Display this slide before the presentation begins, while viewers are joining…. Do not say what is on slide…. Switch to next slide before welcoming
I would like to welcome you to our Webinar on Expansion Joints This Webinar is hosted by U.S. Bellows, a division of Piping Technology & Products I would also like to remind you, that if you have a question, please feel free to chat it to us during the presentation or after the presentation during the “Questions and Answers Session.”
(Go over certifications on the next slide) Piping Technology & Products, Inc. Engineered Pipe Supports: - Spring Hangers: Variables, Constants and Big-Ton Spring Supports - Vibration Control Devices: Snubbers and Sway Struts - Support Assembly Components: Clamps and Hardware - Pre-Insulated Pipe Supports: Cryogenic and Heat Applications (Cold & Hot Shoes) - Fabricated Pipe Shoes, Guides and Anchors Slide Bearing Plates Anchor Bolts and Embed Plates U.S. Bellows, Inc. (Member of EJMA) Expansion Joints Metallic, Thin-Wall, Thick-Wall, Fabric, Rectangular, and Slip-Type Sweco Fab, Inc. (ASME U-Stamp and R-Stamp Certified) Pressure Vessels, Pig Launchers/Receivers, Spectacle/Line Blinds, Instrument Supports and ASME/Misc. Fabricated Items. Pipe Shields, Inc. Insulated Pipe Supports for: - Commercial and Light Industrial - Heavy Industrial: Based on Mounted Anchors - Pipe Riser Clamps Fronek Anchor/Darling Enterprises Inc. (ASME Nuclear Qualified) Hydraulic Snubbers: Short Strut and Adjustable Strut Mechanical Snubbers dynA/Damp Compensating Strut
We have achieved various certifications in the past 30 years: PT&P is a member of MSS, SPED, and APFA. We are also a Minority Business Enterprise, as well as, a member of the Houston Minority Business Council. Our U.S. Bellows division is a member of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers’ Association We have our ASME U-Stamp, R-Stamp and N-Stamp for our Sweco Fab division Pipe Shields is ISO 9001-2000 certified for the manufacturing our of hot and cold supports And we have our ASME Nuclear Certification at our Fronek Anchor Darling division located in Laconia, NH Our Manufacturing Facility The photo on the right, shows an aerial view of our headquarters here in Houston, Texas Our facility is located on a thirty-five (35) acre property including additional room for future expansion Our facility is a 450,000 Sq. Ft. covered manufacturing production shop We are just a few miles away from the Port of Houston, which allows us to quickly and conveniently ship to countries throughout the world.
It is our U.S. Bellows Team’s goal to be your preferred manufacturer of choice for ALL your Expansion Joint and Pipe Motion Solutions.
U.S. Bellows is a manufacturer of many types of Expansion Joints suitable for a wide variety of applications. Here are some of the applications we have for expansion joints. We use them in power plants, gas turbines, stream distribution systems. They are also used extensively in refineries, chemical plants, heat exchangers, aerospace, onboard ships and engine exhaust systems
These next few slides of our presentation cover some of the basic or standard “Terms” which are used quite frequently when discussing Expansion Joints and their designs and applications. Due to time constraints of this Webinar Session, we will provide you with just a few moments to view each of the following slides and their respective contents. Just as a reminder, if you would like to refer back to any of these at any time, they will be posted on our Web-site, under our Webinar Section.
If you should have any questions, please forward your questions via “chat” during this session. Our panel of experts is standing by just waiting to respond to you.
Just as a quick check, at this time you should be viewing the slide which is titled “Glossary of Terms” with “Equalizing or Control Rings” as the first “term” listed on this page.
Next, you should now be on the “Glossary of Terms” slide, which begins with the term, “Lateral Deflection or Lateral Movement”.
Our next slide of this presentation, still under the heading “Glossary of Terms”, begins with the term, “Operating Pressure / Vacuum”.
Our last slide under the heading of “Glossary of Terms”, begins with the term “Spring Rate”. We hope that this information will be of assistance to you as you begin to evaluate and design your piping systems while considering your Expansion Joint requirements.
By asking yourself or your customer these questions, you will begin to gain a much clearer understanding of what the piping system is going to involve as you begin to determine what type of “flex-connector” or Expansion Joint, will be required for your application and installation. By asking, “Is this a “NEW” installation”?, and your answer is “YES”. You and your customer may have a “broader window” or “envelope” to work with towards determining your design, compared to that of a “REPLACEMENT”, condition / situation.
The information on this slide provides some more comprehensive guide-lines as to where the installation of Anchors, Supports and / Guides should be placed, in relationship to the installation location of an Expansion Joint.
This slide provides fundamental “spacing” practices, as outlined by the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association, and is to be utilized accordingly, in order to assure proper placements of Anchors, Supports or Guides in relationship to the installation location of any Expansion Joint.
An Expansion Joint Assembly is a “flexible” assembly, which includes either a metallic, fabric or rubber flexible component, which may be attached to a wide variety of end fittings in order to be installed into a run of either pipe, tube or ducting. The assembly is to be designed to accommodate a range of pre-specified operating conditions and to absorb some type of pre-calculated pipe motion or vibration.
READ THIS FIRST! Welcome… I would like to join you to our Webinar on Expansion Joints. Please feel free to chat us any questions you have Another question that should be asked as you begin to evaluate your potential Expansion Joint or Flexible Connector requirements, is, “ Is an Expansion Joint an “engineered product” or a “commodity? As a leading manufacturer of Expansion Joints, and a member of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association, we will always maintain the mind-set, that any type of Expansion Joint requirement will be treated as an “Engineered Product”, even for what may appear as a “very basic” type of assembly. Keep in mind, there is always a sense of liability which goes hand-in-hand with every installation of any expansion joint, both in terms of operation of a complete system and for safety purposes.
This is one of our “product data sheets” which we utilize with our clients, in order to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the specific design requirements of a given Expansion Joint, prior to beginning our engineering exercises. This takes the “guess-work” out of what the facts are in the design requirements. Please note some of the points of interest.
This next slide shows “thermal expansion data” or material growth rates for a wide range of materials, which included cold and hot temperatures.
The next few slides should provide you with a basic glimpse into what a metallic bellows could look like.
There are many materials used for bellows, but the most commonly used material is T-304 stainless steel, which is our standard material. We manufacture in nearly all of the 300 stainless series We also manufacture bellows with high nickel materials such as Monel, Inconel 600, Inconel 625 Recently we have fabricated alot of bellows from Hastelloy C-276. The bellows is the flexible element of an expansion joint. The convoluted portion of an expansion joint is designed to flex when thermal movements occur in the piping system, or mechanically induced movements on the pipe system The number of convolutions depends upon the amount of movement which the bellows must accommodate or the force that must be used to accomplish the deflection.
All bellows have critical pressure at which they become unstable, the critical pressure at which the instability occurs is a direct function of the diameter and spring rate, and an inverse function of the length. If the bellows is bent, or angulated, the centerline can begin to move away from the center of curvature. We’ll talk a little about why expansion joints fail. Common Bellows material failures are stress corrosion cracking where chlorides make them fail prematurely especially in stainless steel and nickel alloys due to the presence of sulfides or sulferic acids They also fail from fatigue. This could be vibration or high cyclic application with large movement on the bellows. There is also a failure mode of carbide precipitations from unstable materials used in temperature at OR above 1200 degrees. There is another failure mode, Squirm or Rupture, where instability is caused by over pressurization on the system. Squirm occurs where the bellows ends are still on the same center line, but the bellows itself starts to deflect on its own, when the critical pressure is reached, as shown in the picture at the bottom of this slide.
