US Bellows 101


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Listen to in-depth explanations on how to choose the type of expansion joint that will best suit your system. Learn about the bellows movements throughout the piping system due to thermal changes of mechanical motion. Increase your understanding of the different types of expansion joints and value-added services offered by U.S. Bellows.

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  • I would like to welcome you to our Webinar on Expansion Joints This Webinar is hosted by U.S. Bellows, a division of Piping Technology & Products I would also like to remind you, that if you have a question, please feel free to chat with us during the presentation or after the presentation during the “Questions and Answers Session.”
  • We have achieved various certifications in the past 30 years: PT&P is a member of MSS, SPED, and APFA. We are also a Minority Business Enterprise, as well as, a member of the Houston Minority Business Council. Our U.S. Bellows division is a member of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers’ Association We have our ASME U-Stamp, R-Stamp for our Sweco Fab division Pipe Shields is ISO 9001-2000 certified for the manufacturing our of hot and cold supports And we have our ASME Nuclear Certification at our Fronek Anchor Darling division located in Laconia, NH Our Manufacturing Facility The photo on the right, shows an aerial view of our headquarters here in Houston, Texas Our facility is located on a thirty-five (35) acre property including additional room for future expansion Our facility is a 450,000 Sq. Ft. covered manufacturing production shop We are just a few miles away from the Port of Houston, which allows us to quickly and conveniently ship to countries throughout the world.
  • U.S. Bellows is a manufacturer of many types of Expansion Joints suitable for a wide variety of applications. Here are some of the applications we have for expansion joints. We use them in power plants, gas turbines, steam distribution systems. They are also used extensively in refineries, chemical plants, heat exchangers, aerospace, onboard ships and engine exhaust systems
  • (Top-Left) Axial Movement refers to the change in dimensional length of the bellows parallel to the centerline of the expansion joint (Top-Right) Lateral Movement refers to displacement of the bellows perpendicular to the centerline of the expansion joint (in any plane) (Bottom-Left) Angular Movement refers to bending on the centerline and halfway between the ends of the bellows (Bottom-Right) Torsional Movement refers to twisting one end of the bellows with respect to the other end, about the bellows centerline
  • These next two slides provide a little clearer illustration of how a bellows would appear when used as an intrugal component in an Expansion Joint when it is exposed to the various types of acceptable movements.
  • In this slide please take particular notice of the (3) “universal” type to Expansion Joints. The illustration more clearly defines what lateral off-set will actually look-like when these types of designs are in real-life installations.
  • This slide provides fundamental “spacing” practices, as outlined by the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association, and is to be utilized accordingly, in order to assure proper placements of Anchors, Supports or Guides in relationship to the installation location of any Expansion Joint.
  • The information on this slide provides some more comprehensive guide-lines as to where the installation of Anchors, Supports and / Guides should be placed, in relationship to the installation location of an Expansion Joint.
  • There are many materials used for bellows, but the most commonly used material is T-304 stainless steel, which is our standard material. We manufacture in nearly all of the 300 stainless series, as you can see We also manufacture bellows with high nickel materials such as Monel, Inconel 600, Inconel 625 Recently we have fabricated alot of bellows from Hastelloy C-276. The bellows is the flexible element of an expansion joint. The convoluted portion of an expansion joint is designed to flex when thermal movements occur in the piping system, or mechanically induced movements occur on the pipe system The number of convolutions depends upon the amount of movement which the bellows must accommodate or the force that must be used to accomplish the deflection.
  • We wish to re-emphasize that since our U.S. Bellows Team is a member of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association, We follow the Engineering design practices as detailed in the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Catalog for our bellows and related components within an Expansion Joint Assembly.
  • This is one of our “product data sheets” which we utilize with our clients, in order to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the specific design requirements of a given Expansion Joint, prior to beginning our engineering exercises. This takes the “guess-work” out of what the facts are in the design requirements. Please note some of the points of interest.
  • At U.S. Bellows we exercise the practice of using the methodology of “butt-welding” our longitudinal seam welds on all our metallic Expansion Joints. This methodology provides the ability to maintain the same material thickness, when the two ends of the original “sheet material” are joined together. This will provide the ability to maintain the most uniform “spring-rate” once the convolutions are formed. Ultimately, this translates into maximizing the “cycle-life” or “life-span” of the bellows and Expansion Joint Assembly.
  • This slide shows one of our means of forming the annular convolutions of a Bellows. This is what we call our “pre-bulge” process.
  • Once the “pre-bulge” process has been completed, we will “re-roll” each convolution, which will provide the final configuration of the symmetrically formed convolutions within the bellows.
  • End Thrust Loads are a very important calculation component, which must be addressed when designing a pipe system that includes an Expansion Joint. This will always factor into determining Anchor, Guide and Support Loads.
  • Spring-Rate forces or loads must also be factored into the over-all design of any pipe-system.
  • We specialize in Performance Assurance Product Testing… Here are some value added services that we perform. Here, in the top photos, you can see that we have performed a burst test, where we took and pressurized the expansion joint until it failed. It was required by one of our customers to make sure that when we over-pressurize that there is no catastrophic failure. We do Hydro-testing, ultrasonic testing, cycle and burst testing, etc. We x-ray a lot of our bellows to ensure quality and make sure there are no defects. We can PMI any of the alloy materials we are using. We do pneumatic testing on joints with refractory in them, because we can’t perform hydro-testing without destroying the internal packing of the kao-wool.
