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Building Codes and Zoning
 

Building Codes and Zoning

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Presentation by Greg Spiess, Architect, Architecture and Urban Design.

Presentation by Greg Spiess, Architect, Architecture and Urban Design.

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    Building Codes and Zoning Building Codes and Zoning Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • RHODE ISLAND EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY FLOOD MANAGEMENT May 31, 2011 Greg Spiess AIA LEED AP HURRICANES AND THE BUILDING CODES ANNUAL HURRICANE CONFERENCE
    • Get ready! The weather’s getting wild
    • OUTLINE
      • A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO CODES
      • HURRICANE DAMAGE PREVENTION CODES:
        • SITE ISSUES
        • FOUNDATION
        • FLOORS
        • WALLS AND OPENINGS
        • ROOFS AND UPLIFT
        • STANDARDS, CERTIFICATIONS & TRENDS
          • COMMERCIAL STANDARDS
          • PRODUCT STANDARDS
          • ASCE-24-05
    • History of codes
      • There are two basic types of codes:
      • 1. Planning and Zoning Codes
      • 2. Building Codes
      • They both came about in response to negative impacts occurring in the environment or the marketplace:
      • 1. Undesirable land use adjacencies lead to Planning and Zoning Codes
          • As urban land encroaches on rural
          • As Industrial Uses and Commercial abut Residential
      • 2. Undesirable building failures has lead to Building Codes
          • Protection of occupants from shoddy workmanship and subsequent unhealthy living conditions
      • Loss of life and property become perilous to national welfare
    • RISK AVERSION
      • Insurance company losses have led to the development of such building codes and national standards.
      • Loss of life and property become perilous to national welfare
          • Lowering of Loss prevention has reduced risks in construction and lower interest rates and stimulated more safer buildings
          • FM Global (Rhode Island Roots!) has produced industry standards and ongoing research to prevent loss and raise buildng d standards.
      • protection of the innocent
      • public safety and welfare
    • Code history is being continuously rewritten as we experience natural and manmade disasters
      • With every major disaster there will arise demands for improved codes and better enforcement of them:
      • The Station Night Club Disaster
      • has generated a new fire code for assemblies and gathering spaces
      • Hurricane Katrina will likely spur on more stringent enforcement of construction inspection in rural areas and items like the strength of garage doors may be reconsidered as forensics show the failures of these allowed buildings to become vulnerable to uplift pressures.
      • Earthquakes in California and elsewhere are continuing to develop the structural codes for lateral bracing and shear walls.
      • Coordination of local or geographical codes is also becoming an issue leading to a unified International Building Code (IBC)
    • How do they work
      • Most codes are prescriptive
          • They tell you (prescribe) what you must do at a minimum.
          • For example :
              • Minimum setbacks for house placement on a lot (Zoning Code)
              • Use of panic hardware at exits for over 50 persons (Building Code)
    • However, the trend in theory and practice is towards Performance Based Codes
      • Discretionary Planning approvals in land use:
          • Special Permits approved by public boards
          • Overlay districts (historical, transit based development, view and hillside protection.
          • Discretionary Planning approvals in land use
          • on a case by case basis, not “as of right”
      • Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
          • Provides guidelines for achieving ratings of environmental impact reduction