(Top-Left) Axial Movement refers to the change in dimensional length of the bellows parallel to the centerline of the expansion joint (Top-Right) Lateral Movement refers to displacement of the bellows perpendicular to the centerline of the expansion joint (in any plane) (Bottom-Left) Angular Movement refers to bending on the centerline and halfway between the ends of the bellows (Bottom-Right) Torsional Movement refers to twisting one end of the bellows with respect to the other end, about the bellows centerline Here are some of the types of motion that Expansion joints will absorb: The first and basic movement is an axial movement where when the pipe expands, the bellows will compress. The second is lateral movement where both ends of the expansion joint remain parallel and there is an offset. This is also considered a shear movement. The third movement is angular movement, seen mainly in hinged and gimbal joints or universal joints where 2 bellows are used together in tandem. The last motion is Torsional movement which is rarely used or seen and not recommended for expansion bellows.
This next two slides provides a little clearer illustration of how a bellows would appear when used as an intrugal component in an Expansion Joint when it is exposed to the various types of acceptable movements.
In this slide please take particular notice of the (3) “universal” type to Expansion Joints. The illustration more clearly defines what lateral off-set will actually look-like when these types of designs are in real-life installations.
At U.S. Bellows we exercise the practice of using the methodology of “butt-welding” our longitudinal seam welds on all our metallic Expansion Joints. This methodology provides the ability to maintain the same material thickness, when the two ends of the original “sheet material” are joined together. This will provide the ability to maintain the most uniform “spring-rate” once the convolutions are formed. Ultimately, this translates into maximizing the “cycle-life” or “life-span” of the bellows and Expansion Joint Assembly.
This slide shows one of our means of forming the annular convolutions of a Bellows. This is what we call our “pre-bulge” process.
Once the “pre-bulge” process has been completed, we will “re-roll” each convolution, which will provide the final configuration of the symmetrically formed convolutions within the bellows.
The next few slides should provide a closer look at defining some of the basic bellows terms and how they relate to the physical component.
Welcome… I would like to join you to our Webinar on Expansion Joints. This Webinar is hosted by U.S. Bellows (owned by Piping Technology & Products), I want to remind you, if you would like to join in on the audio portion of the presentation Please feel free to chat us any questions you have
We wish to re-emphasize that since our U.S. Bellows Team is a member of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association, follows the Engineering design practices as detailed in the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Catalog for our bellows and related components within an Expansion Joint Assembly.
End Thrust Loads are a very important calculation component that must be addressed when designing a pipe system which includes an Expansion Joint. This will always factor into determining Anchor, Guide and Support Loads.
Spring-Rate forces or loads must also be factored into the over-all design of any pipe-system.
Verbally add the fitting attachments
Protective Covers: Protect the bellows element during shipping, plant construction and during maintenance activities. U.S. Bellows offers standard carbon steel removable covers sized to permit free flexing of the expansion joint. Internal Liners: Extends the life of metallic expansion joints Protects the convolutions from direct flow impingement, which can cause erosion & flow-induced vibration. Standard U.S. Bellows liners are fabricated from 300 Series stainless steel; however other materials are available, such as Inconel six-two-five (625) and Inconel six-hundred (600).. This slide is showing the installation of a protective cover for an expansion joint going into a refinery in the Spent Catalyst Stand Pipe. This is where the catalyst, once its been used, is going back to be regenerated. You can see the insulation under the bellows cover. We are trying to keep the bellows temp. over 400 degrees to prevent some condensation of acid in the bellows that would cause premature failure. In this case we were trying to keep the temperature between 350 and 400 degrees F. The photo on the right is a special design internal liner we fabricated for a customer. In this particular case the liner has been electro-polished because of the nature of the fluid flow through the expansion joint. Also, since the temperature of the media flowing through it is critical, the customer required we put a temperature probe down into the fluid flow. In this case you see the slot there in the liner that allowed the temperature probe to come down allow the expansion joint to move and not damage the temperature probe.
The next two slides provides some detail from the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Catalog, as it relates to the formulas utilized in properly designing “flow-liners” for Expansion Joints. Please note that the differences in the calculations, as it pertains to either Air, Steam and Gases, compared to Water and other Liquids.
Please note that the flow-velocity should always be addressed when considering the design of an Expansion Joint.
Limit rods are utilized when desiring to limit the axial expansion or compression They provide freedom of movement over a determined range and are designed to prevent bellows over-extension while restraining the full pressure thrust of the system. Here we’re looking at some accessories on these joints The expansion joint on the left has some limit rods. This allows the expansion joint to compress until the lug comes up and hits the stop on the limit rode (shown above) You can see the same thing on the right, which are just single units. Again, you can see how the lug will move until it hits the stop on the limit rod.
A purge connector is injected clear gas or liquid that periodically or continuously blows collected material out. Purge connectors are used for systems where sediments collect between the outside of the internal liner and the inside of the bellows element. Some other accessories used for expansion joints. Purge connections are used for when sediment collects between the outside of the internal liner and the inside of the bellows element.
Welcome… I would like to join you to our Webinar on Expansion Joints. This Webinar is hosted by U.S. Bellows (owned by Piping Technology & Products), I want to remind you, if you would like to join in on the audio portion of the presentation Please feel free to chat us any questions you have
Just as a quick reminder, as you’ve begun to gain a little more understanding of bellows design, we wish to re-emphasize just how important it is to account for as much “workable” data as you work towards the design your Expansion Joints.
The single expansion joint is a bellows element with end connections that allows movement in any direction or plane. However, the piping must be guided in the same direction of the movement This is the least expensive type available We’re going to go into some basic expansion joint application This particular expansion joint is installed in a line where we have a directional main anchor and a main anchor (shown above). The main anchor doesn’t allow that elbow to move in any direction. It is fixed in the horizontal and vertical directions. As we move along the pipe line towards the expansion joint you can see the guides positioned at various intervals. As we get closer to the expansion joint, you can see the guides labeled G1 and G2. Under ideal design conditions, we like to place that first guide, G1, approximately 4 pipe diameters away from the expansion joint, If that was a 12 inch joint, we should be four feet away, while G2, the next guide, should be at a distance of 14 pipe diameters away from the first guide. In the case of a 12 inch joint, it should be 14 feet away. The other guides should be placed at a distance found on any table for guide spacing on a 12 inch line depending on the pressure. Back to the expansion joint, to the left we have a DMA or Directional Main Anchor. What happens here is that when we install the expansion joint on the line, it generates thrust. This is defined as the area of the bellows times the pressure in the line. In a 12 inch line, with 150lbs and you multiply it by the area of the bellows. Let’s pick a number of 15,000 lbs of thrust that the directional main anchor would have to withstand. Not only that, but the main anchor would have to withstand a thrust of approximately 1500 lbs. At the anchor “1A” on the line, it doesn’t have to withstand the full pressure thrust of the expansion joints because the Directional main anchor and main anchor are taking those forces. The load on IA is equal to the force necessary to compress the expansion joint in the lateral direction. Using the directional main anchor, hat pipe needs to be free to slide in the vertical direction so the expansion joint can deflect.
The universal expansion joint consists of two bellows separated by a pipe section or spool. This allows the unit to accept large amounts of lateral deflection. The amount of lateral deflection capability can be adjusted by changing the length of the center spool. The next type of expansion joint we’re looking at is the universal expansion joint This type of expansion joint can solve a lot of problems. What we have shown here is an expansion joint that’s placed in a piping system that has a “Z” shape. What we have is a system where its fixed at 2 points with two intermediate anchors. What we are doing here is taking the thermal growth from the intermediate anchor to the elbows in the pipe. The expansion joints are being used take a lateral deflection. As you can see, we have not only the intermediate anchor but also have the pipe guides in the horizontal sections to help keep the pipe in line and allow movement towards the expansion joint so that it can deflect laterally. In this particular instance the guides have to be planer guides to allow horizontal direction and some movement in the vertical direction. In this particular application, the joint is tied at the elbow. Depending on the size of the line where the tie rods end to the center of the pipe there is a small amount of thermal growth that has to be absorbed by piping flexibility. For smaller than 24” its not much of a problem, because if you have a fairly long length of pipe here, you can take a ¼” to 3/8” of deflection and not have to tie the expansion joint from the center line of the elbow to the center line of the elbow. That would be the only way that you can avoid having to use some piping flexibility of the horizontal line.