  • Deflections are resulted from changes in temperature and predictable variations of the system. Most Deflections are repeated numerous times during the life of the piping system. Repetitions can also occur as a result of repetitive mechanical movements and vibrations. Each time a deflection occurs it is a CYCLE. The number of cycles is important to assure the proper design of the expansion joint. Deflections result in stresses, and they must be kept as low as possible to avoid premature fatigue failures Stress is reduced by reducing the thickness of the convolutions The ideal combination of thickness for pressure and thinness for flexibility is the design issue for our engineers
  • We’re going to go into some basic expansion joint application This particular expansion joint is installed in a line where we have a directional main anchor and a main anchor (shown above). The main anchor doesn’t allow that elbow to move in any direction. It is fixed in the horizontal and vertical directions. As we move along the pipe line towards the expansion joint you can see the guides positioned at various intervals. As we get closer to the expansion joint, you can see the guides labeled G1 and G2. Under ideal design conditions, we like to place that first guide, G1, approximately 4 pipe diameters away from the expansion joint, If that was a 12 inch joint, we should be four feet away, while G2, the next guide, should be at a distance of 14 pipe diameters away from the first guide. In the case of a 12 inch joint, it should be 14 feet away. The other guides should be placed at a distance found on any table for guide spacing on a 12 inch line depending on the pressure. Back to the expansion joint, to the left we have a DMA or Directional Main Anchor. What happens here is that when we install the expansion joint on the line, it generates thrust. This is defined as the area of the bellows times the pressure in the line. In a 12 inch line, with 150lbs and you multiply it by the area of the bellows. Let’s pick a number of 15,000 lbs of thrust that the directional main anchor would have to withstand. Not only that, but the main anchor would have to withstand a thrust of approximately 1500 lbs. At the anchor “1A” on the line, it doesn’t have to withstand the full pressure thrust of the expansion joints because the Directional main anchor and main anchor are taking those forces. The load on IA is equal to the force necessary to compress the expansion joint in the lateral direction. Using the directional main anchor, that pipe needs to be free to slide in the vertical direction so the expansion joint can deflect.
  • Inconel 825 bellows and carbon steel flanges, liners and pipe 76” I.D., 90” O.D. and 31-1/2” long 1900 degrees F at 100 psig with 1” compression
  • For a refinery in Asia
  • The next type of expansion joint we’re looking at is the universal expansion joint This type of expansion joint can solve a lot of problems. What we have shown here is an expansion joint that’s placed in a piping system that has a “Z” shape. What we have is a system where its fixed at 2 points with two intermediate anchors. What we are doing here is taking the thermal growth from the intermediate anchor to the elbows in the pipe. The expansion joints are being used take a lateral deflection. As you can see, we have not only the intermediate anchor but also have the pipe guides in the horizontal sections to help keep the pipe in line and allow movement towards the expansion joint so that it can deflect laterally. In this particular instance the guides have to be planer guides to allow horizontal direction and some movement in the vertical direction. In this particular application, the joint is tied at the elbow. Depending on the size of the line where the tie rods end to the center of the pipe there is a small amount of thermal growth that has to be absorbed by piping flexibility. For smaller than 24” its not much of a problem, because if you have a fairly long length of pipe here, you can take a ¼” to 3/8” of deflection and not have to tie the expansion joint from the center line of the elbow to the center line of the elbow. That would be the only way that you can avoid having to use some piping flexibility of the horizontal line.
  • Top Left: 16” NPS x 126” OAL Tied Universal EJ with 321 SS bellows and 304L SS pipe Bottom Left: 12” NPS x 90” OAL Tied Universal EJ with 321 SS bellows and 304L SS pipe Right: Tied Universal EJ with covers
  • Left: 24” F-F, Two-Ply Inconel 625 bellows, A312 TP 304 spool, A105 flange FV/50 psig and 300 degrees F and axial movements of +/-0.25” and 0.70” Hydro-tested at 75 psig Right: High Strength Inconel 625 LCF bellows and A105 flanges 1400 psig and 120 degrees F and 4-1/2” lateral movement Hydro-tested at 2100 psig
  • On this slide, we see an application of a hinged expansion joint. In these particular hinged expansion joints, they have refractory lining and were used in an FCC unit in a plant in South Africa. Hinged expansion joints are very useful, and similar to universal expansion joints. They have to be used in pairs as a minimum. The hinged joint only moves in angular rotation and is also very good tool to be used in lines where you have a lot of weight to support the vertical piping. Where the top of the line can be supported with springs and the whole load of the vertical section of the pipe can be transmitted to the hinge pins on the joints. This is a Z-section of the pipe and easy to use and demonstrate. You can also have this type of application from the top of a tower or from 1 vessel to another vessel. The hinges themselves are designed to hold the pressure thrust and the pin, and only rotate in an angular motion. It cannot take any axial motion and cannot be slotted to take any axial motion because they have to be designed to take the full pressure thrust. The bottom joint can be designed to take some of the weight if necessary. There is some thermal movement vertically at the top and bottom that will have to absorbed by some piping flexibility. The main function of these two joints is to take the lateral motion in a horizontal direction. If it cannot withstand the forces and movements generated by the piping deflection, a third expansion joint can be used at the top, to the right of the PG and thrust if needed. Hinged expansion joints are very useful tools, especially in larger diameter piping runs where weight has to be supported. You can transmit loads through the pins. You can use the hinge attachments as attachment points for your spring hangers and also absorb wind loads. The hinges can also be used to with strain some high wind loads.
  • This next slide is a gimbal joint This particular joint is a 55” double gimbal universal expansion joint Some of the design features are: The use of a floating ring, attached to the pipe by shear pads. You can see that there is a device pin attached to the ring through a bracket to prevent the ring from rotating. This ring is about 5.5” thick of chrome-moly. This joint was designed for 65 PSIG at a temperature of 1100 degrees F. The pipe itself was chrome-moly. The gimbal boxes were carbon steel This expansion joint is shown on the shop floor with the ends blanked off and ready for testing. This was tested to 110 PSI, which verified not only that the bellows was sound but also with a proof test that showed the square gimbal structure was restraining the thrust. There are no shipping brackets on this gimbal joint, because we wanted the hardware on the joint to withstand the full load of the hydrostatic test and also serve as a proof test.
  • Pressure Balanced Elbow Expansion Joints are used when there is a change of direction in the piping system Generally used to handle a large amount of lateral movement and a moderate amount of axial movement The pressure thrust is contained within the tie rods of these expansion joints These are used in systems where you want to get rid of the pressure thrust on sensitive equipment, like a turbine nozzle The only load on the intermediate anchor is the force necessary to compress the expansion joint at the T or elbow connection, so on the turbine you just have the load to deflect that expansion joint laterally and the movement from the axial motion. This eliminates the pressure thrust.
