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U.S. Bellows 101: The Basics of Expansion Joints

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U.S. Bellows 101: The Basics of Expansion Joints

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U.S. Bellows 101: The Basics of Expansion Joints

  1. 1. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com U.S. Bellows 101: Expansion Joint Basics U.S. Bellows, Inc. presents: Attention Attendees: to listen to the audio portion, check that your speakers or headset are on and turned up OR dial the number and use the access code listed in your confirmation email. Attention P.E.’s: this Webinar is worth 1 PDH credit for TX P.E.’s Certificates are automatically emailed to you within 1-2 days after the Webinar If you don’t see it in your inbox, check your spam box Need further assistance, email us at news@usbellows.com
  2. 2. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com John T. Demusz Manager US Bellows, Inc.
  3. 3. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Presentation Summary Bellows Movement & Motion Bellows Fabrication and Terminology Expansion Joint Testing Type and Applications of Expansion Joints Expansion Joint Accessories
  4. 4. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Certifications & Manufacturing Facility • EJMA Member • ASME U-Stamp • ASME R-Stamp • ASME NS Certified • ISO 9001:2008 Certified • Minority Business Enterprise (MBE) by City of Houston • Houston Minority Business Council (HMBC) • Houston, Texas USA • 450,000 Square Feet of Covered Shop Space on a 35 Acre Property • Located Near the Port of Houston CertificationsCertifications Manufacturing FacilityManufacturing Facility
  5. 5. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Expansion Joint Applications ▪ Fossil Fuel Power Plant ▪ Chemical & Petrochemical ▪ Stationary Engine Exhaust ▪ Pulp & Paper ▪ Power ▪ Heat Exchangers ▪ Municipal Water Districts ▪ Aerospace Turbo Engine Exhaust ▪ District Energy ▪ FCC Units ▪ Waste Water Treatment ▪ Truck Exhaust ▪ Gas Turbines ▪ U.S. Navy ▪ Solid Waste Incineration ▪ Heavy Metal ▪ Steam Distribution ▪ Kilns ▪ Environmental Applications ▪ Marine Piping & Exhaust ▪ Geothermal Power Plants ▪ Furnace Sealing Bags ▪ HVAC Building Heating & Cooling Systems ▪ Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Service ▪ Refinery ▪ Research & Development
  6. 6. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Axial Movement Lateral Movement Angular Movement Torsional Movement Bellows Basics - Types of Movement
  7. 7. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Gimbal Expansion Joint Expansion Joint Movement Tied Single Expansion Joint Bellows Basics - Types of Bellows Motion
  8. 8. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Single Expansion Joint Universal Expansion Joint Tied Universal Expansion Joint Slotted Hinged Expansion Joint Bellows Basics - Types of Movements Cont. Hinged Universal Expansion Joint
  9. 9. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Pipe Guide Spacing
  10. 10. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Installation, Anchoring and Guiding Instructions
  11. 11. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Bellows Material Types Bellows Basics • STAINLESS STEEL – T-321, T-316, L & H, T-304, L &H • MONEL 400 • INCONEL 625 • INCONEL 625 LCF • INCOLOY 800 • INCOLOY 825 • HASTELLOY C-276 • TITANIUM Depending on the style or design of a bellows, wall thicknesses may range from: .010" TO .500" wall with varying number of plies in the various alloys
  12. 12. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Bellows Basics - EJMA Standards
  13. 13. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com PRODUCT ENGINEERING Data Sheet U.S. BELLOWS, INC. Bellows Basics - Product Data Sheet
  14. 14. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com METHOD OF MANUFACTURE – BUTT WELDED TUBE Bellows Fabrication: Stage 1
  15. 15. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Bellows Fabrication: Stage 2 PUNCHING THE BELLOWS
  16. 16. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Bellows Fabrication: Stage 3
  17. 17. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com INSIDE DIAMETER Bellows Basics OUTSIDE DIAMETER WALL THICKNESS PITCH LIVE-LENGTH OF BELLOWS
  18. 18. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com EFFECTIVE AREA • IT IS APPROXIMATELY EQUAL TO THE AREA OF A CIRCLE LYING HALFWAY BETWEEN THE CONVOLUTION’S INSIDE AND OUTSIDE DIAMETERS. • USED TO CALCULATE END THRUST LOAD WHICH WILL BE PRODUCED. Bellows Basics
  19. 19. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com SPRING RATE • THE LOAD IN POUNDS REQUIRED TO COMPRESS A BELLOWS ONE INCH (lb/in). Bellows Basics
  20. 20. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Burst Test Performance Assurance Program • Hydrostatic Testing • Magnetic Particle • Ultrasonic • Cycle Test • Burst Test • Helium Leak Detection • Liquid Penetrant • Inspection • Radiography Test • Positive Material • Identification (PMI) Test • Pneumatic Testing • Spring Rate Testing • Fatigue Testing Dye Penetration Testing Value-Added Services