(From Left to Right) Sixty-six inch (66 &quot; ) Stainless Steel Tied Universal Expansion Joint Twelve inch (12 &quot; ) Tied Universal Expansion Joint with Stainless Steel Flanges Thirty-two inch (32 &quot; ) Universal Expansion Joint and three inch (3 &quot; ) Single Expansion Joints Here again, on the left we have a photo of a 66” tied universal expansion joint that was to be used for a chemical plant here in Houston On the right we have another universal expansion joint The bottom Expansion Joint is one that is tied where we had used stainless steel pipe and flanges, coupled with carbon steel tie-rods and carbon steel attachments of the tie-rods to the pipe.
Contains hinges or pivots which allow the unit to bend in a single plane Designed to restrict axial deflection (either in extension or compression) Typically designed to accept full pressure thrust On this slide, we see an application of a hinged expansion joint. In these particular hinged expansion joints, they have refractory lining and were used in a FCC unit in a plant in South Africa. Hinged expansion joints are very useful, and similar to universal expansion joints. They have to be used in pairs as a minimum. The hinged joint only moves in angular rotation and is also very good tool to be used in lines where you have a lot of weight to support of vertical piping. Where the top of the line can be supported with springs and the whole load of vertical section of the pipe can be transmitted to the hinge pins on the joints. This is a Z-section of the pipe and easy to use and demonstrate. You can also have this type of application from the top of a tower or from 1 vessel to another vessel. The hinges themselves are designed to hold the pressure thrust and the pin, and only rotate in an angular motion. It can not take any axial motion and can not be slotted to take any axial motion because they have to be designed to take the full pressure thrust. The bottom joint can be designed to take some of the weight if necessary. There is some thermal movement vertically at the top and bottom that will have to absorbed by some piping flexibility. The main function of these two joints is to take the lateral motion in a horizontal direction. If it cannot withstand the forces and movements generated by the piping deflection, a third expansion joint can be used at top to the right of the PG and thrust if needed. Hinged expansion joints are very useful tools, especially in larger diameter piping runs where weight has to be supported. You can transmit loads through the pins. You can use the hinge attachments as attachment points for your spring hangers and also absorb wind loads. The hinges can also be used to with strain some high wind loads.
Accepts bending or angulation in two planes Contains two sets of hinge pins or pivots over each bellows with the axis of each set perpendicular to the other Each set of pins is connected to the central gimbal box This next slide is a gimbal joint This particular joint is a 55” double gimbal universal expansion joint Some of the design features are: The use of a floating ring, attached to the pipe by shear pads. You can see that there is a device pin attached to the ring through a bracket to prevent the ring from rotating. This ring is about 5.5” thick of chrome-moly. This joint was designed for 65 lb. at a temperature of 1100 degrees F. The pipe itself was chrome-moly. The gimbal boxes were carbon steel This is the expansion joint on the shop floor with the ends blanked off and ready for testing. This was tested to 110 PSI, which verified not only that the bellows was sound but also with a proof test that showed the square gimbal structure was restraining the thrust. There are no shipping brackets on this gimbal joint because we wanted the hardware on the joint to withstand the full load of the hydrostatic test and also serve as a proof test.
Consists of three bellows – two In-line bellows on each side and one balancing bellows in the center Typically used when axial & lateral deflections exist and anchoring is impractical for structural or economical reasons In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint is a solution to difficult design problems Here we have some in-line pressure balanced joints These are used to take away the pressure thrust so that all you have on the equipment is the forces necessary to deflect the expansion joint bellows.
These joints are used when there is a change of direction in the piping system Generally used to handle a large amount of lateral movement and a moderate amount of axial movement The pressure thrust is contained within the tie rods of these expansion joints Here is a pressure balanced elbow expansion joint These are used in systems where you want to get rid of the pressure thrust on sensitive equipment, like a turbine nozzle The only load on the intermediate anchor is the force necessary to compress the expansion joint at the T or elbow connection, and on the turbine you just have the load to deflect that expansion joint laterally and the movement from the axial motion. This eliminates the pressure thrust.
Here are some additional photos of some pressure balanced elbow expansion joints. The pressure balanced design does not exert pressure thrust on the equipment in the piping system. Pictured on the right is one of two expansion joints we refurbished during a power plant outage. The first fifty-four inch (54 &quot; ) outside diameter expansion joint leaked from a crack in the bellows causing an unscheduled power plant outage. This particular expansion joint was fabricated for a high pressure turbine crossover piping for steam service of ninety-seven (97) PSIG at six-hundred and thirty-four degrees Fahrenheit (634°F). The twenty-seven foot long (27 ' ), twenty-seven thousand pound (27,000 lb.) expansion joint was refurbished in less than four (4) weeks. This was made possible by utilizing dedicated employees working overtime six (6) days a week. The tree-two-one (321) stainless steel bellows and carbon steel root rings were replaced. The outside cover bolts were removed and new bolts were installed. The second expansion joint was also for a high pressure turbine that was replaced during a planned outage. This expansion joint came in on October thirtieth, two-thousand and six (10-30-2006) and was ready to ship November twentieth, two-thousand and six (11-20-2006). Overall length and center line to center line length were maintained to ensure easy installation. Both expansion joints were dye penetrant tested and hydro-tested at one-hundred and forty-six (146) PSIG. Here are some pressure balanced joints built at US bellows. The top left ones are for a refinery in the Houston area. The one on the right is form a crossover refinery for a power plant in Florida. We took this joint in, took off the old bellows, refurbished and put in new bellows and put everything back in first-class working condition and returned it within 2 weeks.
Pictured above are externally pressurized joints designed in various sizes for NASA. These expansion joints are fabricated from 304 stainless steel bellows and 300 lb. carbon steel flanges. They incorporate internal guide rings that serve as limit stops in the case of anchor failure. The picture to the right are externally pressurized expansion joints designed for 150 PSIG and 350 F for a steam plant. What we see here is an externally pressurized joint that can absorb large amounts of axial motion. You can see that as the flowing media comes through the joint and goes around to the outside of the expansion joint so that the pressure is on the outside and not the inside. This allows you to have large number of convulsions without having a squirm problem and absorb a lot of axial motion. The ring there also acts as a guide ring so when using this in a steam line you don’t have to use the guide at 4 Pipe diameters away.
Pictured to the left is a Toroidal Bellows Expansion Joint. This particular one has a ninety-two inch (92 &quot; ) inside diameter and designed for four-hundred (400) PSIG and five-hundred degrees Fahrenheit (500 °F). Toroidal convolution consists of a circular tube (or totus) wrapped around weld ends or pipe ends having a gap at the I.D. to permit axial stroke. Most Toroidal bellows are hydraulically formed which requires high pressure while the rest are free formed, similar to blowing up a balloon. Here on the right is a fourteen inch (14&quot;) diameter Clamshell bellows designed for one-hundred and fifty (150) PSIG and one-hundred and fifty degrees Fahrenheit (150°F). On the left is a Toroidal joint which is used for high pressure. It is mainly used for heat exchangers. On the right is a clamshell bellows. In this picture, there was a leak in the original joint. Because it is a heat exchange with fixed tubes you cant take the heat exchanger apart without wrecking all the tubes, so we built a bellows, cut it in half, and put it back together on the outside of the shell and welded it to make it complete again.
Here we have some refractory lined expansion joints These are mainly used in refineries On the left is a 44” universal joint with tie-rods On the bottom is a double hinged expansion joint, that’s using 2 hinges together with a common tie-plate. The common tie-plate allows you to eliminate a couple of attachments to the pipe which is cost savings. The top right image is of a 70” tied universal expansion joint. The 2 top images have 17EC refractory lining, which is a very popular material for refineries. The bottom has hex mesh with AA22 installed in the hex mesh for corrosion protection.