  • Here are some additional photos of some pressure balanced elbow expansion joints. The pressure balanced design does not exert pressure thrust on the equipment in the piping system. Pictured on the right is, one of two expansion joints we refurbished during a power plant outage. The first fifty-four inch (54 " ) outside diameter expansion joint leaked from a crack in the bellows causing an unscheduled power plant outage. This particular expansion joint was fabricated for a high pressure turbine crossover piping for steam service of ninety-seven (97) PSIG at six-hundred and thirty-four degrees Fahrenheit (634°F). The twenty-seven foot long (27 ' ), twenty-seven thousand pound (27,000 lb.) expansion joint was refurbished in less than four (4) weeks. This was made possible by utilizing dedicated employees working overtime six (6) days a week. The (321) stainless steel bellows and carbon steel root rings were replaced. The outside cover, bolts were removed and new bolts were installed. The second expansion joint was also for a high pressure turbine, which was replaced during a planned outage. This expansion joint came in on (10-30-2006) and was ready to ship (11-20-2006). Overall length and center line to center line length were maintained to ensure easy installation. Both expansion joints were dye penetrant tested and hydro-tested at (146) PSIG.
  • In-Line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints Consists of three bellows – two In-line bellows on each side and one balancing bellows in the center They are typically used when axial & lateral deflections exist and anchoring is impractical for structural or economical reasons In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint are a solution to difficult design problems These are used to take away the pressure thrust so that all you have on the equipment is the forces necessary to deflect the expansion joint bellows.
  • Pictured above are externally pressurized joints designed in various sizes for NASA. These expansion joints are fabricated from 304 stainless steel bellows and 300 lb. carbon steel flanges. They incorporate internal guide rings that serve as limit stops in the case of anchor failure. externally pressurized joint can absorb large amounts of axial motion. You can see that as the flowing media comes through the joint and goes around to the outside of the expansion joint so that the pressure is on the outside and not the inside. This allows you to have large number of convulsions without having a squirm problem and absorb a lot of axial motion. The ring there also acts as a guide ring so when using this in a steam line you don’t have to use the guide at 4 Pipe diameters away.
  • Pictured to the left is a Toroidal Bellows Expansion Joint. This particular one has a ninety-two inch (92 " ) inside diameter and designed for four-hundred (400) PSIG and five-hundred degrees Fahrenheit (500 °F). Toroidal convolution consists of a circular tube (or totus) wrapped around weld ends or pipe ends having a gap at the I.D. to permit axial stroke. Most Toroidal bellows are hydraulically formed which requires high pressure while the rest are free formed, similar to blowing up a balloon. On the left is a Toroidal joint which is used for high pressure. It is mainly used for heat exchangers. On the right is a clamshell bellows. In this picture, there was a leak in the original joint. Because it is a heat exchanger with fixed tubes, we coudln’t take the heat exchanger apart without wrecking all the tubes, so we built a bellows, cut it in half, and put it back together on the outside of the shell and welded it to make it complete again.
  • Here we have some refractory lined expansion joints These are mainly used in refineries On the left is a 44” universal joint with tie-rods On the bottom is a double hinged expansion joint, that’s using 2 hinges together with a common tie-plate. The common tie-plate allows you to eliminate a couple of attachments to the pipe which is cost savings. The top right image is of a 70” tied universal expansion joint. The 2 top images have 17EC refractory lining, which is a very popular material for refineries. The bottom has hex mesh with AA22 installed in the hex mesh for corrosion protection.
  • Here is an 80” expansion joint which we built in 6 weeks for a refinery. It had 4” thick 17EC refractory lining, and internal liner with some corrosion resisting A22. It had tie-rods attached to the pipe by a continuous ring that was circumferentially welded to the pipe.
  • Here are some other types of bellows that we fabricate On the top left we have a thick wall bellows which we fabricate from flanged and flued heads. This is popular bellows in acid plants and heat exchangers with high pressure. On the top right is a rectangular joint with round corner design. We make straight sections, form a bellows, and then cut in quarters and put the quarters in each corner and welded into place on the straight sections. On the left is a single thick-wall joint. On the right are two bellows we shipped to a refinery that was switching out the bellows during a shut-down.
  • Here are some more types of expansion joints The top left is a Slip Type expansion joint. On the right is a fabric expansion joint. This one was for a power plant in Puerto Rico. Below we have Rubber type neoprene expansion joint. This is for a low pressure application where we put the neoprene between two angles and banded it to the pipe. On the right is a special rubber design that we used in a chemical plant.
  • Here are some more types of expansion joints The top left is a Slip Type expansion joint. On the right is a fabric expansion joint. This one was for a power plant in Puerto Rico. Below we have Rubber type neoprene expansion joint. This is for a low pressure application where we put the neoprene between two angles and banded it to the pipe. On the right is a special rubber design that we used in a chemical plant.
  • Here are some more fabric expansion joints. The fabric one on the top left was for a chemical plant The right images show the fabric being applied to the joint. In this case it is attached using nelson studs. You can see the fabric being fitted on the studs. On the bottom left we have some very large fabric joints that were built with 3 layer belts: the inner belt is good for 1000 degrees with cable lining on top of that and then some more fabric on top of that; which is fiber-glassed reinforced Teflon that is good for 650 degrees.
  • Here are some more types of expansion joints The top left is a Slip Type expansion joint. On the right is a fabric expansion joint. This one was for a power plant in Puerto Rico. Below we have Rubber type neoprene expansion joint. This is for a low pressure application where we put the neoprene between two angles and banded it to the pipe. On the right is a special rubber design that we used in a chemical plant.
  • Here are some more types of expansion joints The top left is a Slip Type expansion joint. On the right is a fabric expansion joint. This one was for a power plant in Puerto Rico. Below we have Rubber type neoprene expansion joint. This is for a low pressure application where we put the neoprene between two angles and banded it to the pipe. On the right is a special rubber design that we used in a chemical plant.
  • Internal Liners: Extends the life of metallic expansion joints Protects the convolutions from direct flow impingement, which can cause erosion & flow-induced vibration. Standard U.S. Bellows liners are fabricated from 300 Series stainless steel; however other materials are available, such as Inconel six-two-five (625) and Inconel six-hundred (600)..
  • Protective Covers: Protect the bellows element during shipping, plant construction and during maintenance activities. U.S. Bellows offers standard carbon steel removable covers sized to permit free flexing of the expansion joint.
  • Limit rods are utilized when desiring to limit the axial expansion or compression They provide freedom of movement over a determined range and are designed to prevent bellows over-extension while restraining the full pressure thrust of the system.
