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Disaster relief


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Disaster Relief

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Disaster relief

  1. 1. Disaster A disaster is an occurrence disrupting the normal conditions of existence and causing a level of suffering that exceeds the capacity of adjustment of the affected community.
  2. 2. It is the people who matter most, and without the people we have no disaster
  3. 3. The United Nations defines a disaster as a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society. Disasters involve widespread human, material, economic or environmental impacts, which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.
  4. 4. The Red Cross and Red Crescent societies define disaster management as the organization and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters.
  5. 5.  Natural disasters: including floods, hurricanes, earthquakes and volcano eruptions that have immediate impacts on human health and secondary impacts causing further death and suffering from (for example) floods, landslides, fires, tsunamis.  Environmental emergencies: including technological or industrial accidents, usually involving the production, use or transportation of hazardous material, and occur where these materials are produced, used or transported, and forest fires caused by humans. Types of disasters
  6. 6.  Complex emergencies: involving a break-down of authority, looting and attacks on strategic installations, including conflict situations and war.  Pandemic emergencies: involving a sudden onset of contagious disease that affects health, disrupts services and businesses, brings economic and social costs. Types of disasters
  7. 7. These are activities designed to provide permanent protection from disasters. Not all disasters, particularly natural disasters, can be prevented, but the risk of loss of life and injury can be mitigated with good evacuation plans, environmental planning and design standards. In January 2005, 168 Governments adopted a 10-year global plan for natural disaster risk reduction called the Hyogo Framework. It offers guiding principles, priorities for action, and practical means for achieving disaster resilience for vulnerable communities. Disaster prevention
  8. 8. These activities are designed to minimize loss of life and damage – for example by removing people and property from a threatened location and by facilitating timely and effective rescue, relief and rehabilitation. Preparedness is the main way of reducing the impact of disasters. Community-based preparedness and management should be a high priority in physical therapy practice management Disaster preparedness
  9. 9. This is a coordinated multi-agency response to reduce the impact of a disaster and its long-term results. Relief activities include rescue, relocation, providing food and water, preventing disease and disability, repairing vital services such as telecommunications and transport, providing temporary shelter and emergency health care. Disaster relief
  10. 10. Once emergency needs have been met and the initial crisis is over, the people affected and the communities that support them are still vulnerable. Recovery activities include rebuilding infrastructure, health care and rehabilitation. These should blend with development activities, such as building human resources for health and developing policies and practices to avoid similar situations in future. Disaster recovery
  11. 11. THE DISASTER –DEVELOPMENT CONTINUUM Disaster prevention, mitigation & preparedness safeguard development. Good response facilitates recovery and development. Africa’s hazards and vulnerabilities have been the targets of 30 years of development: their persistence testifies to as many failures. Today, ever-increasing resources are spent for disaster relief, at the expense of development
  12. 12. EMERGENCY a state in which normal procedures are suspended and extra-ordinary measures are taken in order to avert a disaster
  13. 13. AIMS OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT reduce (avoid, if possible) the potential losses from hazards assure prompt and appropriate assistance to victims when necessary achieve rapid and durable recovery
  15. 15. PREPAREDNESS the measures that ensure the organized mobilization of personnel, funds, equipment and supplies within a safe environment for effective relief
  16. 16. RESPONSE the set of activities implemented after the impact of a disaster in order to assess the needs reduce the suffering limit the spread and the consequences of the disaster and open the way to rehabilitation
  17. 17. REHABILITATION: The restoration of basic social functions. RECONSTRUCTION: The full resumption of socio-economic activities plus preventive measures.
  18. 18. ELEMENTS OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT disaster preparedness planning * vulnerability and risk assessment disaster response * disaster assessment rehabilitation & reconstruction disaster mitigation
  19. 19. More than 90 percent of natural disaster-related deaths occur in developing countries, where poverty and lack of resources exacerbate the suffering
  20. 20. Haiti’s Uphill Battle: Developing Countries Struggle with Natural Disasters The earthquake in Haiti devastated the capital Port-au-Prince, killing an estimated 230,000 people and leaving 1.2 million homeless. With much of the country’s population unemployed and homeless, Haiti has not seen the economic growth it was hoping for over recent years or the recovery it urgently needed after the earthquake’s devastation. In fact, more than 300,000 Haitians are still displaced from the earthquake, living in camps around the country.
  21. 21. An aid agency is an organization dedicated to distributing aid-many professional aid organizations exist, both within government between governments as multilateral donors and as private voluntary organizations (or non-governmental organizations. There are many different agencies in Canada and around the world. Aid & Relief Agencies
