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The companion PowerPoint presentation for Chapter Eight (Agency Systems) for the book Police Technology.

The companion PowerPoint presentation for Chapter Eight (Agency Systems) for the book Police Technology.

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  • 1. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Chapter EightChapter Eight Agency SystemsAgency Systems
  • 2. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives  The reasons good record keeping isThe reasons good record keeping is critical to law enforcementcritical to law enforcement  Operator security (right to know and needOperator security (right to know and need to know).to know).  Purpose ofPurpose of Record Management SystemsRecord Management Systems (RMS), Jail Management Systems (JMS)(RMS), Jail Management Systems (JMS) andand Evidence Management SystemsEvidence Management Systems (EMS)(EMS)
  • 3. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives  Impact ofImpact of Freedom of Information ActFreedom of Information Act (FOIA)(FOIA) on police recordson police records
  • 4. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Police RecordsPolice Records Information retainedInformation retained By police agenciesBy police agencies runs the spectrumruns the spectrum from crime reports tofrom crime reports to Personnel records.Personnel records. Information needs toInformation needs to be:be:  Readily availableReadily available  Kept for a longKept for a long timetime  Held confidentiallyHeld confidentially
  • 5. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Record Keeping SystemsRecord Keeping Systems  Police agenciesPolice agencies create a lot of paper –create a lot of paper – automated recordautomated record keeping systems arekeeping systems are a combination ofa combination of hardware, software,hardware, software, policy and procedurepolicy and procedure
  • 6. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo  First tierFirst tier manufacturers are large companies.manufacturers are large companies. They are set up to product quality custom-They are set up to product quality custom- designed software and hardwaredesigned software and hardware configurations.configurations.  Second tierSecond tier manufacturers may be largemanufacturers may be large companies, but the products are off-the-companies, but the products are off-the- shelf, not custom-designed.shelf, not custom-designed. Record Keeping SystemsRecord Keeping Systems
  • 7. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo The result is:The result is:  Many of these systems are incompatibleMany of these systems are incompatible  Smaller agencies do not gain the expertiseSmaller agencies do not gain the expertise that the larger agencies havethat the larger agencies have  FragmentationFragmentation and its resulting effectsand its resulting effects continues to growcontinues to grow Record Keeping SystemsRecord Keeping Systems
  • 8. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Criminal Justice vs. Police RecordsCriminal Justice vs. Police Records IncludesIncludes everyevery piecepiece of info gathered inof info gathered in and used by theand used by the criminal justicecriminal justice system.system. A fully integrated policeA fully integrated police records managementrecords management system is going to havesystem is going to have access to all of theaccess to all of the other recordsother records maintained by differentmaintained by different criminal justicecriminal justice organizations.organizations.
  • 9. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Local Agency Prison RecordsCourt Records Probation Records A few of the sources of informationA few of the sources of information Police Officer Other Agencies Vehicle Records NCIC Commercial Records
  • 10. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Local Agency Prison RecordsCourt Records Probation Records Both Input and OutputBoth Input and Output Police Officer Other Agencies Vehicle Records NCIC Commercial Records
  • 11. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Information Security and AccuracyInformation Security and Accuracy In law enforcement, when information isIn law enforcement, when information is compromised, authorized users primarilycompromised, authorized users primarily do itdo it intentionallyintentionally.. In other words, most security breaches are as a result of intentional acts, not hackers, etc.
  • 12. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Information Security and AccuracyInformation Security and Accuracy  Law enforcement personnel also have generalLaw enforcement personnel also have general access to a wide variety of information aboutaccess to a wide variety of information about the average person that isthe average person that is confidential andconfidential and protected by lawprotected by law..  Generally, information available to lawGenerally, information available to law enforcement users is considered privilegedenforcement users is considered privileged information (for official use only)information (for official use only)
  • 13. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Right to know vs. Need to knowRight to know vs. Need to know Derived from theDerived from the officer’sofficer’s occupation.occupation. PolicePolice officers have aofficers have a right to knowright to know certain privilegedcertain privileged information.information. Derived from theDerived from the situationsituation. Does the. Does the officer need toofficer need to know thisknow this information in orderinformation in order to further his/herto further his/her criminalcriminal investigation?investigation?
  • 14. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo  Training people to realize theirTraining people to realize their ethicalethical responsibilitiesresponsibilities with confidentialwith confidential information.information.  Having clear rules and regulationsHaving clear rules and regulations concerning the field use of equipmentconcerning the field use of equipment  Using passwordsUsing passwords  Data logsData logs  Different levels of accessDifferent levels of access  AuthenticationAuthentication First layer of protection . . .First layer of protection . . .