  • The next two slides provide some detail from the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Catalog, as it relates to the formulas utilized in properly designing “flow-liners” for Expansion Joints. Please note that the differences in the calculations, as it pertains to either Air, Steam and Gases, compared to Water and other Liquids.
  • Please note that the flow-velocity should always be addressed when considering the design of an Expansion Joint.
  • We offer an emergency service for those rush orders. Just visit our website and click on emergency at the top-right corner U.S. Bellows received this eight inch (8 ") diameter single expansion joint in the morning as an emergency order. We refurbished it by adding new 321 stainless steel bellows and limit rods. We sandblasted and repainted it for protection. The expansion joint was then shipped back to the customer the very same day.
  • This slide shows a timeline that starts Friday, goes through Saturday, and ends Sunday. On Friday the joint over pressurized due to operator error. They called us. On Saturday we started machining the flanges and formed the bellows. We welded the bellows to the flanges. In order to have some safety involved and prevent the same thing from happening again we installed some limit rods. This way, the joint wouldn’t blow apart if over pressurization were to occur.
  • Our engineering and design department is involved in the following processes: -Piping, Pipe Support and Structural Design -3D Modeling Technology -Pipe Stress Analysis, in which we use Caesar II -For Structural Analysis, we use STAAD II -Our engineering and design department uses Finite Element Analysis for many projects: -FEA is used for Special Stress and/or Thermal Problems -It is used in 3D Part Design -We use ANSYS for Mesh Generation and Analysis and Results Analysis -Our Engineering and Design department is also involved in Field Testing.
  • Our website is the place to find technical information, including Technical Bulletins on Fatigue Testing, Heat Exchanger Shell Bellows, Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints and High Temperature Furnace Seal Bags. Please visit after this Webinars “Question and Answers Session” is over. We provide technical bulletins like those shown above.
  • Thank You for Joining Our Webinar on Expansion Joints… We are open to take your questions; however, if you have any additional questions or inquiries, you can send us an email at
  • US Bellows 101

    1. 1. U.S. Bellows 101: Expansion Joint Basics U.S. Bellows, Inc. presents: Attention Attendees : to listen to the audio portion, check that your speakers or headset are on and turned up OR dial the number and use the access code listed in your confirmation email. Attention P.E.’s : this Webinar is worth 1 PDH credit for TX P.E.’s (send request to [email_address] )
    2. 2. John T. Demusz Manager US Bellows, Inc.
    3. 3. Presentation Summary <ul><li>Bellows Movement & Motion </li></ul><ul><li>Bellows Fabrication and Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion Joint Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Type and Applications of Expansion Joints </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion Joint Accessories </li></ul>
    4. 4. Certifications & Manufacturing Facility <ul><li>EJMA Member </li></ul><ul><li>ASME U-Stamp </li></ul><ul><li>ASME R-Stamp </li></ul><ul><li>ASME NS Certified </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 9001:2008 Certified </li></ul><ul><li>Minority Business Enterprise (MBE) by City of Houston </li></ul><ul><li>Houston Minority Business Council (HMBC) </li></ul><ul><li>Houston, Texas USA </li></ul><ul><li>450,000 Square Feet of Covered Shop Space on a 35 Acre Property </li></ul><ul><li>Located Near the Port of Houston </li></ul>Certifications Manufacturing Facility
    5. 5. Expansion Joint Applications ▪ Fossil Fuel Power Plant ▪ Chemical & Petrochemical ▪ Stationary Engine Exhaust ▪ Pulp & Paper ▪ Power ▪ Heat Exchangers ▪ Municipal Water Districts ▪ Aerospace Turbo Engine Exhaust ▪ District Energy ▪ FCC Units ▪ Waste Water Treatment ▪ Truck Exhaust ▪ Gas Turbines ▪ U.S. Navy ▪ Solid Waste Incineration ▪ Heavy Metal ▪ Steam Distribution ▪ Kilns ▪ Environmental Applications ▪ Marine Piping & Exhaust ▪ Geothermal Power Plants ▪ Furnace Sealing Bags ▪ HVAC Building Heating & Cooling Systems ▪ Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Service ▪ Refinery ▪ Research & Development
    6. 6. Bellows Basics - Types of Movement Axial Movement Lateral Movement Angular Movement Torsional Movement
    7. 7. Gimbal Expansion Joint Expansion Joint Movement Tied Single Expansion Joint Bellows Basics - Types of Bellows Motion
    8. 8. Single Expansion Joint Universal Expansion Joint Tied Universal Expansion Joint Slotted Hinged Expansion Joint Bellows Basics - Types of Movements Cont. Hinged Universal Expansion Joint
    9. 9. Pipe Guide Spacing
    10. 10. Installation, Anchoring and Guiding Instructions
    11. 11. <ul><li>Bellows Material Types </li></ul>Bellows Basics <ul><li>STAINLESS STEEL – T-321, T-316, L & H, T-304, L &H </li></ul><ul><li>MONEL 400 </li></ul><ul><li>INCONEL 625 </li></ul><ul><li>INCONEL 625 LCF </li></ul><ul><li>INCOLOY 800 </li></ul><ul><li>INCOLOY 825 </li></ul><ul><li>HASTELLOY C-276 </li></ul><ul><li>TITANIUM </li></ul>Depending on the style or design of a bellows, wall thicknesses may range from: .010&quot; TO .500&quot; wall with varying number of plies in the various alloys
    12. 12. Bellows Basics - EJMA Standards
    13. 13. PRODUCT ENGINEERING Data Sheet U.S. BELLOWS, INC. Bellows Basics - Product Data Sheet
    14. 14. METHOD OF MANUFACTURE – BUTT WELDED TUBE Bellows Fabrication: Stage 1
    15. 15. Bellows Fabrication: Stage 2 PUNCHING THE BELLOWS
    16. 16. Bellows Fabrication: Stage 3
    19. 19. SPRING RATE <ul><li>THE LOAD IN POUNDS REQUIRED TO COMPRESS A BELLOWS ONE INCH (lb/in). </li></ul>Bellows Basics
    20. 20. Burst Test <ul><li>Hydrostatic Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic Particle </li></ul><ul><li>Ultrasonic </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle Test </li></ul><ul><li>Burst Test </li></ul><ul><li>Helium Leak Detection </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid Penetrant </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Radiography Test </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Material </li></ul><ul><li>Identification (PMI) Test </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumatic Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Spring Rate Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue Testing </li></ul>Dye Penetration Testing Value-Added Services Performance Assurance Program
    21. 21. Cycle Test on a 12 &quot; diameter A240-321SS Bellows with 8 convolutions. The bellows has met the EMJA cycle life calculation of 1,000 cycles and failed in the root of the convolutions at 1,285 cycles. Temperature Change Repetitive Mechanical Movements Vibrations Stresses Value-Added Services
    22. 22. <ul><li>Single Expansion Joints </li></ul>12 &quot; Diameter Single Tied Expansion Joints Fabricated from Stainless Steel Types of Expansion Joints - Single This expansion joint is simply a bellows element with end connections. Regardless of accessories, such as liners and covers, it will deflect in any direction or plane that the bellows will. It is the least expensive type, but requires that the piping be controlled as to the direction of the movements required of the unit. 