  22. 22. World Vision Canada  Canadian Red Cross  Adventist Development & Relief Agency  Aga Khan Foundation Canada  Alternatives  Canadian Catholic Organization for Development & Peace Examples of Canadian Agencies supporting Disaster Relief
  23. 23.  Canadian Food grains Bank  Canadian Lutheran World Relief  Care Canada  Christian Children’s Fund of Canada  Doctors without Borders  Global Medic  Oxfam Canada  Plan Internal Canada Agencies cont’d
  24. 24.  Presbyterian World Service & Development  Salvation Army Canada  Save the Children Canada  The United Church of Canada  UNICEF Canada  The Sharing Way-Canadian Baptist Ministries Agencies cont’d
  25. 25.  Jan. 12, 2010. More than 230,000 people were killed when a 7.0-magnitude earthquake struck Haiti.  May 12, 2008. About 70,000 people were killed and 18,000 people were reported missing after a 7.9-magnitude earthquake struck Sichuan, China.  Oct. 8, 2005. At least 80,000 people were killed and three million left homeless after a quake struck the mountainous Kashmir district in Pakistan. The world's worst natural disasters Calamities of the 20th and 21st centuries Posted: May 08, 2008 CBC news
  26. 26.  Dec. 26, 2004. A magnitude 9.0 quake struck off the coast of Sumatra, triggering tsunamis that swept through the coastal regions of a dozen countries bordering the Indian Ocean. The death toll has been estimated at between 225,000 and 275,000.  Dec. 26, 2003. An earthquake devastated the ancient city of Bam, in central Iran, leaving between 31,000 and 43,000 people dead.  July 28, 1976. The 20th century's most devastating quake (magnitude 7.8) hit the sleeping city of Tangshan in northeast China. The official death toll was 242,000. Unofficial estimates put the number as high as 655,000
  27. 27.  May 22, 1927. A magnitude 7.9 quake near Xining, China, killed 200,000  Sept. 1, 1923. A third of Tokyo and most of Yokohama were levelled when a magnitude 8.3 earthquake shook Japan. About 143,000 were killed as fires ravaged much of Tokyo.  Dec. 16, 1920. China was also the site for the world's third-deadliest quake of the 20th century. An estimated 200,000 died when a magnitude 8.6 temblor hit Gansu, triggering massive landslides.  Dec. 28, 1908. Southern Italy was ravaged by a 7.2 magnitude quake that triggered a tsunami that hit the Messina-Reggio-Calabria area, killing 123,000.
  28. 28.  July 15, 1991. Mt. Pinatubo on Luzon Island in the Philippines erupted, blanketing 750 square kilometers with volcanic ash. More than 800 died.  Nov. 13-14, 1985. At least 25,000 are killed near Armero, Colombia, when the Nevado del Ruiz volcano erupted, triggering mudslides.  May 8, 1902. Mt. Pelee erupted on the Caribbean island of Martinique, destroying the capital city of St. Pierre. Up to 40,000 were killed. The day before, a volcano had killed 1,600 people on the nearby island of St. Vincent and five months later Mt. Santa Maria erupted in Guatemala, killing another 6,000. Volcanic eruptions
  29. 29.  July-August 2010. Floods triggered by heavier-than- normal monsoon rains hit northwest Pakistan. By the time the waters began to recede in late August, more than 160,000 square kilometers of land — about one-fifth of the country — was under water. More than 1,700 people were killed and 17.2 million people have been affected.  May 3, 2008. Cyclone Nargis, swept along by winds that exceeded 190 kmh and waves six meters high struck the Burmese peninsula and may have left as many as 100,000 dead, according to U.S. estimates. Hurricanes, cyclones and floods
  30. 30.  Oct. 26-Nov. 4, 1998. Hurricane Mitch was the deadliest hurricane to hit the Americas. It killed 11,000 in Honduras and Nicaragua and left 2.5 million homeless.  Aug. 5, 1975. At least 85,000 were killed along the Yangtze River in China when more than 60 dams failed following a series of storms, causing widespread flooding and famine. This disaster was kept secret by the Chinese government for 20 years.  August 1971. An estimated 100,000 died when heavy rains led to severe flooding around Hanoi in what was then North Vietnam.  Nov. 13, 1970. The Bhola cyclone in the Ganges delta killed an estimated 500,000 in Bangladesh. Some put the complete death toll as high as one million.
  31. 31.  1900 to present. Malaria is one of the leading causes of death in the developing world even though it is curable and largely preventable. According to the World Health Organization, malaria causes severe illness in 500 million people each year and kills more than a million annually.  1984-1985. Famine killed at least one million in Ethiopia as severe drought led to desperate food shortages. Pandemics and famines
  32. 32.  World Health Organization. The SARS outbreak of 2003. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a total of 8,098 people worldwide became sick with SARS during the 2003 outbreak. Of these, 774 died.  The Ebola virus has killed over 1,000 people worldwide, the World Health Organization (WHO) has said.
  33. 33.  1980 to present. Toll from AIDS worldwide since 1980 is estimated at 25 million, with 40 million others infected with HIV.  1968. The Hong Kong flu became the third flu pandemic of the 20th century.  1965-67. Three years of drought in India resulted in an estimated 1.5 million deaths from starvation and disease. Severe Indian droughts also killed millions in 1900 and 1942.
  34. 34.  1959-1961. The "Great Leap Famine" cost an estimated 20 to 40 million lives in China as the policies of Mao Zedong resulted in massive social and economic upheaval. China was also hit by large famines in 1907, 1928-1930, 1936 and 1941-1942.  1957-1958. The Asian flu swept around the world, killing an estimated two million and making it the second biggest flu pandemic of the century.