TECHNOLOGY :- “The spice of life”
All of us like to drive our car with a mobile in one hand,
talking to the other person. But we shouldn’t.
Because here any mistake means,
‘ No Turning Back ’!
There comes the tomorrow’s technology.
Hand free driven car.
The history of autonomous vehicles starts in 1977 in Japan. It achieved
speeds of up to 30 km/h, by tracking white street markers.
In the 1980s a vision-guided Mercedes-Benz robot van, designed by Ernst
Dickmanns at the University der Bundeswehr, Germany, achieved 100 km/h.
In 1995, Dickmanns´ re-engineered autonomous S-Class Mercedes-Benz
took a 1600 km trip from Munich to Copenhagen and back, using computer
vision and transputers to react in real time. The robot achieved speeds
exceeding 175 km/h, with 95% autonomous driving. Again it drove in
traffic, executing manoeuvres to pass other cars.
In order to drive a car, a system would need to:
•Understand its immediate environment (Sensors)
•Know where it is and where it wants to go (Navigation)
•Find its way in the traffic (Motion planning)
•Control of vehicle (Actuation)
Arguably, 2 1/2 of these problems are already solved: Navigation and
Actuation completely, and Sensors partially, but improving fast. The
main unsolved part is the motion planning.
•Sensors are the device used to convert physical quantity into signal which can
be read by an observer. In hand free driven cars sensors are used for:•Road-sign recognition:-It is the technology by which vehicle is able to sense
traffic signs put on roads.
•Self-Steering GPS System for Cars:-
Global Positioning System:-It is the fully functional
satellite navigation system to determine their location within
a few meters using time signal transmitted along a line of
sight by radio from satellite.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the monitoring and
controlling the movement of the vehicle from one place to
another. The ability to plot a route from where the vehicle is to
where the user wants to be has been available for several years.
Motion planning is a term used for robotics for the purpose of detailing
A task into discrete motion. In hand free driven car motion planning is
used to finds its way in traffic.
Control of vehicle
Automatic Stability Control (ASC): It control the vehicle automatic.
Work done in simulation
Simulation is a process of imitation of the operation of a real world
process or system over time. While developing control systems for real
cars is very costly in terms of both time and money, much work can be
done in simulations of various complexity.
There are three approaches for the Recent Projects :
•Fully autonomous vehicles
• Assistance systems
Fully Autonomous Vehicles
An autonomous car, also known as a personal automated vehicle, or informally as a
robotic car or self-driving car, is a motor vehicle capable of automated driving and
navigating entirely without direct human input. As defined here, automated vehicles exist
mostly as prototypes as of 2013, but they are likely to be commercialised in the near future.
Automated vehicles sense their surroundings with such techniques as radar ,GPS and
computer vision. Advanced control systems interpret sensory information to identify
appropriate navigation paths, as well as obstacles and relevant sign age. Some automated
vehicles can furthermore update their maps based on sensory inputs, allowing them to
navigate through uncharted .They require a car to drive itself to pre-set target using unmodified infrastructure.
The following projects were conceived as practical attempts to use
•Dual mode transit - monorail
•Automated highway systems
•Free-ranging on grid
Electric vehicles locate themselves using readings & recalibrating themselves
occasionally using a "maze" of magnets embedded in the environment. vehicles are
equipped with computers that contains a map of the area in which the vehicle operates. The
vehicle starts from a known location and uses the map to determine the route to its
destination. It counts wheel revolutions to figure out how far it has traveled (sort of how you
might count steps to figure out how far you've walked).
Dual Mode Transit-Monorail
Centrally managed, fully computerized transport system
Monorail is a rail based
based on a single rail
,which acts as its sole
support and its guide
way. The term is also
used variously to describe
the beam of the system,
or the vehicles travelling
on such a beam or track.
It is connected with other
trains through GPS
An automated highways
system or smart road is
a proposed intelligent
technology designed for
driverless cars on
specific -right-way.It is
following distance and
Driver assistance system based on intelligent sensors technology
Which is constantly moniters the vehicle surrounding. In critical situation
these system warns and actively support the vehicle.
Driver-assistance mechanisms are of several distinct types,
Warn or inform the driver about events that may have passed unnoticed
•Anti-lock braking system (ABS):ABS generally
offers vehicle control and decreases stopping control.
•Traction control (TCS):-typically a second function
of anti lock braking production motor vehicle
designed to prevent loss of traction of driven road
wheel. Traction control helps limit tire slip in acceleration on
•Four wheel drive (AWD):-allows all four wheels to
receive torque from the engine simultaneously.
•Electronic Stability Control (ESC):-it is the
computerized technology that improves the safety of
the vehicle by detecting &reducing the loss of traction.
•Dynamic steering response (DSR):-It is a car safety
technique that corrects steering system to adopt it to
which speed &road condition. A sensor detects the
torque generated by the driver on the steering wheel,
enabling precise control of the power-steering system.
•Automatic parking:-It is a mechanical
system designed to minimize the area and/or
volume required for parking cars. Like a
multi-story parking garage, an APS provides
parking for cars on multiple levels stacked
vertically to maximize the number of parking
spaces while minimizing land usage.
•Follow another car on a motorway
•Nissan's "Distance Control assist" :-It
helps drivers control the distance b/w
themselves & the vehicles in front.
•Death Brake:-It is a switch that is
automatically operated in case the
human operator becomes in capacitated
such as through death.
ADVANTAGES: Fewer car accidents.
No need to learn how to drive.
Allow better traffic flow.
Autonomous vehicles could greatly decrease greenhouse
gas emissions in urban traffic
Disadvantages:Give up joy of driving.
Computerizing human labour(reduce need
for workers and increase unemployment
Computer cannot reason and predict
As we are going searching and searching new
technology we becomes a member advance society.
As we found new technology for the “Hand free
which made our life more easier that finally means:
- “Technology- The spice of Life”