Welcome… I would like to join you to our Webinar on Expansion Joints. This Webinar is hosted by U.S. Bellows (owned by Piping Technology & Products), I want to remind you, if you would like to join in on the audio portion of the presentation Please feel free to chat us any questions you have This expansion joint consists of two ply testable Inconel 625 LCF packed bellows, tie rods, insulation bags, slotted hinges and liner seals. It is lined with a four inch (4 &quot; ) thick refractory lining. We completed fabrication of this expansion joint within six weeks to meet the quick-turn schedule of our customer. Here is an 80” expansion joint which we built in 6 weeks for a refinery. It had 4” thick 17EC refractory lining, and internal liner with some corrosion resisting A22. It had tie-rods attached to the pipe by a continuous ring that was circumferentially welded to the pipe.
Here are some other types of bellows that we fabricate On the top left we have thick wall bellows we fabricate from flanged and flued heads. This is popular bellows in acid plants and heat exchangers with high pressure. On the top right is a rectangular joint with round corner design. We make straight sections, form a bellows, and then cut in quarters and put the quarters in each corner and weld into place on the straight sections. On the left is a single thick-wall joint. On the right are two bellows we shipped to a refinery that was switching out the bellows during a shut-down.
Here are some more types of expansion joints The top left is a Slip Type expansion joint. On the right is a fabric expansion joint. This one was for a power plant in Puerto Rico. Below we have Rubber type neoprene expansion joint. This is for a low pressure application where we put the neoprene between two angles and band it to the pipe. On the right is a special rubber design that we used in a chemical plant.
Here are more fabric expansion joints. The fabric one on the top left was for a chemical plant The right images show the fabric being applied to the joint. In this case it is attached using nelson studs. You can see the fabric being fitted on the studs. On the bottom left we have some very large fabric joints that were built with 3 layer belts: the inner belt is good for 1000 degrees with cable lining on top of that and then some more fabric on top of that; which is fiber-glassed reinforced Teflon that is good for 650 degrees.
This is one of the featured products from on our “Product of the Week Archive Section” on our website at www.usbellows.com ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- U.S. Bellows designed and fabricated four (4) thick wall flanged and flued head expansion joints from a one-forth inch (¼ &quot; ) thick ASTM A516 grade seventy (70) carbon steel plate. Two have a seventy-eight inch (78 &quot; ) inside diameter and a one-hundred and ten inch (110 &quot;) outside diameter The other two have a thirty-six inch (36 &quot;) inside diameter and a sixty-eight inch (68 &quot;) outside diameter These expansion joints were cold formed and heat treated to customer requirements. The external surface was painted with one coat of shop primer. The weld ends are beveled, and drainage plugs were installed in the crest of the bellows. The bellows long weld seams were 100% dye penetrant and 100% x-ray tested. Again, here is another flanged and flued head expansion joint.
These are fifty-four inch (54 &quot; ) pressure-balanced elbow, turbine crossover expansion joints. U.S. Bellows refurbished two of these expansion joints for a power generation plant with a quick turn-around during outages. 1.) The first refurbished expansion joint leaked from a crack in the bellows causing an unscheduled power plant outage. This particular expansion joint was fabricated for a high pressure turbine crossover piping for steam service of ninety-seven (97) PSIG at six-hundred and thirty-four degrees Fahrenheit (634°F.) The twenty-seven foot long (27 ') , twenty-seven thousand pound (27,000 lb.) expansion joint was refurbished in less than four (4) weeks. This was made possible by utilizing dedicated employees working overtime six (6) days a week. The 321 stainless steel bellows and carbon steel root rings were replaced. The outside cover bolts were removed and new bolts were installed. 2.) The second expansion joint was also for a high pressure turbine that was replaced during a planned outage. This expansion joint came in on October thirtieth, two-thousand-six (Oct. 30, 2006) and was ready to ship November twentieth, two-thousand-six (Nov. 20, 2006.) Overall length and center line to center line length were maintained to ensure easy installation. Both expansion joints were dye penetrant tested and hydro-tested at one-forty-six (146) PSIG. Once again, here are some photos of another operation where we did some refurbishing. Took a lot of cooperation between us and the customer and getting the joint here, getting the proper mode of transportation and permits without any delays.
We specialize in Performance Assurance Product Testing… Here are some value added services that we perform. Here, in the top photos, you can see that we have performed a burst test, where we took and pressurized the expansion joint until it failed. It was required by one of our customers to make sure that when we over-pressurize that there is no catastrophic failure. We do Hydro-testing, ultrasonic testing, cycle and burst testing, etc. We x-ray a lot of our bellows to ensure quality and make sure there are no defects. We can PMI any of the alloy materials we are using. We do pneumatic testing on joints with refractory in them, because we can’t perform hydro-testing without destroying the internal packing of the kao-wool.
Again, this has cycle testing. We do test on all of our products to ensure complete satisfaction and that the bellows will perform for a long period of time.
Deflections are resulted from changes in temperature and predictable variations of the system. Most Deflections are repeated numerous times during the life of the piping system. Repetitions can also occur as a result of repetitive mechanical movements and vibrations. Each time a deflection occurs it is a CYCLE. The number of cycles is important to assure the proper design of the expansion joint. Deflections result in stresses, and they must be kept as low as possible to avoid premature fatigue failures Stress is reduced by reducing the thickness of the convolutions The ideal combination of thickness for pressure and thinness for flexibility is the design issue for our engineers We'd like to discuss a little bit about Cyclic Deflections and cyclic life The picture shown is a test setup where US bellows performed a cycle test on a 12” diameter bellows made out of 321 stainless which had 8 convolutions. This particular bellow had a design life of 1,000 cycles, and after cycling for 1,285 cycles it finally failed in route of the convolution. Cyclic deflections are an important part of the design in bellows. There are many applications where expansion joints are put into a system where they remain in a steady state while the plant is operating. However, there are applications where the temperature varies throughout the operation of the plant. Such as, temperature changes that can range from a few degrees to a few hundred. In these situations, what is being affected on the bellows are partial thermal cycles. They are not the full range of movement that the bellows was designed for, but only about 20-80% of the rated movement or the design movement on that particular bellows. Cycle life today is a very important part in design consideration in the selection of any bellows.
PT&P offers on-site installation guidance, inspection and/or maintenance of pipe supports and snubber inspection. We carry a system of stock standard items and have an “on-call” engineering team available 24x7.
We offer an emergency service for those rush orders. Just visit our website and click on emergency at the top-right corner U.S. Bellows received this eight inch (8 &quot;) diameter single expansion joint in the morning as an emergency order. We refurbished it by adding new 321 stainless steel bellows and limit rods. We sandblasted and repainted it for protection. The expansion joint was then shipped back to the customer the very same day. We do provide same day emergency service if the joints are small enough. In this case, the 8” joint had a failure in the bellows. This customer brought it to us in the morning. We took it apart, cleaned up the flanges, sandblasted, repainted, and installed the new bellows. The customer picked it up around 4 that afternoon, took it back and had it installed and working that evening.
This slide shows a timeline that starts Friday, goes through Saturday, and ends Sunday. On Friday the joint over pressurized due to operator error. They called us. On Saturday we started machining the flanges and formed the bellows. We welded the bellows to the flanges. In order to have some safety involved and prevent the same thing from happening again we installed some limit rods. This way, the joint wouldn’t blow apart if over pressurization were to occur.
Our engineering and design department is involved in the following processes: -Piping, Pipe Support and Structural Design -3D Modeling Technology -Pipe Stress Analysis, in which we use Caesar II -For Structural Analysis, we use STAAD II -Our engineering and design department uses Finite Element Analysis for many projects: -FEA is used for Special Stress and/or Thermal Problems -It is used in 3D Part Design -They use ANSYS for Mesh Generation and Analysis and Results Analysis -Our Engineering and Design department is also involved in Field Testing.
Our website is the place to find technical information, including Technical Bulletins on Fatigue Testing, Heat Exchanger Shell Bellows, Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints and High Temperature Furnace Seal Bags. Please visit www.pipingtech.com after this Webinars “Question and Answers Session” is over. We provide technical bulletins like those shown above.