  21. 21. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Cycle Test on a 12" diameter A240-321SS Bellows with 8 convolutions. The bellows has met the EMJA cycle life calculation of 1,000 cycles and failed in the root of the convolutions at 1,285 cycles. Temperature Change Repetitive Mechanical Movements Vibrations Stresses Value-Added Services
  22. 22. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Single Expansion Joints 12" Diameter Single Tied Expansion Joints Fabricated from Stainless Steel Types of Expansion Joints - Single This expansion joint is simply a bellows element with end connections. Regardless of accessories, such as liners and covers, it will deflect in any direction or plane that the bellows will. It is the least expensive type, but requires that the piping be controlled as to the direction of the movements required of the unit.
  23. 23. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Types of Expansion Joints - Single The expansion joint should not be expected to control the movement of the pipe. If the piping analysis shows that the expansion joint must accept axial compression, then the piping must be guided and constrained so that only that movement will occur. 76" Diameter Single Tied Expansion Joint Fabricated from Stainless Steel for a Hot Blast Valve in a Steel Mill A Metal Cover was Installed to Allow Hot Air to Escape. It was Designed for 1,900°F at 100 psig with 1" Compression Single Weld End Single Flanged End Single Flanged Weld End * Data tables for single expansion joints can be found in our online catalog: usbellows.com/data
  24. 24. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Types of Expansion Joints - Single This expansion joint will not resist any deflections with any force other than the resistance of the bellows, which is a function of the spring rate times the deflection amount. It is incapable of resisting the pressure thrust along its axis, which is the product of the pressure times the effective, or cross sectional, area of the bellows. Large diameter units, even with low pressures, can generate very large axial pressure thrust forces, which must be reacted by main and directional anchors. Otherwise the expansion joint will extend with disastrous results. 605 Single Expansion Joints with Rectangular Plate Flanges and Weld Ends (6" Dia., 15-3/8" Overall Length, Design Temp.: 525°F, Design Pressure: 1 psig) These Expansion Joints will be Installed in a Heater for a Delayed Coker Unit
  25. 25. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Universal Expansion Joints 66" Dia. Tied Universal Metallic Expansion Joints Types of Expansion Joints - Universal The universal expansion joint consists of two bellows separated by a pipe section or spool. The primary purpose of this arrangement is to have a unit which will accept large amounts of lateral deflection. The amount of lateral deflection they can accept is a function of the amount of angulation each bellows can absorb and the distance between the bellows. For a given bellows element, the amount of lateral deflection capability can be increased or decreased by simply changing the length of the center spool.
  26. 26. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Tied Universal Expansion Joints with Stainless Steel Flanges Tied Universal Expansion Joint with Covers Types of Expansion Joints - Universal In our expansion joint catalog three standard overall lengths are given with their lateral movement capability. If the piping problem requires greater capability, then the overall length can be increased to suit. Flanged Universal Expansion Joint
  27. 27. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Since deflections are usually the result of piping thermal expansion, and universal expansion joints are usually long, our units are designed so that the thermal expansion of the entire unit's length is accepted as compression by the two bellows elements. In this way, the overall length of the unit does not change when the piping is heated. The standard units in our expansion joint catalog have all been designed to accept the thermal expansion of their length when the temperature is up to the design temperature shown. 6" Tied Universal Expansion Joints for a Steam Recovery Reformer Project in Virginia Types of Expansion Joints - Universal 5" Tied Universal Expansion Joints for an Oil Piping System Application in Nevada
  28. 28. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Hinged Expansion Joints Two 43" Hinged Expansion Joints with 5" Thick Refractory Lining, Manufactured to be Part of FCC Stand Pipes in a Synfuels Plant Types of Expansion Joints - Hinged Hinged Expansion Joints contain hinges or pivots which allow the unit to bend in a single plane. These units are designed to restrict axial deflection, either in extension or compression. The hinge mechanism is typically designed to accept full pressure thrust.