    • Local governments adopt their own mix of standard “model” codes and often add their own local amendments to meet local needs or politics This is usually statewide but often major cities add their own adopted local statues as well (the ARCHITECT/BUILDER must be vigilant to find out all local laws governing the project)
    •  
    • Local codes respond to local concerns but also need to be compatible with national standards to allow uniformity of design standards, building products, design education and reciprocity of architects and design professionals to work in various locations
    • events influence state or even national codes
    • COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS HURRICANE DAMAGE
    • HURRICANE FRANCES 2004 PALM BEACH GARDENS FLA
    • HURRICANE FRANCES 2004 PALM BEACH GARDENS FLA
    • Find us Here www.ribcc.ri.gov
    • Rhode Island Building Code Commission Family of Codes One Capitol Hill Providence RI 02908-5859
    • Latest and Greatest New Code Cycle
    • Climate Zone 5 for all RI
    • Climate Zone 5 (Only)
    •  
    • WIND ZONES
    • WINDS OVER 110 MPH
    • OVERLAY MAPS OF COMMUNITIES FIRM s: F lood I nsurance R ate M aps
    • Zoning and the V zone
    • Site issues
      • Section R106.1.3
      • Construction docs to indicate
      • Floodway boundaries a & design flood elevation
      • Elevation of lowest floor (incl. basement)
      • Elevation of lowest structural member
      • May refer to community’s Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) to establish these limits
    • Chapter 3 Building Planning
      • Design criteria
      • Alternates to prescribed:
        • WFCM
        • AISI cold rolled steel framing
        • ICC400 Log structures
    • Table R301.2
    • ICC SBC ONE & TWO FAMILY DWELLINGS
    • ICC SBC ONE & TWO FAMILY DWELLINGS
    • ICC SBC ONE & TWO FAMILY DWELLINGS
    • ICC SBC ONE & TWO FAMILY DWELLINGS
    • SOURCES OF HURRICANE DESIGN GUIDES
      • IBC -International Building Code
        • RISBC-Rhode Island State Building Code
      • WFCM –Wood Frame Construction Manual in High Wind Areas for One & Two Family Dwellings
      • ASCE -American Society of Civil Engineers
        • ASCE 24-05 (V Zone focused)
    •  
    • General provisions
    • WFCM Building Height & shape
    • WFCM Building Height & Shape
    • WFCM Building Height & Shape- ASPECT RATIOS
    • WFCM - FOUNDATIONS
    • WFCM - FOUNDATIONS
    • WFCM - FOUNDATIONS
    • WFCM - FLOORS
    • WFCM - FLOORS
    • WFCM - FLOORS
    • WFCM - WALLS
    • WFCM - WALLS
    • WFCM - WALLS
    • WFCM - WALLS
    • WFCM – ENDWALLS
    • WFCM – WALLS OPENINGS
    • WFCM – WALLS HOLD DOWNS
    • WFCM - ROOFS
    • WFCM – ROOF RIDGE STRAPS
    • ROOF SKETCH BY BUILDING OFFICIAL TO ASSIST NEW BUILDERS IN THE HIGH WIND ZONE
    • Shear wall fasteners
    • Roof fasteners
    • Roof ties and straps
    • PRESCRIBED VS PERFORMANCE :
      • -ROOFING
        • ROOF OVERHANGS
          • -2’-0” MAX UNLESS ENGINEERED
        • WINDOWS - WINDBORN DEBRIS RESISTANT IN V ZONE
        • -GARAGE DOORS - (9’-8” WIDE UNLESS ENGINEERED
    • ASCE 24-05
      • ASCE ISA REFERENCED STANDARD IN THE IBC (ICC) AND IRC (International residential Code, SBC)
        • For homes in floodways and V zones
        • www.asce.org online
    • ASCE 24-05
      • Building Performance :
        • Design to not impede flood waters
          • Automatic entry & exit of flood waters by non-engineered openings (1 sq. in. per 1 sq ft of floor area) (see “ smart vents ”) No certification needed
          • Engineered openings which must be certified by registered Design Professional
    • Water Vents
    •  
    • Hurricane shutters are still with us
    •  
    • Grandfathered Existing Buildings in the v zone the 50% rule
      • Section 105.3.1.1 Determination of substantially improved or substantially damaged existing buildings, in flood hazard areas: if Value of proposed work (code related-not finishes and fixtures) equals or exceeds 50% the value of the structure-it must comply with new code
    • Understanding Risk leads to Good Design
    • Know what is appropriate to the SITUATION
    • Use Design Professionals
    • Prevention Eases Recovery