PT&P is a diverse manufacturer of a wide variety of high-quality, competitively priced engineered products. PT&P has focused experience in supplying pipe supports and expansion joints to petrochemical plants, chemical plants and power generation plants around the world. PT&P for all your engineering needs… NEXT SLIDE In conclusion, I’ve tried to briefly cover some basic applications of expansion joints. There are a lot of piping systems that have a lot of variations to the basics seen today. We’re more the willing to answer or look at any applications or systems you send us.
Thank You for Joining Our Webinar on Expansion Joints… We are open to take your questions; however, if you have any additional questions or inquiries, you can send us an email at email@example.com
Expansion Joint Applications for Thermal Growth Webinar
Attention all Attendees… <ul><li>Welcome! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To listen to the audio portion: 1.) Make sure your speakers or headset are on and turned up. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.) Dial the phone number listed in your confirmation e-mail: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thank you for attending. We will be starting shortly. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>10:00 am Time Slot </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. #: </li></ul><ul><li>Access Code: </li></ul>* If you are located outside the U.S., please refer to your confirmation e-mail for a list of phone numbers to call for your area.
Expansion Joint Webinar PIPING TECHNOLOGY & PRODUCTS, INC. May 27 th 2010 and wholly owned subsidiaries: US Bellows Sweco Fab Pipe Shields Anchor/Darling Ent. presents:
Piping Technology & Products, Inc. U.S. Bellows, Inc. - Expansion Joints 3701 Holmes Rd. Houston, TX 77051
Welcome! <ul><li>FROM ALL OF US AT Piping Technology & Products and U.S. Bellows Thank you for attending our Expansion Joint Webinar </li></ul>
PT&P and Subsidiaries Fronek Anchor Darling Ent., Inc. ASME Nuclear Qualified Pipe Shields, Inc. ISO 9001-2000 Certified Sweco Fab, Inc. ASME U-Stamp PIPING TECHNOLOGY & PRODUCTS, INC. Member of MSS, SPED, APFA U.S. Bellows, Inc. Member of EJMA
Certifications & Manufacturing Facility <ul><li>EJMA Member </li></ul><ul><li>ASME U-Stamp </li></ul><ul><li>ASME R-Stamp </li></ul><ul><li>ASME NS Certified </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 9001:2000 Certified </li></ul><ul><li>Minority Business Enterprise (MBE) by City of Houston </li></ul><ul><li>Houston Minority Business Council (HMBC) </li></ul><ul><li>Houston, Texas USA </li></ul><ul><li>450,000 Square Feet of Covered Shop Space on a 35 Acre Property </li></ul><ul><li>Located Near the Port of Houston </li></ul>Certifications Manufacturing Facility
U.S Bellows, Inc. THE MANUFACTURER FOR ALL OF YOUR ENGINEERED PIPE MOTION SOLUTIONS
Applications ▪ Research & Development ▪ Refinery ▪ Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Service ▪ HVAC Building Heating & Cooling Systems ▪ Furnace Sealing Bags ▪ Geothermal Power Plants ▪ Marine Piping & Exhaust ▪ Environmental Applications ▪ Kilns ▪ Steam Distribution ▪ Heavy Metal ▪ Solid Waste Incineration ▪ U.S. Navy ▪ Gas Turbines ▪ Truck Exhaust ▪ Waste Water Treatment ▪ FCC Units ▪ District Energy ▪ Aerospace Turbo Engine Exhaust ▪ Municipal Water Districts ▪ Heat Exchangers ▪ Power ▪ Pulp & Paper ▪ Stationary Engine Exhaust ▪ Chemical & Petrochemical ▪ Fossil Fuel Power Plant
<ul><li>Abrasion: External damage caused by its being rubbed on a foreign object. </li></ul><ul><li>Active Length (Live Length): The portion of the flexible part of the joint that is free to move. </li></ul><ul><li>Allowable Pressure: The pressure that initiates permanent deformation. With internal pressure this is reduced by the tendency to Squirm. </li></ul><ul><li>Anchor: Terminal point or fixed point from which directional movement occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Angular Movement: The movement that occurs when one flange of the expansion joint is moved to an out of parallel position with the other flange. Such movement being measured in degrees. </li></ul><ul><li>Angular Rotation: Displacement of the longitudinal axis of an expansion joint. </li></ul><ul><li>Assemblies: A combination of two or more components, one of which is the bellows and the other a fitting or shaft. </li></ul><ul><li>Axial Compression: The dimensional shortening of an expansion joint parallel to its longitudinal axis. Such movement is measured in inches or millimeters and usually caused by thermal expansion of the piping systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Axial Expansion: The dimensional increase, parallel to its longitudinal axis, of an expansion joint, generally caused by the thermal growth of a cooled piping system. (Such as chilled water or cryogenic service) </li></ul><ul><li>Axial Movement: Compression or elongation of an expansion joint along its longitudinal axis. </li></ul><ul><li>Bellows: That portion of an expansion joint which accommodates the movement of the joint. The flexible portion of an expansion joint consisting of one or more convolutions/corrugations, generally including collars at each end for attachment to end fittings. </li></ul><ul><li>Bellows, Hydraulically Formed: Bellows generally made by applying hydraulic pressure internally to a tube, forming the convolutions within compressing dies. (See Hydraulic Forming) </li></ul><ul><li>Bellows, Mechanically Formed: Bellows formed on a tube by expanding and/or rotating tools for each consecutive convolution. (See Mechanical Forming) </li></ul><ul><li>Bellows, Welded: A bellows made by joining alternately the outer and inner edges of a series of flexible disks usually by inert arc welding. </li></ul>GLOSSARY OF TERMS U.S. BELLOWS, INC.
<ul><li>Bolt Hole Pattern or Drill Pattern: The systematic location of bolt-holes in the duct flanges and expansion joint flanges where the joint is to be bolted to ducting flanges. </li></ul><ul><li>Clamp Bars: Same as back-up bars. </li></ul><ul><li>Compress: To shorten the bellows axially. </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrent Movements: Combination of two or more types (axial or lateral) of movements. </li></ul><ul><li>Convolution: A single member of a welded diaphragm type bellows, consisting of two diaphragms hel-iarc welded at the O.D. (total bellows traverse is dependent upon the number of convolutions/corrugations). </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosion Considerations: Bellows are usually exposed to the same corrosion conditions as the assembly of which they are a component. The relatively thin wall of the bellows makes them susceptible to damage if precautions are not taken. Material selection is the key to preventing bellows damage from corrosive elements. The corrosive areas of concern are intergranular, which involves carbide precipitation across the grain boundaries; pitting due to exposure to harsh substances such as halides and hypochorites; and stress corrosion. It is important to know exactly what environment a bellows will be used in order to determine an appropriate material. </li></ul><ul><li>Corrugation: A single member of either a hydraulically or mechanically formed type bellows. </li></ul><ul><li>Cover / Shield: An external protective member used to prevent bellows damage from possible mishandling and to prohibit foreign objects from falling into the convolutions/corrugations. </li></ul><ul><li>Cuff End: A flat circular surface similar to the sidewall of a convolution that has been trimmed at the crest. (Also known as a Cropped End) </li></ul><ul><li>Cup Neck: A cylindrical extension, usually at or near the O.D. of the bellows, connected by a sidewall to a convolutions root. (Also called Rolled Out Ends) </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle Life: The estimated life of a bellows in terms of the number of movements it is capable of providing at a specific pressure and temperature at full stroke. </li></ul><ul><li>Deflection : The movement in compression from the free length an active convolution of a bellows will sustain without noticeable distortion. </li></ul><ul><li>Design Temperature: The maximum or most severe temperature expected during normal operation, not including periods of abnormal operation caused by equipment failure. </li></ul><ul><li>Design Pressure/Vacuum : The pressure or vacuum condition that exists during system start-up and/or shutdown operations. During this cyclic phase in the system, both pressure and vacuum conditions may occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Double-End Expansion Joint: An assembly consisting of two bellows connected by a center spool of pipe, with end fittings. Generally furnished with an integral anchor base attached to the center spool in which case each bellow section reacts as a single expansion joint. </li></ul><ul><li>Drill Pattern: The systematic location of bolt-holes on the breach flange to which the expansion joint will be attached. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Area: The cross sectional area upon which an applied pressure appears to act to produce a given thrust. The effective area is approximately equal to the area of a circle lying halfway between the convolutions inside and outside diameters. </li></ul><ul><li>End Fittings: Components of an expansion joint used to attach the joint to the piping system. Generally, standard flanges, welded ends or copper tubing. </li></ul>GLOSSARY OF TERMS U.S. BELLOWS, INC.