  29. 29. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Two 43" Hinged Expansion Joints with 5" Thick Refractory Lining, Manufactured to be Part of FCC Stand Pipes in a Synfuels Plant Types of Expansion Joints - Hinged Also, because of the hinge mechanism's design, shear loads, such as from the weight of adjacent piping, can be accepted by this expansion joint, relieving the piping designer of having to provide additional supports and anchors required by the Single type. Single Hinged Expansion Joint with Control Rods
  30. 30. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com 90" Universal Flanged and Flued Head Expansion Joint and Duct Work Assembly (Designed for a 90" dia. line; includes slotted hinge plates installed across the bellows to carry the weight of the duct between the bellows and equalize the axial compression between the two bellows) Types of Expansion Joints - Hinged Some hinge types can be provided with hinge pin holes which are slotted to permit limited axial travel. These "slotted hinge" types will not resist pressure thrust forces, and anchoring must be provided. This catalog only depicts the fully restrained hinged type. If axial travel is desired, the piping designer should clearly state that the slotted hinge type is wanted in the design requirements, and he should provide for pressure thrust anchoring.
  31. 31. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com 24" Universal Hinged Expansion Joint (Overall length is 125-5/8", designed with Inconel® 625 bellows, a 304 stainless steel liner and carbon steel 150 lb. flanges; the hinges allow up to 5° of angular movement) Types of Expansion Joints - Hinged On the other hand, if the full axial restraint of the hinged type is desired, the piping designer should understand that there is no allowance in the expansion joint for any axial travel, including none for any installation misalignment.
  32. 32. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com 55" O.D. Double Gimbal Universal Expansion Joint (Designed for an FCC unit; equipped with floating rings and Inconel 625 LCF bellows) Gimbal Expansion Joints Types of Expansion Joints - Gimbal The gimbal expansion joint is basically the same as the hinge type, except that instead of being limited to deflection in only one plane, it can accept bending or angulation in any plane. Features: - Absorbs angular rotation - Eliminates pressure thrust forces - Transmits shear and wind loads - Supports dead weight - Prevents torsion on bellows - No main anchors required - Minimum guiding required - Low forces on piping system
  33. 33. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Types of Expansion Joints - Gimbal It contains two sets of hinge pins or pivots, the axis of each set perpendicular to the other. Each set of pins is connected to each other with a central gimbal ring, in much the same way that a universal joint on an automobile works. This unit provides the same type of restraint and resistance to axial forces, such as the pressure thrust, and to shear forces as the hinge type. 44" Double Gimbal Universal Expansion Joint Designed for Angular Rotation in Two Planes of up to 4° in Each Plane 72" Double Gimbal Universal Expansion Joint with a 90° Elbow and Flanged and Flued Head Bellows
  34. 34. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Pressure Balanced Elbow Expansion Joints Types of Expansion Joints - Elbow Pressure Balanced This type of expansion joint is really a combination of several types. It’s purpose is to retain and balance the pressure thrust so that main anchoring of the pipe or adjacent equipment is not required, and forces and movements on attachment flanges of delicate equipment, such as turbines, are kept to acceptably low levels. 60" Pressure Balanced Elbow Expansion Joint
  35. 35. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com The deflections to be accepted are handled by the proper type of expansion joint, which normally, and as shown in the above sketch, is a tied universal type to accept lateral movements. However, the pressure balanced elbow is usually required because axial deflections are also present. In order to accept these movements, a bellows is added beyond the elbow with the same cross-sectional area as the ones in the universal section. Pressure Balanced Elbow Expansion Joints designed for 150 PSIG and 450°F for a 42" steam line 26" Dia. Pressure Balanced Elbow Expansion Joint Refurbished for an Effluent Header at Cedar Bayou Plant Types of Expansion Joints - Elbow Pressure Balanced
  36. 36. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com This balancing bellows is connected by the tie rods to the pipe beyond the universal section; in this way the pressure thrust is contained as tension in the tie rods. The section of the expansion joint between the tie rods, which includes the elbow, is now free to move axially, with the only resistance being a function of the spring rates of the bellows. 36" Pressure Balanced Elbow Expansion Joints Types of Expansion Joints - Elbow Pressure Balanced