    23. 23. Types of Expansion Joints - Single The expansion joint should not be expected to control the movement of the pipe. If the piping analysis shows that the expansion joint must accept axial compression, then the piping must be guided and constrained so that only that movement will occur.    76 &quot; Diameter Single Tied Expansion Joint Fabricated from Stainless Steel for a Hot Blast Valve in a Steel Mill A Metal Cover was Installed to Allow Hot Air to Escape. It was Designed for 1,900 ° F at 100 psig with 1&quot; Compression Single Weld End Single Flanged End Single Flanged Weld End * Data tables for single expansion joints can be found in our online catalog:
    24. 24. Types of Expansion Joints - Single This expansion joint will not resist any deflections with any force other than the resistance of the bellows, which is a function of the spring rate times the deflection amount. It is incapable of resisting the pressure thrust along its axis, which is the product of the pressure times the effective, or cross sectional, area of the bellows. Large diameter units, even with low pressures, can generate very large axial pressure thrust forces, which must be reacted by main and directional anchors. Otherwise the expansion joint will extend with disastrous results. 605 Single Expansion Joints with Rectangular Plate Flanges and Weld Ends (6&quot; Dia., 15-3/8&quot; Overall Length, Design Temp.: 525 ° F, Design Pressure: 1 psig) These Expansion Joints will be Installed in a Heater for a Delayed Coker Unit
    25. 25. <ul><li>Universal Expansion Joints </li></ul>66 &quot; Dia. Tied Universal Metallic Expansion Joints Types of Expansion Joints - Universal The universal expansion joint consists of two bellows separated by a pipe section or spool. The primary purpose of this arrangement is to have a unit which will accept large amounts of lateral deflection. The amount of lateral deflection they can accept is a function of the amount of angulation each bellows can absorb and the distance between the bellows. For a given bellows element, the amount of lateral deflection capability can be increased or decreased by simply changing the length of the center spool.
    26. 26. Tied Universal Expansion Joints with Stainless Steel Flanges Tied Universal Expansion Joint with Covers Types of Expansion Joints - Universal In our expansion joint catalog three standard overall lengths are given with their lateral movement capability. If the piping problem requires greater capability, then the overall length can be increased to suit.  Flanged Universal Expansion Joint
    27. 27. Since deflections are usually the result of piping thermal expansion, and universal expansion joints are usually long, our units are designed so that the thermal expansion of the entire unit's length is accepted as compression by the two bellows elements. In this way, the overall length of the unit does not change when the piping is heated. The standard units in our expansion joint catalog have all been designed to accept the thermal expansion of their length when the temperature is up to the design temperature shown. 6&quot; Tied Universal Expansion Joints for a Steam Recovery Reformer Project in Virginia Types of Expansion Joints - Universal 5&quot; Tied Universal Expansion Joints for an Oil Piping System Application in Nevada
    28. 28. <ul><li>Hinged Expansion Joints </li></ul>Two 43&quot; Hinged Expansion Joints with 5&quot; Thick Refractory Lining, Manufactured to be Part of FCC Stand Pipes in a Synfuels Plant Types of Expansion Joints - Hinged Hinged Expansion Joints contain hinges or pivots which allow the unit to bend in a single plane. These units are designed to restrict axial deflection, either in extension or compression. The hinge mechanism is typically designed to accept full pressure thrust. 
    29. 29. Two 43&quot; Hinged Expansion Joints with 5&quot; Thick Refractory Lining, Manufactured to be Part of FCC Stand Pipes in a Synfuels Plant Types of Expansion Joints - Hinged Also, because of the hinge mechanism's design, shear loads, such as from the weight of adjacent piping, can be accepted by this expansion joint, relieving the piping designer of having to provide additional supports and anchors required by the Single type.   Single Hinged Expansion Joint with Control Rods
    30. 30. 90&quot; Universal Flanged and Flued Head Expansion Joint and Duct Work Assembly (Designed for a 90&quot; dia. line; includes slotted hinge plates installed across the bellows to carry the weight of the duct between the bellows and equalize the axial compression between the two bellows) Types of Expansion Joints - Hinged Some hinge types can be provided with hinge pin holes which are slotted to permit limited axial travel. These &quot;slotted hinge&quot; types will not resist pressure thrust forces, and anchoring must be provided. This catalog only depicts the fully restrained hinged type. If axial travel is desired, the piping designer should clearly state that the slotted hinge type is wanted in the design requirements, and he should provide for pressure thrust anchoring.
    31. 31. 24&quot; Universal Hinged Expansion Joint (Overall length is 125-5/8&quot;, designed with Inconel ® 625 bellows, a 304 stainless steel liner and carbon steel 150 lb. flanges; the hinges allow up to 5° of angular movement) Types of Expansion Joints - Hinged On the other hand, if the full axial restraint of the hinged type is desired, the piping designer should understand that there is no allowance in the expansion joint for any axial travel, including none for any installation misalignment.
