MGX5020: Business ethics in a global environment

Week 12:
Revision

www.monash.edu.au
Exam
• Worth 50%
• Ten Questions, you must answer 3
• 3 hour closed book
• You need to use examples, but not the one you w...
Exam
• Roughly 50-55 minutes a question
• So you have time to go over your answer
• Each essay will be marked out of 100
•...
Exam
• Set it out clearly.
• Double space your work
• We are looking for clear understanding
• The easier it is for me to ...
Exam
• You need to have
–
–
–
–

Introduction
Analysis of the question
Needs to link back to the theories in class
Conclus...
Exam

Now the bit you
have all been
waiting for
www.monash.edu.au
6
Week 2 - Kohlberg’s Moral Stages
•

Pre-conventional
– Punishment and Obedience
> Avoiding punishment

– Instrumental-rela...
Week 3 – Consequences
• Consequentialism
– Utilitarianism
> If the outcomes of a certain action are desirable, then the ac...
Week 4
• Deontology
– If the principle is good, then the action is morally right
– If the principle is bad, then the actio...
Week 4 continued
• Shareholder
– Ethics of self interest (the business case)
– Duties to shareholders?

• Stakeholder
– Ut...
Week 5
• Rawlsian Justice
Distribution chosen reasonably by rational people to produce a social order
under the veil of ig...
Week 5
• We compared the two
• Looked at the privatisation debate
• Spoke on the economic aspect

www.monash.edu.au
12
Week 6
• Amoral leadership theories
• Values-based leadership theories
• Ethical leadership theories
– Gardner (1990)
– Bu...
Week 7
• Human Rights
– UNDHR 1948
– Human Rights in Islam (1990)
– Asian Values Critique

• Universalism
– Moral rights e...
Week 8
• Environmental Responsibility
– Agriculture; Water; Air; Climate Change; and Nuclear Energy

• Who should pay the ...
Week 8
• Lifeboat Ethics
• Cost Benefit Analysis
• Free-rider problem
• Externalities

www.monash.edu.au
16
Week 9

1.

2.

3.

Commodification of the Market
Intrinsically, i.e. we value them because we think they have
characteris...
Week 9
• What things do you consider acceptable to buy and
sell?
• What are items have intrinsic value, value-in-use
and v...
Week 10 – 11 Confucianism
•
•
•
•
•

Humanity/benevolence
Righteousness
Propriety
Wisdom
Trustworthiness

• Reciprocity
• ...
Week 10-11 Christianity
• Reciprocity
• Distribution of wealth
• Serving others
• Protestant Work Ethic
– Hard Working
– T...
Week 10-11 Islam
•

UNITY (TAWHID)
–
–

•

JUSTICE (ADALAH)
–
–
–

•

opposes inequality, exploitation, oppression
wealth ...
Practice Question

What level/s or stage/s of Kohlberg’s Cognitive Moral Development model would
correspond with the organ...
Week 2 - Kohlberg’s Moral Stages
•

Pre-conventional
– Punishment and Obedience
> Avoiding punishment

– Instrumental-rela...
Practice Question
•

Introduction

•

Define the Stages of Moral Development

•

Define Organisational Totalitarianism and...
Exam
• Main thing: Don’t get too cocky
• Go in and smash it
• and……

www.monash.edu.au
25
SETU
• Student Evaluation of Teaching and Unit
• Telling Monash what is good and bad
• 1-7 scale (but check – 6 used to be...
Exam

GO WIN
www.monash.edu.au
27
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Week 12 Ethics

