CONTINUITY in politics and socialclasses From the earliest civilizations to thepresent, political leaders andgovernments had connections or weresomehow tied to religion. Religious leaders were often in the eliteclasses. Egyptian pharaoh, Mandate of Heaven,Caliph, Akbar made his own religion,Divine Right, Iranian Revolution
"The National Government willpreserve and defend those basicprinciples on which our nation hasbeen built. It regards Christianity asthe foundation of our nationalmorality, and the family as the basisof national life."— Adolf Hitler, Berlin, 1933, first radioaddress after coming to power
"We believedemocracy is anatheist call thatidolizes humanbeings."—Ansar al-Sunnah
CHANGE in politics in the WEST and later inAsia & Africa (1750 to 1900) & (1900-Present)The RISE OF SECULAR GOVERNMENTS Political structures in some regions wereNO LONGER directly connected toreligious institutions. Governments’ power was not based onreligious ideology – but on other ideassuch as: Popular sovereignty Military leadership Ability to rule
Causes and ExamplesCauses: Enlightenment (1450-1750) Post-WWs disillusion (1900 to present)Examples: U.S. government (1770s)
Believing that religion is a matter which liessolely between man and his God . . . Icontemplate with sovereign reverence thatact of the whole American people whichdeclared that their Legislature should"make no law respecting an establishmentof religion, or prohibiting the free exercisethereof," thus building a wall of separationbetween Church and State . Thomas Jefferson
Causes and ExamplesCauses: Enlightenment (1450-1750) Post-WWs disillusion (1914 to present)Examples: U.S. government (1770s) French governments (1800s) Communist Russia (1918) Turkey (from former Ottoman) (1920s) Communist China (1940s)
Religion is the sigh of the oppressedcreature. It is the opium of thepeople. The abolition of religion as theillusory happiness of the people isrequired for their real happiness. Karl Marx
ECONOMIC CHANGES 2000s bce Neolithic Revolution(agriculture) leads to permanentsettlements 200s bce - 400s ce ClassicalTrade Classical period saw more trade asclassical empires in Mediterranean,India, and China helped foster trade
ECONOMIC CHANGES INDIAN OCEAN, SILK ROADs,Trans-Saharan Trade 700s – 1000s ce Islamic Empire 1300s – MONGOLS!
ECONOMIC CHANGES 1450 – 1750s ce EuropeanExpansion Americas, Africa, Asia, Atlantic andIndian Ocean connections (Triangletrade, slave trade) More “world” in world trade. Globalcommerce begins due to silvermoving to China.
ECONOMIC CHANGES Late 1700s to 1900 IndustrialRevolution first in Europe, thenUS, then Russia and Japan Manufacturing and commercebecame the base of manyeconomies. Political, social, andgender results. The WEST began todominate.
ECONOMIC CHANGES 19thcentury Imperialism andColonialism World trade increases as Europeansand US take control of many parts ofAfrica and Asia.
ECONOMIC CHANGES 1900s Consumerism Emphasis on consumer goods in theeconomy began in the West. 1930s Global Economic Crisis (between the world wars) Economies of theWest declined with major implicationsfor the dependent economies of LatinAmerica, Africa, & Asia
CONTINUITIES in POLITICS andSOCIAL CLASSESThe military had an important role in thegovernment and politics of regions andempires.Warriors/military leaders have often been in theelite classes.Some evidence Classical Civs were all based on expansion and thendominance through military might or alliances (1stcenturiesbce to 3rd centuries ce). Islamic Empire expanded through military conquest. (8thcenturies to 11thcentury). Mongol armies built the largest land empire in the world (13thcentury). Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires and Aztec & Inca. (13thto 17thcenturies) The America, French, Haitian (18th), Latin American (19th), andRussian Revolutions (20th) were military based. Ashoka, Muhammad, Knights, Samurai, Aztec warriors,Chinggis Khan, George Washington, Mao
CONTINUITIES in POLITICSFrom the earliest civilizations to thepresent, the military has had animportant role in the government andpolitics of regions and empires.EXCEPTIONS, Chinese scholar gentry had power overthe military in times of stability andwere in an equivalent social class.
SOME AP VOCAB Demographics – make-up of human populations (ethnic,religious, regional) Political structure or system – how thegovernment is set up (and itsbureaucracy) Social hierarchy – social class (the caste system was onlyin India)
SOME AP VOCAB Labor systems – how people work, workpatterns Coercive labor system – forced labor likeslavery or indentured servitude. Elite – upper class Gender systems – roles of men andwomen