<ul><li>Equalizing or Control Rings: A component of some joints used to reinforce the bellows for higher internal pressures and so designed to limit the amount of traverse per corrugation. Material is dependent upon expansion joint design conditions. (Not required on welded diaphragm type joints due to their inherent design of contour) </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion Joint: A complete assembly consisting of one or more bellows used to absorb thermal displacement and/or mechanical displacement. </li></ul><ul><li>Excursion Temperature: The temperature the system could reach during an equipment failure, such as an air heater failure. Maximum temperatures and time duration of excursion should define excursion temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Extended Neck: A cylindrical extension, usually near the I.D. of the bellows. </li></ul><ul><li>Field Assembly: A joint that is assembled at a jobsite due to its size (too large to ship) or the location of the breach opening makes it more practical to install in sections. </li></ul><ul><li>Flanges: That part of an expansion joint used for fastening the joint into the system. Can be either metal or same material as the bellows. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible Element: The part of the expansion joint that accepts the movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Flow Direction: Direction of media movement through the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Flutter: The action that occurs on the joint body caused by the turbulence of the system gases or vibration set up on ducting systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Fusion Welding, Fittings: Fusion welding has proved the most versatile in attaching a fitting to the bellows. Automatic welding equipment makes this one of the most reliable methods of fitting attachments, and with proper fitting design, the welding can often be done without added welding rod or filler material. </li></ul><ul><li>Hastelloy: These alloys are well suited for certain acids and highly corrosive material. </li></ul><ul><li>Hinged Joint: An assembly consisting of one or two bellows connected by a center section, with end fittings and hinge arms, used to absorb lateral and/or angular movement in one plane. </li></ul><ul><li>Inconel: The Inconel alloys are used when resistance to corrosion or high-pressure ratings are required. For many applications, Inconel 625 LCF is used for its increased cycle life characteristics and Inconel 718 for special high pressure and/or temperature applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Inner Liner: Generally a stainless steel internal sleeve utilized to reduce pressure drop, heat loss and flow turbulence. </li></ul><ul><li>Installed Face-to-Face Distance: The distance between the expansion joint flanges after installation when the system is in the cold position. </li></ul>GLOSSARY OF TERMS U.S. BELLOWS, INC.
<ul><li>Lateral Deflection or Lateral Movement: The related displacement of the two ends or the expansion joint perpendicular to its longitudinal axis. The displacement movement usually caused by the thermal expansion of the piping system and measured in inches or millimeters. </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral Offset: The offset distance between two adjacent duct flanges or faces. Can be due to misalignment or, by design, to compensate for excessive displacement in the opposite direction during cycling. </li></ul><ul><li>Lifting Lugs: A lifting device that is attached to the metal portion of the expansion joint for field handling and installation. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit Stops: A device used to prevent over traversing an expansion joint. </li></ul><ul><li>Liner (Baffle): A) A metal shield that is designed to protect the expansion joint from the abrasive particles in the gas stream to reduce the flutter caused by the air turbulence in the gas stream and in some cases may be a part of the overall thermal protection. B) On round hose or expansion joint, a sleeve used to line the I.D. of an assembly when the velocity of the media is excessive. (See Flow Velocity Parameters) </li></ul><ul><li>Live Length: The pitch times the number of active convolutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufactured F/F of Expansion Joint: The manufactured width of the joint measured from joint flange face to flange face. The joint may be set into a breach opening that is less than the manufactured F/F of the joint to allow for axial extension. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum Design Temperature: The maximum temperature that the system may reach during normal operating conditions. Not to be confused with excursion temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical Forming: This is a roll forming operation in which one convolution at a time is created with tooling that forms the desired profile. Usually a wide shallow convolution is formed and then is deepened by successive rolling operations. The metal is thinned as the convolutions become deeper. It is necessary to start with tubing that has a very uniform wall thickness. Generally, bellows of much greater length can be made by mechanically forming than is possible with hydraulic forming. Proprietary manufacturing operations have been developed to increase the cycle life for a given length bellows. </li></ul><ul><li>Misalignment: The out-of-line condition that exists between the adjacent faces of the breech or duct flanges during ductwork assembly. </li></ul><ul><li>Monel: This alloy is particularly useful for seawater or salt spray applications. It is also a good material for hot water and steam lines when temperatures are as high as 800 F. </li></ul><ul><li>Movements: The dimensional changes that the expansion joint is required to absorb, such as those resulting from thermal expansion or contraction. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Ply Bellows: Multi-Ply bellows are made by telescoping two or more close fitting tubes together before forming the convolutions. This permits a greater wall thickness while retaining a lower spring rate than a single wall tube. The result is a bellows with a high-pressure rating maintaining most of the flexibility of a thinner wall bellows that results in a greater cycle life. </li></ul><ul><li>Neck: The end of a bellows, trimmed in such a manner as to provide means for subsequent attachment for fittings. </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal Size: An approximate size, used because it is more convenient or meaningful than the actual dimension. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Metallic Expansion Joint: Expansion joint that utilizes flexible non-metallic boot or bellows material to accommodate joint movements. </li></ul>GLOSSARY OF TERMS U.S. BELLOWS, INC.
<ul><li>Operating Pressure/Vacuum: The pressure or vacuum condition that occurs during normal performance. This should be pressure or vacuum, not both. </li></ul><ul><li>Operating Temperature: The temperature at which the system generally will operate during normal conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Outer Cover: The external cover of an expansion joint, to protect the bellows in the field. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall Length: The total length of a bellows, including necks or ends, or the total length of an assembly including the bellows and fittings. </li></ul><ul><li>Pitch : The approximate free length per active convolution. Also the distance between the crests of two adjacent convolutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Ply: Individual wall thickness. Multi-ply is description of a bellows made from tubes of two or more plies. </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-Assembled Joint: The combination of a metal framework and a bellows, factory assembled into a single assembly. </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-Compression: Compressing the expansion joint (shortening the F/F) so that in a cold position the joint has a given amount of compression set into the joint. The purpose of pre-compression is to allow for unexpected or additional axial extension. </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-Set: Dimension that joints are deflected to insure that desired movements will take place. See Lateral Offset and Manufactured F/F. </li></ul><ul><li>Protective Shipping Cover: Outer cover material used to protect expansion joint during shipment and installation. </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance Welding, Fittings: Resistance welding is a reliable method of fitting attachments as long as the end fittings can be designed to accommodate the welding process. Weld bands are used to provide the proper ratio of material between the surfaces to be joined. </li></ul><ul><li>Resultant Movement: The net effect of concurrent movements. </li></ul><ul><li>Set, Permanent: The amount of extension or contraction remaining after complete relaxation of internal pressure or loading. </li></ul><ul><li>Seal Gasket: A gasket that is placed between two adjacent metal parts to make a gaslight connection. </li></ul><ul><li>Shipping Straps or Bars: Braces located between the two expansion joint flanges to prevent over compression or distortion during shipment and joint assembly. </li></ul><ul><li>Silver Brazing, Fittings: Stainless steel and monel assemblies are frequently silver brazed, if design does not permit a weld attachment. Silver brazing is usually employed in beryllium copper assemblies to permit heat-treating of the bellows assembly after brazing. </li></ul><ul><li>Single Expansion Joint: A single bellow assembly, with end fittings, designed to withstand all traverse of the pipeline in which it is installed. </li></ul><ul><li>Soft Soldering, Fittings: Brass and bronze alloy bellows are usually soft soldered to the end fittings when manufacturing assemblies. The design of the bellows’ ends commonly used are cup necks for mechanical strength with the solder acting as the seal. Choosing the appropriate flux for this type of assembly is extremely important in order to insure leak free joints. If the operating temperature is above 350 F, silver brazing of the brass and bronze alloy bellows is recommended. This would increase the operating temperature to the 750 F range. </li></ul><ul><li>Solid Height: The limit of bellows compression movement reached when the convolutions are touching each other but before the convolutions are deformed. </li></ul>GLOSSARY OF TERMS U.S. BELLOWS, INC.