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Week 12 Ethics

  1. 1. MGX5020: Business ethics in a global environment Week 12: Revision www.monash.edu.au
  2. 2. Exam • Worth 50% • Ten Questions, you must answer 3 • 3 hour closed book • You need to use examples, but not the one you wrote your assignment on www.monash.edu.au 2
  3. 3. Exam • Roughly 50-55 minutes a question • So you have time to go over your answer • Each essay will be marked out of 100 • Your mark will be the average of the 3 essays www.monash.edu.au 3
  4. 4. Exam • Set it out clearly. • Double space your work • We are looking for clear understanding • The easier it is for me to read, the easier it is for me to find you marks www.monash.edu.au 4
  5. 5. Exam • You need to have – – – – Introduction Analysis of the question Needs to link back to the theories in class Conclusion • I need to see – Definition of the theories – Examples – Clear analysis of the question www.monash.edu.au 5
  6. 6. Exam Now the bit you have all been waiting for www.monash.edu.au 6
  7. 7. Week 2 - Kohlberg’s Moral Stages • Pre-conventional – Punishment and Obedience > Avoiding punishment – Instrumental-relativist orientation > What do I get in return? • Conventional – Interpersonal concordance > Behaving to gain acceptance – Law and order > What is right based on law • Post-conventional – Social-Contract > Upholding individual rights – Universal-ethical > These are my beliefs even if people or the law say otherwise www.monash.edu.au 7
  8. 8. Week 3 – Consequences • Consequentialism – Utilitarianism > If the outcomes of a certain action are desirable, then the action is morally right > If the outcomes of a certain action are not desirable, then the action is morally wrong. > considers the consequences for all effected by the action. – Egoism > considers only the consequences for the individual (the actor/ agent). Enron, Pinto, www.monash.edu.au 8
  9. 9. Week 4 • Deontology – If the principle is good, then the action is morally right – If the principle is bad, then the action is morally bad – Knowledge of wrong from sacred or human reason • Kant – Act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law. (consistency) – Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of another, always as an end and never as a means only. (human dignity) – Act only so that the will through its maxims could regard itself at the same time as universally lawgiving. (universality, not subjectively) www.monash.edu.au 9
  10. 10. Week 4 continued • Shareholder – Ethics of self interest (the business case) – Duties to shareholders? • Stakeholder – Utilitarianism or – Duties to the stakeholders? www.monash.edu.au 10
  11. 11. Week 5 • Rawlsian Justice Distribution chosen reasonably by rational people to produce a social order under the veil of ignorance 1. Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive scheme of equal basic liberties compatible with a similar scheme of liberties for others 2. Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that: a) they are to be of the greatest benefit to the least-advantaged members of society (the difference principle); and b) offices and positions must be open to everyone under conditions of fair equality of opportunity. • Libertarianism (Nozick) – Strong emphasis on individual rights – Minimal government – Distribution by the market www.monash.edu.au 11
  12. 12. Week 5 • We compared the two • Looked at the privatisation debate • Spoke on the economic aspect www.monash.edu.au 12
  13. 13. Week 6 • Amoral leadership theories • Values-based leadership theories • Ethical leadership theories – Gardner (1990) – Burns (2003) • Aspects of leadership – – – – – Leader’s personality Followers Situation Processes (and skills) Outcomes • Virtue Ethics www.monash.edu.au 13
  14. 14. Week 7 • Human Rights – UNDHR 1948 – Human Rights in Islam (1990) – Asian Values Critique • Universalism – Moral rights everywhere everybody • Relativism – Determined by culture, subjective to situation www.monash.edu.au 14
  15. 15. Week 8 • Environmental Responsibility – Agriculture; Water; Air; Climate Change; and Nuclear Energy • Who should pay the costs? – Regulation > Firms are required by law to meet prescribed environmental standards – Incentives > Government provides firms with a tax break for purchasing and using pollution-control equipment – Pricing Mechanisms > Programs designed to charge firms for the amount of pollution they produce – Pollution Permits > Specific number of permits that businesses could buy and sell (market) www.monash.edu.au 15
  16. 16. Week 8 • Lifeboat Ethics • Cost Benefit Analysis • Free-rider problem • Externalities www.monash.edu.au 16
  17. 17. Week 9 1. 2. 3. Commodification of the Market Intrinsically, i.e. we value them because we think they have characteristics or significance that is particular to them and cannot be substituted by another similar thing? Instrumentally, i.e. we value them as far as they are useful/ instrumental to our lives? In exchange, i.e. we value them to the extent that they may be exchanged with other things? Distinction between 1 and 2: Objectification Distinction between 2 and 3: Commodification www.monash.edu.au 17
  18. 18. Week 9 • What things do you consider acceptable to buy and sell? • What are items have intrinsic value, value-in-use and value-in-exchange? • Is there anything that you think should not be bought or sold? – What is the reason you feel that these should not be bought or sold www.monash.edu.au 18
  19. 19. Week 10 – 11 Confucianism • • • • • Humanity/benevolence Righteousness Propriety Wisdom Trustworthiness • Reciprocity • Collective Enhancement • Influence on businesses ethics www.monash.edu.au 19
  20. 20. Week 10-11 Christianity • Reciprocity • Distribution of wealth • Serving others • Protestant Work Ethic – Hard Working – Thriftiness www.monash.edu.au 20
  21. 21. Week 10-11 Islam • UNITY (TAWHID) – – • JUSTICE (ADALAH) – – – • opposes inequality, exploitation, oppression wealth should be properly acquired (via productive means) an individual should work unless unable, in which case they should be supported by the community PURIFICATION (ZAKAH) – – • With God (Allah), with each other and with all aspects of life Preserves the idea of a common good in an economic system the rich are trustees (not owners) of their wealth economic necessity and spiritual salvation (re. ‘good works’) TRUSTEESHIP (KHILAFAH) – – – – economic and spiritual goals are compatible wealth accumulation is not the overwhelming goal waste is to be avoided resources should be used for everyone’s wellbeing www.monash.edu.au 21
  22. 22. Practice Question What level/s or stage/s of Kohlberg’s Cognitive Moral Development model would correspond with the organisation models of Organisational Totalitarianism and Patrimonial Bureaucracy? What kind of moral reasoning would they promote? What do you see as the potential advantages and disadvantages of each? www.monash.edu.au 22
  23. 23. Week 2 - Kohlberg’s Moral Stages • Pre-conventional – Punishment and Obedience > Avoiding punishment – Instrumental-relativist orientation > What do I get in return? • Conventional – Interpersonal concordance > Behaving to gain acceptance – Law and order > What is right based on law • Post-conventional – Social-Contract > Upholding individual rights – Universal-ethical > These are my beliefs even if people or the law say otherwise www.monash.edu.au 23
  24. 24. Practice Question • Introduction • Define the Stages of Moral Development • Define Organisational Totalitarianism and Patrimonial Bureaucracy • The link between the two • The moral reasoning that both would promote • Advantages for the organisation? • Disadvantages for the organisation? And Ethics in general? www.monash.edu.au 24
  25. 25. Exam • Main thing: Don’t get too cocky • Go in and smash it • and…… www.monash.edu.au 25
  26. 26. SETU • Student Evaluation of Teaching and Unit • Telling Monash what is good and bad • 1-7 scale (but check – 6 used to be I haven’t been to class and 7 was not assessable) • More importantly you can say how much you love me • Or not love me if that is the case…. • Helps me improve • Helps me get jobs =) www.monash.edu.au 26
  27. 27. Exam GO WIN www.monash.edu.au 27

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