  37. 37. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com 54" Pressure Balanced Elbow Turbine Crossover Expansion Joint (Refurbished) Because of their arrangement, however, the spring rate of the entire expansion joint is the sum of the spring rates of the balancing and the universal bellows. This is a constant volume system, in that when the universal end compresses, the balancing end extends the same amount. All of the lateral deflection is absorbed by the universal end, and there is no lateral deflection imposed on the balancing end. Therefore, the balancing bellows is almost always a single bellows type. Types of Expansion Joints - Elbow Pressure Balanced
  38. 38. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints Types of Expansion Joints - Inline Pressure Balanced When axial deflections exist, and anchoring is impractical for structural or economic reasons, such as high in the air or short straight pipe runs between two large vessels, the in-line pressure balanced expansion joint is a powerful solution to a difficult design problem. The principle of this type of unit is essentially the same as the pressure balanced elbow type, in that the axial pressure thrust is reacted by the pressure acting on a cross-sectional area equal to the area of the working or primary bellows. 14" In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint (Designed for 51 psig and 167°F for a highly corrosive application)
  39. 39. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Types of Expansion Joints - Inline Pressure Balanced Since this unit is entirely axial, and there are no directional changes in the pipe, such as with the elbow in the previous discussion, the cross-sectional area needed to balance the pressure is placed around the outside of the unit. Since the pressure forces are generated by the pressure acting on the annular surface between the primary and outer, or balancing bellows, the arrangement of the tie rods transfers and balances the pressure thrust created in the pipe on each end. Now the forces needed to compress or extend the unit are only the result of the spring resistance of the bellows, and main anchoring of the pipe or vessels is not required. 24" In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints (designed for 175 psig and 610°F for a petrochemical plant in Venezuela)
  40. 40. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Types of Expansion Joints - Inline Pressure Balanced This expansion joint is obviously more expensive than the simpler types; however, they may result in a lower overall system cost when the elimination of main anchoring is considered. This expansion joint can also be used to replace pipe loops, and its cost advantage may be seen in reduced pumping energy by the elimination of the loop's elbow-generated pressure losses. This may also allow reducing the pipe size for the entire system. 14" In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints (Designed for 125 psig, 244°F and 48,000 lb. of pressure thrust)
  41. 41. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Externally Pressurized Expansion Joints Externally pressurized expansion joints, also known as x-flex expansion joints, are suited for piping systems that require large amounts of axial compression or extension. Types of Expansion Joints - Externally Pressurized • 10″ to 24″ diameter range • 304 stainless steel bellows • Carbon steel shell and flanges • Design conditions: 150 PSIG at 350ºF • Maximum of 4″ compression • Hydrostatically tested
  42. 42. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com In externally pressurized expansion joints, the bellows elements are arranged so that the media flow is on the external surface of the bellows. Externally pressurizing the bellows eliminates pressure instability as a limitation to the design and permits the absorption of large amounts of axial expansion. Types of Expansion Joints - Externally Pressurized 14 Externally Pressurized Expansion Joints • Designed in various sizes for NASA • Diameters range from 4" to 10" • Overall length ranges from 21" to 42"
  43. 43. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Types of Expansion Joints - Externally Pressurized 56 Externally Pressurized Expansion Joints (Designed for a cooling system; 37.5" dia. and 36" face-to-face with 304 SS bellows) 16" Dia. Externally Pressurized Expansion Joints (Designed for an oil refinery; 60-1/4" face-to-face; 304 SS bellows; custom designed for 8" of axial movement and 150 psig at 176°F, with a spring rate of 2,152 lb./in.)