<ul><li>Spring Rate: The spring rate of a bellows is equal to the spring rate per convolution divided by the number of active convolutions. Also, the rate of deflection theoretically required to compress a bellows one inch. </li></ul><ul><li>Squirm: A severe buckling or similar distortion of a bellows, produced by too much pressure inside a relatively long bellows. </li></ul><ul><li>Stainless Steel : Austenitic stainless steels have excellent corrosion resistance, high strength, and the ability to function at high working temperatures. The 321 and 316L are standard bellows material. Type 321 has excellent welding properties. 316L is usually specified when increased corrosion resistance is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Tee Expansion Joint: An assembly consisting of two or three bellows connected by a center section tee, with end fittings. Generally furnished with an anchor base attached to the tee and used to eliminate costly installation in the field of individual components. </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal Movements: Movements created within the piping system by thermal expansion. Can be axial, lateral or torsional. </li></ul><ul><li>Tie Rods: A device used to prevent over traversing an expansion joint and capable of withstanding full pressure loading. </li></ul><ul><li>Torsional Rotation: The twisting of one end of an expansion joint with respect to the other end about its longitudinal axis. Such movement being measured in degrees same as angular rotation. </li></ul><ul><li>Traverse / Movement: The dimensional change an expansion joint must absorb. This can be a combination of any of the following: axial compression, axial expansion, angular rotation and/or lateral deflection. </li></ul><ul><li>Tubing: Tubing for bellows can be Butt-Welded or Cap-Welded. </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Expansion Joint: An assembly consisting of two bellows connected by a center section, with end fittings and usually with tie rods, designed to absorb any combination of axial, lateral and angular movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Wall Thickness: The wall thickness of the original tube from which the bellows is formed. It is the total wall thickness for multi-ply bellows. </li></ul><ul><li>Weld Band: A thin strip or band welded to the inside or outside of a bellows neck to give added support or to provide more substantial metal for subsequent welding to fittings. </li></ul><ul><li>Welded, Fittings: Welding is the strongest possible joint, and if done correctly has little or no heat effect on the bellows. </li></ul><ul><li>Welding Blanket: A fire-resistant blanket that is placed over the expansion joint to protect it from weld splatter during welding operations. </li></ul>GLOSSARY OF TERMS U.S. BELLOWS, INC.
TWO VERY IMPORTANT QUESTIONS TO ALWAYS ASK AS YOU BEGIN !! <ul><li>1. IS THIS A “NEW” INSTALLATION OR A “REPLACEMENT”? </li></ul><ul><li>2. WILL THE PIPING SYSTEM BE PROPERLY “SUPPORTED,” </li></ul><ul><li>“ GUIDED,” AND “ANCHORED”,OR IS IT A FLOATING SYSTEM? </li></ul>
Installation, Anchoring and Guiding Instructions
PRODUCT ENGINEERING Data Sheet U.S. BELLOWS, INC.
WHAT FUNCTION / PURPOSE DOES AN EXPANSION JOINT / FLEXIBLE CONNECTOR PROVIDE AND TO WHAT? <ul><li>ADDS STRESS TO PIPE SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>ADDS STRESS TO ATTACHEMENTS TO PUMPS, VALVES, AND IN-LINE EQUIPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>ALL OF WHICH RESULTS IN “ LEAKS ” AND “ SYSTEM FAILURES ” </li></ul>VIBRATION AND UNCALCULATED PIPE MOTION DUE TO THERMAL CHANGES AND / OR MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS CAN BE A SERIOUS PROBLEM!
A BELLOWS IS: <ul><li>AN AXIALLY FLEXIBLE, ANNULARLY CORRUGATED, THIN METAL TUBE. THE MANUFACTURER GENERALLY REQUIRES A PRECISE AND CONTINUOUS CONTROL OF PHYSICAL VARIABLES, IN ORDER TO MEET SPECIFIC FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS. </li></ul>
<ul><li>STAINLESS STEEL – T-321, T-316, L & H, T-304, L &H </li></ul><ul><li>MONEL 400 </li></ul><ul><li>INCONEL 625 </li></ul><ul><li>INCONEL 625 LCF </li></ul><ul><li>INCOLOY 800 </li></ul><ul><li>INCOLOY 825 </li></ul><ul><li>HASTELLOY C-276 </li></ul><ul><li>TITANIUM </li></ul>Bellows Basics DEPENDING ON THE STYLE OR DESIGN OF A BELLOWS WALL THICKNESSES MAY RANGE FROM: .010” TO .500” WALL WITH VARYING NUMBERS OF PLIES I N THE VARIOUS ALLOYS
<ul><li>Common Bellows Material Failures </li></ul>Failure Mode Typical Source Stress Corrosion Chlorides (austenitic stainless steels) Caustics, High Temp. Sulfurous Gas (nickel alloys) Fatigue Vibration Carbide Precipitation Unstabilized Materials at High Temperatures Squirm & Rupture Over Pressurization * Squirm is the phenomena whereby the centerline of a straight bellows develops a sideways or lateral bow.
Types of Movement Torsional Movement Angular Movement Lateral Movement Axial Movement
Gimbal Expansion Joint Expansion Joint Movement Tied Single Expansion Joint TYPES OF BELLOWS MOTION: Bellows Basic
INSIDE DIAMETER <ul><li>THE DIAMETER, INSIDE OF THE BELLOWS CORRUGATION, MEASURED FROM OPPOSING SIDES ACROSS THE CENTERLINE OF THE BELLOWS. </li></ul>Bellows Basic
OUTSIDE DIAMETER <ul><li>THE EXTERNAL DIAMETER OF THE BELLOWS MEASURED AT THE OUTERMOST POINT OF THE CORRUGATIONS. </li></ul>Bellows Basic
WALL THICKNESS <ul><li>THE THICKNESS OF THE ORIGINAL TUBE FROM WHICH THE BELLOWS IS FORMED. </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS THE TOTAL WALL THICKNESS FOR A MULTI-PLY BELLOWS. </li></ul>Bellows Basic
PITCH <ul><li>THE APPROXIMATE FREE LENGTH OF AN ACTIVE CONVOLUTION. </li></ul><ul><li>ALSO THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE CRESTS OF TWO ADJACENT CONVOLUTIONS. </li></ul>Bellows Basic
LIVE-LENGTH OF BELLOWS <ul><li>The pitch multiplied by the number of active convolutions. </li></ul>Bellows Basic
MAXIMUM DEFLECTION <ul><li>THE MOVEMENT IN COMPRESSION / EXTENSION FROM THE FREE LENGTH THAT THE TOTAL MOVEMENT AN ACTIVE CONVOLUTION OF A BELLOWS WILL SUSTAIN WITHOUT NOTICEABALE DISTORTION. </li></ul>Bellows Basic
EFFECTIVE AREA <ul><li>IT IS APPROXIMATELY EQUAL TO THE AREA OF A CIRCLE LYING HALFWAY BETWEEN THE CONVOLUTION’S INSIDE AND OUTSIDE DIAMETERS. </li></ul><ul><li>USED TO CALCULATE END THRUST LOAD WHICH WILL BE PRODUCED. </li></ul>Bellows Basic
SPRING RATE <ul><li>THE LOAD IN POUNDS REQUIRED TO COMPRESS A BELLOWS ONE INCH (lb/in). </li></ul><ul><li>THE SPRING RATE OF A BELLOWS IS EQUAL TO THE SPRING RATE PER CONVOLUTION DIVIDED BY THE NUMBER OF ACTIVE CONVOLUTIONS. </li></ul>Bellows Basic
MAXIMUM INTERNAL PRESSURE - PSI <ul><li>THE PRESSURE WHICH INITIATES PERMANENT DEFORMATION. </li></ul><ul><li>APPLIES TO A BELLOWS LENGTH, NOT EXCEEDING ITS DIAMETER. </li></ul>Bellows Basic
MAXIMUM CONVOLUTIONS <ul><li>NUMBER OF CONVOLUTIONS LIMITED BY MANUFACTURER. </li></ul><ul><li>NUMBER OF CONVOLUTIONS LIMITED BY CUSTOMERS OAL RESTRICTIONS. </li></ul>Bellows Basic
<ul><li>INERT ARC WELDING </li></ul><ul><li>TIG </li></ul><ul><li>Stainless Steel to Stainless Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Stainless Steel to Carbon Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Stainless Steel to Inconel 600/625…etc. </li></ul><ul><li>MIG </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Steel, heavy wall applications </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Steel base to other materials </li></ul>ATTACHMENT TECHNIQUES Bellows Attachments
