian Road Network.These are six or eight lane highwayswith controlled-access. India hasapproximately 942 km expressways.
National Highway system of Indiaconsists of approximately10,000 km (6,200 mi) of four-laned highways that collect tollfrom users but do not havecontrol of access and cannot becalled expressways. Currently,a massive project is underway toexpand the highway network andthe Government of India plans toadd an additional 18,637 km(11,580 mi) of expressways to thenetwork by the year 2022.[
•Under construction Expressway Name Distance State 1 Western Freeway 25.33 km (15.74 mi) Maharashtra Mumbai 2 Eastern Freeway 22 km (14 mi) Maharashtra Mumbai 3 Mumbai Nashik 150 km (93 mi) Maharashtra Expressway Kundli 4 ManesarPalwal 135.6 km (84.3 mi) Haryana Expressway(KMP) Delhi Eastern Uttar 5 Peripheral 135 km (84 mi) Pradesh/Haryana Expressway 6 Pathankot Ajmer 600 km (370 mi) Punjab/Rajasthan Expressway 7 Ganga Expressway 1,000 km (620 mi) Uttar Pradesh
Distance StateExpressway Name Ahmedabad Vadodara 1 95 km (59 mi) Gujarat Expressway 2 Mumbai-Pune Expressway 93 km (58 mi) Maharashtra 3 Jaipur-Kishangarh Expressway 90 km (56 mi) Rajastan 4 Allahabad Bypass 86 km (53 mi) Uttar Pradesh 5 Durgapur Expressway 65 km (40 mi) West Bengal 6 Chennai Bypass 32 km (20 mi) Tamil Nadu 7 Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway 28 km (17 mi) Delhi/Haryana 8 Noida-Greater Noida Expressway 24.53 km (15.24 mi) Delhi/Uttar Pradesh 9 Delhi Noida Direct Flyway 9.2 km (5.7 mi) Delhi/Uttar Pradesh 10 Hyderabad Elevated Expressways 11.6 km (7.2 mi) Andhra Pradesh 11 Hosur Road Elevated Expressway 9.985 km (6.204 mi) Karnataka 12 Kona Expressway 8 km (4.97 mi) West Bengal 13 Outer Ring Road (Hyderabad) 158 km (98 mi) Andhra Pradesh 14 Raipur-Bhilai-Durg Expressway 26 km (16 mi) Chhattisgarh 15 Yamuna Expressway 165 km (103 mi) Uttar Pradesh Bangalore–Mysore Infrastructure 16 41 km (25 mi) Karnataka Corridor
National Highway classification LengthLanes Percentage (km)Single Lane / 18,350 27%Intermediate laneDouble lane 39,079 59%Four Lane/Six lane/Eight 9,325 14%LaneTotal 66,754 100%
CAN BE CONSTRUCTED EVEN IN AREAS OF DIFFICULT TERRAINOFFER DOOR TO DOOR SERVICESHELP FARMERS TO MOVE THEIR PERISHABLE GOODSCHANCE OF PILFERAGE ARE LESSER THAN IN RAILWAYS
Many roads are un surfaced not suitable for regular vehicular trafficNo proper maintenanceMultiple check post , toll tax which bring down the speed of trafficMany roads have inadequate capacityTraffic on the roads of India is too high
Air transportation… Air transport in India started between Allahabad & Naini (township in Allahabad) in 1911 Airport authority of India was established on April 1, 1995 The Air India, has become the 16th largest airline in asia, presently operates a fleet of 159 aircraft serves= 50 domestic & 39 international routes The other airlines such as Kingfisher Airlines, Air India and Jet Airways are the most popular brands in domestic air travel in order of their market share.
These airlines connect more than 80 cities across India and also operate overseas routes after the liberalization of Indian aviation. The rapid growth in the economy of India has made air travel more affordable now a days. There are more than 335 civilian airports in India - 250 with paved runways and 96 with unpaved runways and more than 20 international airports in the Republic of India.
The market share of different airlines in India…
Advantages: It is the fastest mode of transport...It is very useful in transporting goods and passengers to the area, which are not accessible by any other means. It is the most convenient mode of transport during natural calamities. It provides vital support to the national security and defence
0 Disadvantages:0 ..It is relatively more expensive mode of transport. ..It is not suitable for transporting heavy and bulky goods. .. It is affected by adverse weather conditions. ..It is not suitable for short distance travel. ..In case of accidents, it results in heavy losses of goods, property and life.
Types of water transport….Inland water transport: include rivers, canals , backwaters & creek (a small stream · Creek (tidal), an inlet of the sea) that allows ships & boats to navigateIndia hasNavigable waterways :around 14,500 kmNavigable by mechanized flat bottom vessels ….rivers ….canals
IWAI Inland waterways authority of India is theauthority in charge of the inland waterways 0Cargo transportation is organised GOA KERALA WEST BENGAL ASSAM