Automobile History,Evalution & Growth
-History Of Automobile
-Type Of Engine
-Future Fuel Used In Automobile Vehicle
-New Innovation In Automobile
• An automobile, auto car, motor car or car is a wheeled motor
vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its
own engine or motor. Most definitions of the term specify that
automobiles are designed to run primarily on roads, to have seating
for one to eight people, to typically have four wheels, and to be
constructed principally for the transport of people rather than goods.
• It was estimated in 2010 that the number of automobiles had risen to
over 1 billion vehicles, up from the 500 million of 1986.[The
numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China, India and
First working STEAM POWERED VEHICLE was built by Ferdinand
Verbiest a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672.
It was a 65 cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, that was
unable to carry a driver or a passenger
In 1807 Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude probably
created the world's first INTERNAL COMBUSTION
ENGINE which they called a Pyréolophore, but they chose
to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France.
Internal Combution Engine
Four Stroke gasoline Engine
• Karl Benz generally is acknowledged as the
inventor of the modern automobile.
• An automobile powered by his own four-stroke
cycle gasoline engine was built in Mannheim,
Germany by Karl Benz in 1885.
• He began to sell his production vehicles in
In 1879, Karl Benz was granted a patent for his first engine, which had been
designed in 1878.
His first Motorwagen was built in 1885 in Mannheim, Germany.
In August 1888 Bertha Benz, the wife of Karl Benz, undertook the first road
trip by car, to prove the road-worthiness of her husband's invention.
In November 1881, French inventor Gustave Trouvé demonstrated a
working three-wheeled automobile powered by electricity at
the International Exposition of Electricity, Paris
Daimler and Maybach founded Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (DMG)
in Cannstatt in 1890, and sold their first automobile in 1892 under the
brand name, Daimler. It was a horse-drawn stagecoach built by another
manufacturer, that they retrofitted with an engine of their design
In 1890, Émile Levassor and Armand Peugeot of France began producing vehicles with
Daimler engines, and so laid the foundation of the automobile industry in France.
In 1893, the first running, gasoline-powered American car was built and
road-tested by the Duryea brothers of Springfield, Massachusetts.
The first public run of the Duryea Motor Wagon took place on 21
September 1893, on Taylor Street in Metro Center Springfield
A photograph of the original Benz Patent Motorwagen,
first built in 1885
• His first Motorwagen was
built in 1885.
• About 25 Benz vehicles
were sold between 1888
• In 1896, Benz designed
and patented the first
engine, called a boxermotor
• During the last years of the
nineteenth century, Benz
was the largest automobile
company in the world with
572 units produced.BOXOR MOTOR
In 1897, Rudolf Diesel built the first Diesel Engine.
Steam, electric, and gasoline-powered vehicles competed
for decades, with gasoline internal combustion engines
achieving dominance in the 1910s
• Henry Ford was the American founder of the Ford
Motor Company and father of modern assembly
lines used in mass production.
• His introduction of the Model T automobile
revolutionized transportation and American
• The large-scale, production-line manufacturing of
affordable automobiles was debuted by Ransom
Olds at his Oldsmobile factory in 1902. This
concept was greatly expanded by Henry Ford,
beginning in 1914.
RANSOM E. OLDS
The Ford Model T is an automobile that was produced by Henry
Ford's Ford Motor Company from October 1, 1908, to May 27, 1927.
It is generally regarded as the first affordable automobile, the car that
opened travel to the common middle-class American, some of this was
because of Ford's efficient fabrication, including assembly line production
instead of individual hand crafting.
The Ford Model T was named the world's most influential car of the 20th
century in an international poll.
FUEL & PROPULSION TECHNOLOGIES
• Most automobiles in use today are propelled by gasoline (also
known as petrol) or diesel internal combustion engines.
• Known to cause air pollution, climate change & global warming.
• Increasing costs of oil-based fuels, tightening environmental laws
and restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions are propelling work on
alternative power systems for automobiles.
• Efforts to improve or replace existing technologies include the
development of hybrid vehicles, and electric and hydrogen vehicles
which do not release pollution into the air.
GASOLINE (PATROL) ENGINE
• Gasoline engines have the advantage
over diesel in being lighter and able to
work at higher rotational speeds and
they are the usual choice for fitting in
high-performance sports cars.
• Continuous development of gasoline
engines for over a hundred years has
produced improvements in efficiency
and reduced pollution.
• Most gasoline engine cars can also run
on LPG with the addition of an LPG
tank and carburetor modifications to
add an LPG mixer.
Diesel-engined cars have long been
popular in Europe with the first
models being introduced as early as
1922 by Peugeot.
The main benefit of diesel engines is
a 50% fuel burn efficiency
compared with 27% in the best
Many diesel-powered cars can run
with little or no modifications on
100% biodiesel and combinations of
other organic oils.
Use of hydrogen as fuel
• Hydrogen is one such fuel that has been proposed for the
purpose which was suitable for spark ignition engines .
• Hydrogen combines the properties of higher calorific value
,higher velocity of flame propagation ,non toxicity as well as
lowest possible emission levels that do not affect the balance
of the water of the hydrosphere.