TYPICAL FITTING ATTACHMENTS: Bellows Attachments 1). Weld-Ends: Sch.5,10, 20, 40, 80, X-Stg., XX-Strg. fabricate from C.C., S.S. and various Alloys 2). Plate Flanges: 150#, 300#, 900# Bolt-Hole Patterns fabricated from C.C., S.S. and various Alloys 3). Raised-Face Slip-On Flanges: 150#, 300# Bolt-Hole Patterns fabricated from C.C., S.S. and various Alloys 4). Raised-Face Weld-Neck Flanges: 150#, 300# Bolt-Hole Patterns fabricated from C.C., S.S. and various Alloys 5). Forged or Fabricated Elbows: 45 and 90 Degree in Carbon fabricated from C.C., S.S. and various Alloys OR ANY COMBINATION THEREOF
<ul><ul><li>Used for systems where sediments collect between outside of the internal liner and the inside of the bellows element </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injected clear gas or liquid periodically or continuously blows collected material out </li></ul></ul>Purge Connector
Tied Universal Expansion Joint Tied Universal Expansion Joint with Stainless Steel Flanges Universal Expansion Joint Single Expansion Joints TYPES OF EXPANSION JOINTS
<ul><li>Hinged Expansion Joint </li></ul>Two 43" hinged expansion joints with 5" thick refractory lining, manufactured to be part of FCC stand-pipes in a synfuels plant TYPES OF EXPANSION JOINTS
<ul><li>Gimbal Expansion Joint </li></ul>55 " O.D. Double Gimbal Universal Expansion Joint for an FCC Unit. The expansion joint is equipped with floating rings and Inco 625 LCF bellows. TYPES OF EXPANSION JOINTS
<ul><li>In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint </li></ul>24 " In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints designed for 175 PSIG and 610 F for a petrochemical plant in Venezuela TYPES OF EXPANSION JOINTS
<ul><li>Pressure Balanced Elbow Expansion Joint </li></ul>Pressure Balanced Elbow Expansion Joints designed for 150 PSIG and 450 F for a 42 " steam line TYPES OF EXPANSION JOINTS
<ul><li>Externally Pressurized Expansion Joint </li></ul>* Pressure is applied externally to the bellows * Ability to absorb large mounts of axial travel TYPES OF EXPANSION JOINTS
<ul><li>Stable at high pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbs small amounts of movement </li></ul>TYPES OF EXPANSION JOINTS Clamshell Bellows Expansion Joint Toroidal Bellows Expansion Joint (Omega Bellows Expansion Joint)
<ul><li>Refractory Lined Expansion Joint </li></ul>44 " Universal Refractory Lined Expansion Joint designed for 30 PSIG and 1400 F 36 " Double Hinged Expansion Joint designed for 50 PSIG and 1000 F 70 " Tied Universal Expansion Joint designed for 51 PSIG and 1460 F TYPES OF EXPANSION JOINTS
80" Diameter, FCU, Expansion Joint in Fab Shop TYPES OF EXPANSION JOINTS
108 " Diameter Thick Wall Expansion Joint (with 2 convolutions) 71" x 143" Round Corner Regular Expansion Joint for an oil refinery in India 78 " I.D. x 100" O.D. Thick Wall Expansion Joint Rectangular Metallic Expansion Joint 240" x 80" and 157" x 65" TYPES OF EXPANSION JOINTS Rectangular Expansion Joint Thick Wall Metallic Expansion Joint
30 " Slip Type Expansion Joint (Designed for hydrocarbon flaring system ) 21 ' x 14 ' I.D. Fabric Expansion Joint (Power plant in Puerto Rico) 30 " Diameter Rubber Expansion Joint (EPDM reinforced tube & cover, telescoping linear and A516-70 flanges) 59 " Diameter Neoprene Expansion Joint (Carbon Steel Angle flanges and Stainless Steel Clamp Rings) TYPES OF EXPANSION JOINTS Rubber Expansion Joint Fabric Expansion Joint Slip Type Expansion Joint
High-Temp 23 ¼ " I.D. Fabric Expansion Joint Stitching the Fabric Belt on the 1 st Layer 128 " x 229 " Rectangular Fabric Expansion Joint (Includes a Three Layer Belt) TYPES OF EXPANSION JOINTS
Thick Wall Flanged and Flued Head Expansion Joint Project Experience
Burst Test <ul><li>Hydrostatic Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic Particle </li></ul><ul><li>Ultrasonic </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle Test </li></ul><ul><li>Burst Test </li></ul><ul><li>Helium Leak Detection </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid Penetrant </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Radiography Test </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Material </li></ul><ul><li>Identification (PMI) Test </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumatic Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Spring Rate Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue Testing </li></ul>Dye Penetration Testing Value-Added Services – Quality Assurance Performance Assurance Program
<ul><li>Performance Assurance Program </li></ul>Hydro Test Cycle Test Value-Added Services – Quality Assurance
Cycle Test on a 12 " diameter A240-321SS Bellows with 8 convolutions. The bellows has met the EMJA cycle life calculation of 1,000 cycles and failed in the root of the convolutions at 1,285 cycles. Temperature Change Repetitive Mechanical Movements Vibrations Stresses Value-Added Services – Cyclic Deflections & Cycle Life
<ul><li>On-site installation guidance </li></ul><ul><li>On-site inspection/maintenance of pipe supports </li></ul><ul><li>On-site snubber inspection </li></ul><ul><li>A system of stock standard Items </li></ul><ul><li>“ On-call” engineering team </li></ul><ul><li>Available 24x7 </li></ul>PT&P’s “On-call” engineering team guarantees a response time of 30 minutes Value-Added Services – Field Services & 24x7 Emergency Service
Same-Day Emergency Service on an 8 " Single Expansion Joint Value-Added Services – Emergency Response
Friday, 5:30pm Saturday Sunday 24x7 Emergency/Quick-turn Services for a 48" dia expansion joint 24x7 Web-based Emergency Services Value-Added Services – Emergency Services
<ul><li>Engineering and Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piping, pipe support and structural design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3D modeling technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pipe Stress Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANSYS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finite Element Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special stress/thermal problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pro/E for 3-D Part Design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANSYS for Mesh Generation + Analysis + Results Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field Testing </li></ul></ul>Value-Added Services – Engineering & Design Department
Technical Information <ul><li>www.pipingtech.com </li></ul>Fatigue Testing Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints Heat Exchanger Shell Bellows High Temp Furnace Seal Bag
Conclusion <ul><li>PT&P is a diverse manufacturer of a wide variety of high-quality, competitively priced engineered products. </li></ul><ul><li>PT&P has focused experience in supplying pipe supports and expansion joints to petrochemical plants, chemical plants and power generation plants around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>PT&P for all your engineering needs… </li></ul>
Thank You for Joining PT&P’s Expansion Joint Webinar Please forward any additional questions or inquiries to us at [email_address] or visit our discussion forum located on our website at www.pipingtech.com