    32. 32. <ul><li>Gimbal Expansion Joints </li></ul>55 &quot; O.D. Double Gimbal Universal Expansion Joint (Designed for an FCC unit; equipped with floating rings and Inconel 625 LCF bellows) Types of Expansion Joints - Gimbal The gimbal expansion joint is basically the same as the hinge type, except that instead of being limited to deflection in only one plane, it can accept bending or angulation in any plane. Features: - Absorbs angular rotation - Eliminates pressure thrust forces - Transmits shear and wind loads - Supports dead weight - Prevents torsion on bellows - No main anchors required - Minimum guiding required - Low forces on piping system
    33. 33. Types of Expansion Joints - Gimbal It contains two sets of hinge pins or pivots, the axis of each set perpendicular to the other. Each set of pins is connected to each other with a central gimbal ring, in much the same way that a universal joint on an automobile works. This unit provides the same type of restraint and resistance to axial forces, such as the pressure thrust, and to shear forces as the hinge type. 44 &quot; Double Gimbal Universal Expansion Joint Designed for Angular Rotation in Two Planes of up to 4 ° in Each Plane 72 &quot; Double Gimbal Universal Expansion Joint with a 90 ° Elbow and Flanged and Flued Head Bellows
    34. 34. <ul><li>Pressure Balanced Elbow Expansion Joints </li></ul>Types of Expansion Joints - Elbow Pressure Balanced This type of expansion joint is really a combination of several types. It’s purpose is to retain and balance the pressure thrust so that main anchoring of the pipe or adjacent equipment is not required, and forces and movements on attachment flanges of delicate equipment, such as turbines, are kept to acceptably low levels. 60&quot; Pressure Balanced Elbow Expansion Joint
    35. 35. The deflections to be accepted are handled by the proper type of expansion joint, which normally, and as shown in the above sketch, is a tied universal type to accept lateral movements. However, the pressure balanced elbow is usually required because axial deflections are also present. In order to accept these movements, a bellows is added beyond the elbow with the same cross-sectional area as the ones in the universal section. Pressure Balanced Elbow Expansion Joints designed for 150 PSIG and 450  F for a 42 &quot; steam line 26&quot; Dia. Pressure Balanced Elbow Expansion Joint Refurbished for an Effluent Header at Cedar Bayou Plant Types of Expansion Joints - Elbow Pressure Balanced
    36. 36. This balancing bellows is connected by the tie rods to the pipe beyond the universal section; in this way the pressure thrust is contained as tension in the tie rods. The section of the expansion joint between the tie rods, which includes the elbow, is now free to move axially, with the only resistance being a function of the spring rates of the bellows.  36 &quot; Pressure Balanced Elbow Expansion Joints Types of Expansion Joints - Elbow Pressure Balanced
    37. 37. 54 &quot; Pressure Balanced Elbow Turbine Crossover Expansion Joint (Refurbished) Because of their arrangement, however, the spring rate of the entire expansion joint is the sum of the spring rates of the balancing and the universal bellows. This is a constant volume system, in that when the universal end compresses, the balancing end extends the same amount. All of the lateral deflection is absorbed by the universal end, and there is no lateral deflection imposed on the balancing end. Therefore, the balancing bellows is almost always a single bellows type. Types of Expansion Joints - Elbow Pressure Balanced
    38. 38. <ul><li>In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints </li></ul>Types of Expansion Joints - Inline Pressure Balanced When axial deflections exist, and anchoring is impractical for structural or economic reasons, such as high in the air or short straight pipe runs between two large vessels, the in-line pressure balanced expansion joint is a powerful solution to a difficult design problem. The principle of this type of unit is essentially the same as the pressure balanced elbow type, in that the axial pressure thrust is reacted by the pressure acting on a cross-sectional area equal to the area of the working or primary bellows.  14 &quot; In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint (Designed for 51 psig and 167  F for a highly corrosive application)
    39. 39. Types of Expansion Joints - Inline Pressure Balanced Since this unit is entirely axial, and there are no directional changes in the pipe, such as with the elbow in the previous discussion, the cross-sectional area needed to balance the pressure is placed around the outside of the unit. Since the pressure forces are generated by the pressure acting on the annular surface between the primary and outer, or balancing bellows, the arrangement of the tie rods transfers and balances the pressure thrust created in the pipe on each end. Now the forces needed to compress or extend the unit are only the result of the spring resistance of the bellows, and main anchoring of the pipe or vessels is not required. 24 &quot; In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints (designed for 175 psig and 610  F for a petrochemical plant in Venezuela)
    40. 40. Types of Expansion Joints - Inline Pressure Balanced This expansion joint is obviously more expensive than the simpler types; however, they may result in a lower overall system cost when the elimination of main anchoring is considered. This expansion joint can also be used to replace pipe loops, and its cost advantage may be seen in reduced pumping energy by the elimination of the loop's elbow-generated pressure losses. This may also allow reducing the pipe size for the entire system. 14 &quot; In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints (Designed for 125 psig, 244  F and 48,000 lb. of pressure thrust)
    41. 41. <ul><li>Externally Pressurized Expansion Joints </li></ul>Externally pressurized expansion joints, also known as x-flex expansion joints, are suited for piping systems that require large amounts of axial compression or extension.  Types of Expansion Joints - Externally Pressurized <ul><li>10″ to 24″ diameter range </li></ul><ul><li>304 stainless steel bellows </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon steel shell and flanges </li></ul><ul><li>Design conditions: 150 PSIG at 350ºF </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum of 4″ compression </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrostatically tested </li></ul>
    42. 42. In externally pressurized expansion joints, the bellows elements are arranged so that the media flow is on the external surface of the bellows. Externally pressurizing the bellows eliminates pressure instability as a limitation to the design and permits the absorption of large amounts of axial expansion. Types of Expansion Joints - Externally Pressurized <ul><li>14 Externally Pressurized Expansion Joints </li></ul><ul><li>Designed in various sizes for NASA </li></ul><ul><li>Diameters range from 4&quot; to 10&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Overall length ranges from 21&quot; to 42&quot; </li></ul>
    43. 43. Types of Expansion Joints - Externally Pressurized 56 Externally Pressurized Expansion Joints (Designed for a cooling system; 37.5&quot; dia. and 36&quot; face-to-face with 304 SS bellows) 16&quot; Dia. Externally Pressurized Expansion Joints ( Designed for an oil refinery; 60-1/4&quot; face-to-face; 304 SS bellows; custom designed for 8&quot; of axial movement and 150 psig at 176 °F, with a spring rate of 2,152 lb./in.)
