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  1. 1. TECHNOLOGY :- “The spice of life” By:-NEHA 02/08/14
  2. 2. Introduction All of us like to drive our car with a mobile in one hand, talking to the other person. But we shouldn’t. Because here any mistake means, ‘ No Turning Back ’! 02/08/14
  3. 3. So, There comes the tomorrow’s technology. Hand free driven car. 02/08/14
  4. 4. The history of autonomous vehicles starts in 1977 in Japan. It achieved speeds of up to 30 km/h, by tracking white street markers. In the 1980s a vision-guided Mercedes-Benz robot van, designed by Ernst Dickmanns at the University der Bundeswehr, Germany, achieved 100 km/h. In 1995, Dickmanns´ re-engineered autonomous S-Class Mercedes-Benz took a 1600 km trip from Munich to Copenhagen and back, using computer vision and transputers to react in real time. The robot achieved speeds exceeding 175 km/h, with 95% autonomous driving. Again it drove in traffic, executing manoeuvres to pass other cars. 02/08/14
  5. 5. Existing Technologies In order to drive a car, a system would need to: •Understand its immediate environment (Sensors) •Know where it is and where it wants to go (Navigation) •Find its way in the traffic (Motion planning) •Control of vehicle (Actuation) Arguably, 2 1/2 of these problems are already solved: Navigation and Actuation completely, and Sensors partially, but improving fast. The main unsolved part is the motion planning. 02/08/14
  6. 6. Sensors •Sensors are the device used to convert physical quantity into signal which can be read by an observer. In hand free driven cars sensors are used for:•Road-sign recognition:-It is the technology by which vehicle is able to sense traffic signs put on roads. •Self-Steering GPS System for Cars:- 02/08/14
  7. 7. Global Positioning System:-It is the fully functional satellite navigation system to determine their location within a few meters using time signal transmitted along a line of sight by radio from satellite. 02/08/14
  8. 8. Navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the monitoring and controlling the movement of the vehicle from one place to another. The ability to plot a route from where the vehicle is to where the user wants to be has been available for several years. 02/08/14
  9. 9. Motion Planning Motion planning is a term used for robotics for the purpose of detailing A task into discrete motion. In hand free driven car motion planning is used to finds its way in traffic. 02/08/14
  10. 10. Control of vehicle Automatic Stability Control (ASC): It control the vehicle automatic. 02/08/14
  11. 11. Work done in simulation Simulation is a process of imitation of the operation of a real world process or system over time. While developing control systems for real cars is very costly in terms of both time and money, much work can be done in simulations of various complexity. 02/08/14
  12. 12. Recent Projects There are three approaches for the Recent Projects : •Fully autonomous vehicles • Infrastructure • Assistance systems 02/08/14
  13. 13. Fully Autonomous Vehicles An autonomous car, also known as a personal automated vehicle, or informally as a robotic car or self-driving car, is a motor vehicle capable of automated driving and navigating entirely without direct human input. As defined here, automated vehicles exist mostly as prototypes as of 2013, but they are likely to be commercialised in the near future. Automated vehicles sense their surroundings with such techniques as radar ,GPS and computer vision. Advanced control systems interpret sensory information to identify appropriate navigation paths, as well as obstacles and relevant sign age. Some automated vehicles can furthermore update their maps based on sensory inputs, allowing them to navigate through uncharted .They require a car to drive itself to pre-set target using unmodified infrastructure. 02/08/14
  14. 14. Pre-built Infrastructure The following projects were conceived as practical attempts to use available technology •Dual mode transit - monorail •Automated highway systems •Free-ranging on grid Electric vehicles locate themselves using readings & recalibrating themselves occasionally using a "maze" of magnets embedded in the environment. vehicles are equipped with computers that contains a map of the area in which the vehicle operates. The vehicle starts from a known location and uses the map to determine the route to its destination. It counts wheel revolutions to figure out how far it has traveled (sort of how you might count steps to figure out how far you've walked). 02/08/14
  15. 15. Dual Mode Transit-Monorail Centrally managed, fully computerized transport system  Monorail is a rail based transportation system based on a single rail ,which acts as its sole support and its guide way. The term is also used variously to describe the beam of the system, or the vehicles travelling on such a beam or track. It is connected with other trains through GPS system. 02/08/14
  16. 16. Automated Highway systems  An automated highways system or smart road is a proposed intelligent transportation system technology designed for driverless cars on specific -right-way.It is drastically reduce following distance and headway. 02/08/14
  17. 17. Driver-assistance Driver assistance system based on intelligent sensors technology Which is constantly moniters the vehicle surrounding. In critical situation these system warns and actively support the vehicle. Driver-assistance mechanisms are of several distinct types, •Sensorial-informative •Actuation-corrective •Systemic 02/08/14
  18. 18. •Sensorial-informative Warn or inform the driver about events that may have passed unnoticed 02/08/14
  19. 19. •Actuation-corrective •Anti-lock braking system (ABS):ABS generally offers vehicle control and decreases stopping control. •Traction control (TCS):-typically a second function of anti lock braking production motor vehicle designed to prevent loss of traction of driven road wheel. Traction control helps limit tire slip in acceleration on slippery surfaces. •Four wheel drive (AWD):-allows all four wheels to receive torque from the engine simultaneously. •Electronic Stability Control (ESC):-it is the computerized technology that improves the safety of the vehicle by detecting &reducing the loss of traction. •Dynamic steering response (DSR):-It is a car safety technique that corrects steering system to adopt it to which speed &road condition. A sensor detects the torque generated by the driver on the steering wheel, enabling precise control of the power-steering system. 02/08/14
  20. 20. •Automatic parking:-It is a mechanical system designed to minimize the area and/or volume required for parking cars. Like a multi-story parking garage, an APS provides parking for cars on multiple levels stacked vertically to maximize the number of parking spaces while minimizing land usage. •Follow another car on a motorway •Nissan's "Distance Control assist" :-It helps drivers control the distance b/w themselves & the vehicles in front. •Death Brake:-It is a switch that is automatically operated in case the human operator becomes in capacitated such as through death. 02/08/14 •Systemic
  21. 21. ADVANTAGES: Fewer car accidents.  No need to learn how to drive.  Allow better traffic flow.  Less pollution.  Autonomous vehicles could greatly decrease greenhouse gas emissions in urban traffic 02/08/14
  22. 22. Disadvantages:Give up joy of driving.  Computerizing human labour(reduce need for workers and increase unemployment rates).  Computer cannot reason and predict human behaviour.  02/08/14
  23. 23. Conclusion As we are going searching and searching new technology we becomes a member advance society. As we found new technology for the “Hand free Driven Car”, which made our life more easier that finally means: - “Technology- The spice of Life” 02/08/14
  24. 24. Thank You 02/08/14