  44. 44. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com A toroidal convolution consists of a circular tube (or totus) wrapped around weld ends or pipe ends having a gap at the I.D. to permit axial stroke. A toroidal expansion joint may consist of one convolution, or multiple convolutions. This joint is also known as an Omega bellows expansion joint for it resembles the Greek letter Omega. Most toroidal bellows are hydraulically formed which requires high pressure. Others are free formed, similar to blowing up a balloon. More accurate convolution shapes may be formed into toroidal dye cavities. Since this forming pressure is high, pressure resistance is also high. Types of Expansion Joints - Toroidal Toroidal Bellows Expansion Joints (Omega Bellows Expansion Joint)
  45. 45. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com "U" shaped bellows cause a bending stress due to the pressure load on the convolution side wall. This generally determines the maximum pressure, however the toroid contains only membrane stress thus determining the maximum pressure. Due to the toroidal shape, deflection is limited. With "U" shaped convolutions, more deflection can be achieved but allowable pressures are lower. Types of Expansion Joints - Toroidal 92" Toroidal Bellow Expansion Joint for an ASME “U” Stamp Heat Exchanger Shell. (Designed for 400 psig at 500°F; extension stroke of 5/16"; the bellows element was fabricated from .060" Inconel® 600 with A-516 Gr. 70 weld ends)
  46. 46. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Types of Expansion Joints - Clamshell Clamshell Bellows Expansion Joints Clamshell Bellows Expansion Joint (Designed for a shell and tube heat exchanger; 14" dia.; 150 psig at 150°F) 3-Day Emergency Fabrication of a 40" Clamshell Expansion Joint for a Chemical Plant in Texas. Q.C. Performing a Dye Penetrant Test on a Clamshell Bellows
  47. 47. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Refractory Lined Expansion Joints 44" Universal Refractory Lined Expansion Joint designed for 30 psig and 1400°F 36" Double Hinged Expansion Joint designed for 50 psig and 1000°F 70" Tied Universal Expansion Joint designed for 51 psig and 1460°F Types of Expansion Joints - Refractory-lined Depending on the temperature, pressure, movement and flow media conditions, refractory-lined expansion joints can be hinged, in-line pressure balanced, gimbal, tied-universal and can also include pantographic linkage. For hot applications (up to 1400°F), the bellows is packed with KO wool and lined with insulating refractory.
  48. 48. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Types of Expansion Joints - Refractory-lined The refractory-lining allows for the use of carbon steel pipe instead of 300 series stainless steel. It can reduce the pipe wall temperature to between 300-450°F and also protect the bellows from abrasion caused by the flow of abrasive particles. 80" Dia., 36" Long Refractory-lined Tied Universal Expansion Joint This expansion joint was fabricated with two-ply Inconel® 625 LCF bellows, tie rods, slotted hinges, insulation bags and liner seals. It is designed to operate at 58 PSIG and temperatures up to 1,450° F. The expansion joint was preset for 6" lateral travel and is capable of lateral travel up to 13".
  49. 49. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Refractory-lined expansion joints are used in Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU), furnaces, hot gas turbines, styrene plants, fluidized bed boilers, kilns, power recovery trains and thermal oxidizers. Refractory-lined expansion joints are custom designed for each application due to the extreme environments. Types of Expansion Joints - Refractory-lined 76" Diameter Single Expansion Joints with 4" Refractory Lining, 321 Stainless Steel Bellows and A588-A Corten Angle Flanges.
  50. 50. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Types of Expansion Joints - Thick Wall Thick Wall Expansion Joints These may be a cost-effective option for large-diameter piping systems which operate at low pressure. Metals can be selected to satisfy different temperature conditions. The distribution of axial, angular, and lateral forces will be different when thick-wall expansion joints are used. We can provide your design engineers with the potential forces and movements for proper design of the structural members supporting the system. These joints have a long life which justifies the initial investment. 72" Diameter Tied Universal Thick Wall Expansion Joint with 316 SS Bellows for a Sulfuric Acid Plant 108" Diameter Thick Wall Expansion Joint (with 2 convolutions)
  51. 51. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com 78" I.D. x 100" O.D. Thick Wall Flanged and Flued Head Expansion Joints Thick-wall expansion joints are used primarily in heat exchangers and large diameter piping systems where thin-wall expansion joints would not be sufficient. The bellows are typically fabricated from A516 Grade 70 material, with the thickness ranging from 3/16" to 1". Other materials are available to meet different temperature requirements. Types of Expansion Joints - Thick Wall All four expansion joints were fabricated from 1/4″ thick ASTM A516 grade 70 carbon steel plate. The expansion joints were cold formed and heat treated. The weld ends of the expansion joint are beveled, and drainage plugs are installed in the crest of the bellows.