    44. 44. A toroidal convolution consists of a circular tube (or totus) wrapped around weld ends or pipe ends having a gap at the I.D. to permit axial stroke. A toroidal expansion joint may consist of one convolution, or multiple convolutions. This joint is also known as an Omega bellows expansion joint for it resembles the Greek letter Omega. Most toroidal bellows are hydraulically formed which requires high pressure. Others are free formed, similar to blowing up a balloon. More accurate convolution shapes may be formed into toroidal dye cavities. Since this forming pressure is high, pressure resistance is also high. Types of Expansion Joints - Toroidal Toroidal Bellows Expansion Joints (Omega Bellows Expansion Joint)
    45. 45. &quot;U&quot; shaped bellows cause a bending stress due to the pressure load on the convolution side wall. This generally determines the maximum pressure, however the toroid contains only membrane stress thus determining the maximum pressure. Due to the toroidal shape, deflection is limited. With &quot;U&quot; shaped convolutions, more deflection can be achieved but allowable pressures are lower. Types of Expansion Joints - Toroidal 92&quot; Toroidal Bellow Expansion Joint for an ASME “U” Stamp Heat Exchanger Shell. (Designed for 400 psig at 500 °F; extension stroke of 5/16&quot;; the bellows element was fabricated from .060&quot; Inconel® 600 with A-516 Gr. 70 weld ends)
    46. 46. Types of Expansion Joints - Clamshell Clamshell Bellows Expansion Joints Clamshell Bellows Expansion Joint (Designed for a shell and tube heat exchanger; 14&quot; dia.; 150 psig at 150 °F) 3-Day Emergency Fabrication of a 40&quot; Clamshell Expansion Joint for a Chemical Plant in Texas. Q.C. Performing a Dye Penetrant Test on a Clamshell Bellows
    47. 47. <ul><li>Refractory Lined Expansion Joints </li></ul>44 &quot; Universal Refractory Lined Expansion Joint designed for 30 psig and 1400  F 36 &quot; Double Hinged Expansion Joint designed for 50 psig and 1000  F 70 &quot; Tied Universal Expansion Joint designed for 51 psig and 1460  F Types of Expansion Joints - Refractory-lined Depending on the temperature, pressure, movement and flow media conditions, refractory-lined expansion joints can be hinged, in-line pressure balanced, gimbal, tied-universal and can also include pantographic linkage. For hot applications (up to 1400°F), the bellows is packed with KO wool and lined with insulating refractory.   
    48. 48. Types of Expansion Joints - Refractory-lined The refractory-lining allows for the use of carbon steel pipe instead of 300 series stainless steel. It can reduce the pipe wall temperature to between 300-450°F and also protect the bellows from abrasion caused by the flow of abrasive particles. 80 &quot; Dia., 36&quot; Long Refractory-lined Tied Universal Expansion Joint This expansion joint was fabricated with two-ply Inconel® 625 LCF bellows, tie rods, slotted hinges, insulation bags and liner seals.  It is designed to operate at 58 PSIG and temperatures up to 1,450° F. The expansion joint was preset for 6&quot; lateral travel and is capable of lateral travel up to 13&quot;.
    49. 49. Refractory-lined expansion joints are used in Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU), furnaces, hot gas turbines, styrene plants, fluidized bed boilers, kilns, power recovery trains and thermal oxidizers. Refractory-lined expansion joints are custom designed for each application due to the extreme environments. Types of Expansion Joints - Refractory-lined 76 &quot; Diameter Single Expansion Joints with 4&quot; Refractory Lining, 321 Stainless Steel Bellows and A588-A Corten Angle Flanges.
    50. 50. Types of Expansion Joints - Thick Wall Thick Wall Expansion Joints These may be a cost-effective option for large-diameter piping systems which operate at low pressure. Metals can be selected to satisfy different temperature conditions. The distribution of axial, angular, and lateral forces will be different when thick-wall expansion joints are used. We can provide your design engineers with the potential forces and movements for proper design of the structural members supporting the system. These joints have a long life which justifies the initial investment.   72 &quot; Diameter Tied Universal Thick Wall Expansion Joint with 316 SS Bellows for a Sulfuric Acid Plant 108 &quot; Diameter Thick Wall Expansion Joint (with 2 convolutions)
    51. 51. 78 &quot; I.D. x 100&quot; O.D. Thick Wall Flanged and Flued Head Expansion Joints Thick-wall expansion joints are used primarily in heat exchangers and large diameter piping systems where thin-wall expansion joints would not be sufficient. The bellows are typically fabricated from A516 Grade 70 material, with the thickness ranging from 3/16&quot; to 1&quot;. Other materials are available to meet different temperature requirements. Types of Expansion Joints - Thick Wall All four expansion joints were fabricated from 1/4″ thick ASTM A516 grade 70 carbon steel plate. The expansion joints were cold formed and heat treated. The weld ends of the expansion joint are beveled, and drainage plugs are installed in the crest of the bellows.
    52. 52. 71&quot; x 143&quot; Round Corner Regular Expansion Joint for an Oil Refinery in India Rectangular Metallic Expansion Joint 240&quot; x 80&quot; and 157&quot; x 65&quot; Types of Expansion Joints - Rectangular Metallic Rectangular Metallic Expansion Joints Rectangular metal expansion joints have a variety of applications in the power, petrochemical, refining, chemical, and steel industries. Since there are no standard duct sizes, and due to the wide range of pressure and temperature combinations, each rectangular metal expansion joint is custom-engineered to provide the most economical design that will absorb the thermal movements of the system in which it is installed.
    53. 53. Types of Expansion Joints - Rectangular Metallic Like circular expansion joints, rectangular expansion joints absorb three types of movement: axial, lateral and angular. For the purpose of designing rectangular bellows, it is critical to know in which direction the lateral and angular movements will occur, i.e. parallel to the long and/or short side of the bellows. 55' Long by 14' 6&quot; Wide Rectangular Metallic Expansion Joint The expansion joints were fabricated from COR-TEN ASTM 588 carbon steel and are designed for 1.2 PSI at temperatures up to 748°F. The expansion joints were designed for an axial compression of 1.5″ and a lateral resultant movement of 1.84″. The entire expansion joint was shipped to the job site in one piece. This avoided having to splice weld the expansion joint into one piece, which saved the customer countless assembly man hours in the field.