  • 15. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Privacy IssuesPrivacy Issues For example, the names of victimsFor example, the names of victims sexual assault.sexual assault. Failure to protectFailure to protect thethe victims’ privacy can result invictims’ privacy can result in civilcivil litigation.litigation.
  • 16. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo For Law Enforcement Agencies:For Law Enforcement Agencies:  Information about someone can beInformation about someone can be considered their personal propertyconsidered their personal property  Victims trust the agency will not reveal theVictims trust the agency will not reveal the informationinformation  If the information is reveals, it could causeIf the information is reveals, it could cause the person to suffer (e.g., defamation)the person to suffer (e.g., defamation)  Using a person’s likeness (photo) raisesUsing a person’s likeness (photo) raises issues of ownershipissues of ownership
  • 17. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo  The times in which law enforcementThe times in which law enforcement agencies are prevented from interceptingagencies are prevented from intercepting communications by private citizenscommunications by private citizens  Fulfill a citizen’s demand to know whatFulfill a citizen’s demand to know what information the government has obtainedinformation the government has obtained [Freedom of Information Act FOIA)][Freedom of Information Act FOIA)]  Government take affirmative acts to informGovernment take affirmative acts to inform people of information.people of information. To Balance Public ConfidenceTo Balance Public Confidence
  • 18. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Turning Data into InformationTurning Data into Information IndexingIndexing  Master file withMaster file with cross-referencedcross-referenced numbersnumbers  Now done withNow done with databases.databases.  Evolved into. . .Evolved into. . . Relational databasesRelational databases  Foundation ofFoundation of RecordsRecords ManagementManagement Systems (RMSSystems (RMS))  Can be link toCan be link to external sources ofexternal sources of informationinformation
  • 19. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Record Management SystemRecord Management System  Several smaller systems (likeSeveral smaller systems (like CAD and GIS)CAD and GIS)  That exchange information withThat exchange information with a master servera master server  You may only ask questions of aYou may only ask questions of a specific database within anspecific database within an agencyagency
  • 20. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Jail Management SystemJail Management System  InformationInformation containing:containing:  Inmates statusInmates status  PhotographsPhotographs  FingerprintsFingerprints  VisitationsVisitations  Special needsSpecial needs  Medical informationMedical information  Security information –Security information – like gang affiliationlike gang affiliation Screen capture provided by Crimestar, Inc.
  • 21. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Evidence Management SystemsEvidence Management Systems  Documents chain ofDocuments chain of custodycustody  Assists in orderlyAssists in orderly transfer of evidencetransfer of evidence to labs and courtsto labs and courts  Assists in the properAssists in the proper storage of evidencestorage of evidence Screen capture provided by Crimestar, Inc.
  • 22. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Case Management SystemsCase Management Systems  Assists detectivesAssists detectives and detectiveand detective supervisors in thesupervisors in the assignment of casesassignment of cases and coordinatingand coordinating investigationsinvestigations Screen capture provided by Crimestar, Inc.
  • 23. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Many different uses of police dataMany different uses of police data Screen captures provided by Crimestar, Inc.
  • 24. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Many different uses of police dataMany different uses of police data Strategic Purposes:Strategic Purposes:  DeploymentDeployment  Crime AnalysisCrime Analysis Two types ofTwo types of inquiries:inquiries:  ConditionalConditional  Ad Hoc queryAd Hoc query
  • 25. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo New mobile office systemsNew mobile office systems The mobile OfficeThe mobile Office consists of:consists of:  VehicleVehicle  Mobile Radio SystemMobile Radio System  Mobile DataMobile Data Computer (laptop inComputer (laptop in vehicle)vehicle)
  • 26. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo New mobile office systemsNew mobile office systems Allow officers toAllow officers to access:access:  MugshotsMugshots  FingerprintsFingerprints  GIS mapsGIS maps  Aerial PhotographsAerial Photographs Challenges:Challenges:  BandwidthBandwidth Photograph provided by Woodcrest Vehicles
  • 27. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo New mobile office systemsNew mobile office systems  Like a desk top PC,Like a desk top PC, the Mobile Office hasthe Mobile Office has a computer CPU,a computer CPU, usually mounted inusually mounted in the truckthe truck
  • 28. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Image ProcessingImage Processing  DocumentsDocuments  PhotographsPhotographs  FingerprintsFingerprints  Crime SceneCrime Scene photographsphotographs Can be:Can be:  ScannedScanned  DigitizedDigitized  Stored in aStored in a databasedatabase
  • 29. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Go to theGo to the Student ResourcesStudent Resources page atpage at www.hitechcj.comwww.hitechcj.com