  52. 52. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com 71" x 143" Round Corner Regular Expansion Joint for an Oil Refinery in India Rectangular Metallic Expansion Joint 240" x 80" and 157" x 65" Types of Expansion Joints - Rectangular Metallic Rectangular Metallic Expansion Joints Rectangular metal expansion joints have a variety of applications in the power, petrochemical, refining, chemical, and steel industries. Since there are no standard duct sizes, and due to the wide range of pressure and temperature combinations, each rectangular metal expansion joint is custom-engineered to provide the most economical design that will absorb the thermal movements of the system in which it is installed.
  53. 53. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Types of Expansion Joints - Rectangular Metallic Like circular expansion joints, rectangular expansion joints absorb three types of movement: axial, lateral and angular. For the purpose of designing rectangular bellows, it is critical to know in which direction the lateral and angular movements will occur, i.e. parallel to the long and/or short side of the bellows. 55' Long by 14' 6" Wide Rectangular Metallic Expansion Joint The expansion joints were fabricated from COR-TEN ASTM 588 carbon steel and are designed for 1.2 PSI at temperatures up to 748°F. The expansion joints were designed for an axial compression of 1.5″ and a lateral resultant movement of 1.84″. The entire expansion joint was shipped to the job site in one piece. This avoided having to splice weld the expansion joint into one piece, which saved the customer countless assembly man hours in the field.
  54. 54. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Types of Expansion Joints - Rectangular Metallic Unlike circular bellows where the pressure stress is a circumferential membrane (hoop) stress, the rectangular bellows must be designed for longitudinal (beam) bending stresses. Long unsupported lengths must frequently be supported to prevent excessive deflection and stresses of the bellows element. In certain applications, covers and liners can perform the function of pressure supports. Single Miter Corner Rounded Corner Camera Corner Typical convolution geometry's and corner construction details are shown below. The "V" convolution profile will be supplied with single miter corners, unless otherwise specified. Round corner bellows will always be constructed using the "U" convolution profile.
  55. 55. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com 30" Slip Type Expansion Joint (Designed for hydrocarbon flaring system ) Types of Expansion Joints Slip Type Expansion Joints Slip type (Dresser® Style) expansion joints are used when the primary problem is a large axial movement. Materials can be selected to accommodate high temperatures and pressures. Design details include selection of packing and seals and perhaps resistance to abrasive solids. Some applications may require surfaces to minimize abrasive wear. Special features such as "wipers" can be included to prevent potential clogging of the space provided for slip movement.
  56. 56. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com 81" x 18" Fabric Expansion Joint Designed for High Air Circulation Flow for Air Cooling Loop Duct in a Power Plant Types of Expansion Joints Fabric Expansion Joints Fabric expansion joints are often used in ducts which carry hot gases at low pressures. The major design parameters are the temperatures and flow rates of the gases and the amount and abrasiveness of solids suspended in the gases. Layers of different fabrics insulation can be combined to accommodate the temperatures and pressure in the system. The fabric belt may need to be replaced periodically. 24" Dia. Fabric Expansion Joints Designed for Inlet and Exhaust Piping of a Hot Air Blower 128" x 229" Rectangular Fabric Expansion Joint
  57. 57. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Stitching the Fabric Belt on the 1st Layer Types of Expansion Joints - Fabric Up Close of Stitching the Fabric Belt 36" x 10" Face-to-Face fabric Expansion Joint with a Three Layer fabric Belt Including 150 lb. Flat Face Flanges with Carbon Steel Backing Bars and Liner
  58. 58. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com 78" Dia. Fabric Expansion Joint and Duct Work Assembly with a 90° Elbow for a Sulphuric Acid Plant Types of Expansion Joints Fabric Expansion Joints and Duct Work U.S. Bellows provides custom designed expansion joints in duct work and fabricated duct work assemblies. The assemblies may include fabricated elbows, tees, and straight sections of duct work, in carbon steel or stainless steel, and in diameters of 42" or larger. The duct sections can include fabric or metallic expansion joints and can be rectangular or round. U.S. Bellows can also provide specialized pipe supports and spring hangers for large diameter duct work. Additionally, we offer complete pipe stress analysis of your duct systems using CAESAR II software. 72" Dia. Duct Work Designed for Absorbing Tower Piping in an Acid Plant
  59. 59. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com 30" Diameter Rubber Expansion Joint (EPDM reinforced tube & cover, telescoping linear and A516-70 flanges) 59" Diameter Neoprene Expansion Joint (Carbon Steel Angle flanges and Stainless Steel Clamp Rings) Types of Expansion Joints Neoprene / Rubber Expansion Joints 59" x 39.5" Neoprene Expansion Joints for Air Intake in a generator Unit at a Packaged Power Facility
  60. 60. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Internal Liners Expansion Joint Accessories Internal liners are used to reduce turbulence across the bellows, and to protect the bellows from erosion. They are necessary when particulate barriers and purges are specified. Liners are normally required when ducts are refractory lined, as they become refractory lined as well. Applicable lateral and angular movements should be specified, in order that adequate clearance is provided in the liner design.