• More over the by product of combustion are devoid of carbon
dioxide, carbon monoxide which is the major advantage of
vehicles powered by fuel cell vehicles.
Car engine that runs on air
• The “mini cat” which uses compressed air, is a simple and light
urban car with a tubular chassis, a body of fiberglass which is
glued and not welded.
• This car costs about Rs.3,65,000 and will be ready to hit the
roads by August 2012, as scheduled by Tata motors.
• A hybrid vehicle is one that combines a smaller-than-normal internal
combustion gasoline engine with the electric motor of an electric-
• They are generally designed to be more aerodynamic than most cars,
allowing them to “slice” through the air instead of pushing it out of
• The Moovie, an electric powered
car, designed by André Costa,
doesn't look like an ordinary car.
Its round shape and large side
sliding doors resemble the
futuristic cars we sometimes see
in the movies. It seats two
people, drives on big wheels and
has hollow rims.
• The large wheels save energy
because they don't require as
much work to turn as small
wheels require. Also, the rear-
view mirrors neatly fold up away
from the sliding doors.
• An electric car uses electric motors
and motor controllers for
propulsion, in place of more
common propulsion methods such
as the internal combustion engine.
• Electric cars are commonly
powered by on-board battery packs,
and as such are battery electric
TESLA ELECTRIC POWER ROADSTER
THE ZAP ZEBRA SEDAN
• This golf cart like car is
powered 100% by electricity.
All it needs to get it going is an
electrical socket to plug into
and get it charged. The car can
reach speeds up to 40 miles an
• If you like trucks more, you're
in luck. Zap also has the Xebra
PK truck. Turn it into a flat bed
or keep it as is.
HYBRID ELECTRIC PETROLEUM CARS
• When the term hybrid vehicle is used,
it most often refers to a Hybrid
• These encompass such vehicles as the:
• Toyota Prius
• Toyota Camry Hybrid
• Ford Escape Hybrid
• Toyota Highlander Hybrid
• Honda Insight
• Honda Civic Hybrid
• Instead of steel-framed multi-ton
vehicles powered by internal
combustion engines, it is possible
to see cars made of carbon-
composite materials that are
lighter and stronger than steel,
with sleek aerodynamic shapes
and incredibly efficient engines.
• In fact, some of these cars are so
efficient that you could plug
them in and return power to the
grid for a discount on your
• German car startup company, Loremo, which stands for low
resistance mobile, will soon put its first models on sale in Europe
that weigh around 1,200 pounds (544 kilograms)
• Ultra light future cars will be made of lightweight products
including plastics, aluminum and metal composites and other
hybrid materials. By adjusting the weight of the car parts,
companies don't have to sacrifice size and can also use smaller
ULTRA (URBAN LIGHT TRANSPORT)
• ULTra (Urban Light Transport),
a mass-transit system will be
using driverless automatic taxi to
send up to 4 passengers running
on tracks which are accessible
through a series of stations.
• It is powered by a battery pack
providing an average 2KW of
motive power. It will go into
operation within a year in the
city of Cardiff, United Kingdom.
Self Driving Cars
• This might be the single biggest technology that will hit the
• It might seem like an idea from an old sci-fi movie or some
Japanese anime, but google is already in the process of testing
out the prototypes.
• Currently the design has drawn a lot of flak but tie
ups with major automobile giants can push this
Technology into the main stream.
V2V Car Communication
• V2V stands for vehicle to vehicle communication.
• Cars will be equipped with sensors and communication
mechanisms that will enable them to transfer data to each
other. This will help avoid accidents, chalk out new routes in
case of log jams. For example if the driver of one car were to
jump he traffic lights other cars in the vicinity would be
notified to slow down in order to avoid any accident.
• Also V2I i.e. vehicle to infrastructure seems another possible
avenue which can prove useful. For e.g. slow down or stop
signs can signal cars to slow down or stop in specific areas
such as schools or hospitals.
• A few of these innovations include
– Antilock braking system (ABS)
– Traction- Control System (TCS)
– Four- wheel steering
– Four-wheel drive (4WD)
– All- wheel drive (AWD)
– Electronically- controlled and active suspension system
– Supplemental restraint system ( air bags)
– Sequential port fuel injection
– And a host of other innovations
SMART SAFETY FEATURES
PRE CRASH SYSTEM
Anti-lock braking system
Global positioning systems
Collision avoidance system
MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS
• Controll An Air pollution.
• Materials consumption.
• Autos themselves and consumables.
• One way cars create pollution is by contributing to the amount of
• Cars also pollute by emitting lead from leaded gasoline.
• Global warming.
• Energy use.
• Save Earth For Future
• Futuristic car is totally adaptable. With a press
of a button, a driver will be able to broadcast
any picture or message anywhere on a car’s
surface beside a chosen picture that suits
driver’s mood or outfit.
• Car can also broadcast marketing messages.
Changing a song, or a radio station, or
navigation to a wanted destination will never
be easier with automatic (commanded by