    54. 54. Types of Expansion Joints - Rectangular Metallic Unlike circular bellows where the pressure stress is a circumferential membrane (hoop) stress, the rectangular bellows must be designed for longitudinal (beam) bending stresses. Long unsupported lengths must frequently be supported to prevent excessive deflection and stresses of the bellows element. In certain applications, covers and liners can perform the function of pressure supports. Single Miter Corner Rounded Corner Camera Corner Typical convolution geometry's and corner construction details are shown below. The &quot;V&quot; convolution profile will be supplied with single miter corners, unless otherwise specified. Round corner bellows will always be constructed using the &quot;U&quot; convolution profile.
    55. 55. 30 &quot; Slip Type Expansion Joint (Designed for hydrocarbon flaring system ) Types of Expansion Joints Slip Type Expansion Joints Slip type (Dresser® Style) expansion joints are used when the primary problem is a large axial movement. Materials can be selected to accommodate high temperatures and pressures. Design details include selection of packing and seals and perhaps resistance to abrasive solids. Some applications may require surfaces to minimize abrasive wear. Special features such as &quot;wipers&quot; can be included to prevent potential clogging of the space provided for slip movement.
    56. 56. 81&quot; x 18&quot; Fabric Expansion Joint Designed for High Air Circulation Flow for Air Cooling Loop Duct in a Power Plant Types of Expansion Joints Fabric Expansion Joints Fabric expansion joints are often used in ducts which carry hot gases at low pressures. The major design parameters are the temperatures and flow rates of the gases and the amount and abrasiveness of solids suspended in the gases. Layers of different fabrics insulation can be combined to accommodate the temperatures and pressure in the system. The fabric belt may need to be replaced periodically. 24&quot; Dia. Fabric Expansion Joints Designed for Inlet and Exhaust Piping of a Hot Air Blower 128 &quot; x 229 &quot; Rectangular Fabric Expansion Joint
    57. 57. Stitching the Fabric Belt on the 1 st Layer Types of Expansion Joints - Fabric Up Close of Stitching the Fabric Belt 36&quot; x 10&quot; Face-to-Face fabric Expansion Joint with a Three Layer fabric Belt Including 150 lb. Flat Face Flanges with Carbon Steel Backing Bars and Liner
    58. 58. 78 &quot; Dia. Fabric Expansion Joint and Duct Work Assembly with a 90 ° Elbow for a Sulphuric Acid Plant Types of Expansion Joints Fabric Expansion Joints and Duct Work U.S. Bellows provides custom designed expansion joints in duct work and fabricated duct work assemblies. The assemblies may include fabricated elbows, tees, and straight sections of duct work, in carbon steel or stainless steel, and in diameters of 42&quot; or larger. The duct sections can include fabric or metallic expansion joints and can be rectangular or round. U.S. Bellows can also provide specialized pipe supports and spring hangers for large diameter duct work. Additionally, we offer complete pipe stress analysis of your duct systems using CAESAR II software. 72 &quot; Dia. Duct Work Designed for Absorbing Tower Piping in an Acid Plant
    59. 59. 30 &quot; Diameter Rubber Expansion Joint (EPDM reinforced tube & cover, telescoping linear and A516-70 flanges) 59 &quot; Diameter Neoprene Expansion Joint (Carbon Steel Angle flanges and Stainless Steel Clamp Rings) Types of Expansion Joints Neoprene / Rubber Expansion Joints 59 &quot; x 39.5&quot; Neoprene Expansion Joints for Air Intake in a generator Unit at a Packaged Power Facility
    60. 60. <ul><li>Internal Liners </li></ul>Expansion Joint Accessories Internal liners are used to reduce turbulence across the bellows, and to protect the bellows from erosion. They are necessary when particulate barriers and purges are specified. Liners are normally required when ducts are refractory lined, as they become refractory lined as well. Applicable lateral and angular movements should be specified, in order that adequate clearance is provided in the liner design.
    61. 61. <ul><li>Protective Covers </li></ul>Expansion Joint Accessories Being relatively thin, the bellows element should be protected on the outside from damage during plant construction and later maintenance activities. Falling tools, standing on the bellows, contact with pipes, hangers and equipment, and weld and burning spatter can render a bellows unsafe or unusable. PT&P offers, as an optional accessory, standard carbon steel removable covers attached to the upstream end connection, and sized to permit free flexing of the expansion joint.
    62. 62. <ul><li>Limit Rods </li></ul>Expansion Joint Accessories It is sometimes desirable to limit the axial expansion or compression of the expansion joint. Limit rods, shown above, provide freedom of movement over a range determined by the location of nut stops along the rods. In the event of a main anchor failure, limit rods are designed to prevent bellows over-extension while restraining the full pressure thrust of the system.
    63. 63. Purge Connectors / Particulate Barriers Expansion Joint Accessories In systems that have a media with significant particulate content (i.e. flash or catalyst), a barrier of ceramic fiber can be utilized to prevent corrosion and restricted bellows flexibility resulting from the accumulation of the particulate. Purging systems may also be used to perform this function. Liners will necessarily have to be installed when a particulate barrier or purge connection is specified.
    64. 64. EJMA Standards
    65. 65. EJMA Standards
    66. 66. Same-Day Emergency Service on an 8 &quot; Single Expansion Joint Value-Added Services – Emergency Response Metallic Expansion Joint Refurbished in Just 2 Days Refurbishment of 54&quot; Pressure Balanced Elbow Turbine Crossover Expansion Joint 4&quot; Single Expansion Joint Refurbished (Received in the Morning and Shipped the Very Same Day)
    67. 67. Friday, 5:30pm Saturday Sunday 24x7 Emergency/Quick-turn Services for a 48&quot; dia expansion joint 24x7 Web-based Emergency Services Value-Added Services – Emergency Services
    68. 68. <ul><li>Engineering and Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piping, pipe support and structural design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3D modeling technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pipe Stress Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANSYS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finite Element Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special stress/thermal problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pro/E for 3-D Part Design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANSYS for Mesh Generation + Analysis + Results Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field Testing </li></ul></ul>Value-Added Services – Engineering & Design Department
    69. 69. Technical Information <ul><li> </li></ul>Fatigue Testing Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints Heat Exchanger Shell Bellows High Temp Furnace Seal Bag
    70. 70. Thank You for Joining U.S. Bellows 101: Expansion Joint Basics Webinar Please forward any additional questions or inquiries to us at [email_address] , call us at 877-660-1795 or visit our website at