  61. 61. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Protective Covers Expansion Joint Accessories Being relatively thin, the bellows element should be protected on the outside from damage during plant construction and later maintenance activities. Falling tools, standing on the bellows, contact with pipes, hangers and equipment, and weld and burning spatter can render a bellows unsafe or unusable. PT&P offers, as an optional accessory, standard carbon steel removable covers attached to the upstream end connection, and sized to permit free flexing of the expansion joint.
  62. 62. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Limit Rods Expansion Joint Accessories It is sometimes desirable to limit the axial expansion or compression of the expansion joint. Limit rods, shown above, provide freedom of movement over a range determined by the location of nut stops along the rods. In the event of a main anchor failure, limit rods are designed to prevent bellows over- extension while restraining the full pressure thrust of the system.
  63. 63. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Purge Connectors / Particulate Barriers Expansion Joint Accessories In systems that have a media with significant particulate content (i.e. flash or catalyst), a barrier of ceramic fiber can be utilized to prevent corrosion and restricted bellows flexibility resulting from the accumulation of the particulate. Purging systems may also be used to perform this function. Liners will necessarily have to be installed when a particulate barrier or purge connection is specified.
  64. 64. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com EJMA Standards
  65. 65. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com EJMA Standards
  66. 66. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Same-Day Emergency Service on an 8" Single Expansion Joint Value-Added Services – Emergency Response Metallic Expansion Joint Refurbished in Just 2 Days Refurbishment of 54" Pressure Balanced Elbow Turbine Crossover Expansion Joint 4" Single Expansion Joint Refurbished (Received in the Morning and Shipped the Very Same Day)
  67. 67. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Friday, 5:30pm Saturday Sunday 24x7 Emergency/Quick-turn Services for a 48" dia expansion joint 24x7 Web-based Emergency Services Value-Added Services – Emergency Services
  68. 68. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com • Engineering and Design – Piping, pipe support and structural design – 3D modeling technology – Pipe Stress Analysis • ANSYS – Finite Element Analysis • Special stress/thermal problems • Pro/E for 3-D Part Design • ANSYS for Mesh Generation + Analysis + Results Analysis – Field Testing Value-Added Services – Engineering & Design Department
  69. 69. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Technical Information www.usbellows.com Fatigue Testing Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints Heat Exchanger Shell Bellows High Temp Furnace Seal Bag
  70. 70. www.usbellows.com Phone: 877-660-1795sales@usbellows.com Thank You for Joining U.S. Bellows 101: Expansion Joint Basics Webinar Please forward any additional questions or inquiries to us at sales@usbellows.com, call us at 877-660-1795 or visit our website at www.usbellows.com Attention Attendees: to listen to the audio portion, check that your speakers or headset are on and turned up OR dial the number and use the access code listed in your confirmation email. Attention P.E.’s: this Webinar is worth 1 PDH credit for TX P.E.’s Certificates are automatically emailed to you within 1-2 days after the Webinar If you don’t see it in your inbox, check your spam box Need further assistance, email us at news@usbellows.com

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