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CHINA:  Big Picture Themes
Political 600-1450 Tang Dynasty- 618-907 Song Dynasty– 906-1279 Civil Service Exams Mandate of Heaven Mongol Invasions – Y...
Economic 600-1450 Urbanization – Canton Silk Road trade Grand Canal is built Tributary system Technology – gunpowder, pape...
Social 600-1450 Ethnocentric Neo-Confucianism – hierarchy, social stratification, obedience, education, social behavior St...
China Conclusions 1. China has tradition of Dynastic Rule until 20 th  century – but tradition of absolute power continued...
Latin America:  Big Picture Themes
Political 600-1450 Mayan, Aztec, Incan Led by Emperors seen as gods (Pachacuti, Montezuma) Centralized Bureaucracy City-St...
Economic 600-1450 Agricultural economy based on maize, potato Mayans used slash and burn, Aztecs used chinampas, Inca used...
Social 600-1450 Population increase – Urbanization Polytheistic religion – human sacrifice  Social hierarchy – Rulers, pri...
Latin American Conclusions 1. Latin America has a tradition of Autocratic rule until 20 th  century – but has recently str...
China Political 600-1450 Tang Dynasty- 618-907 Song Dynasty– 906-1279 _______________ Mandate of __________ Mongol Invasio...
China Economic 600-1450 Urbanization – Canton ____________ trade _____________ is built Tributary system Technology – ____...
China Social 600-1450 Ethnocentric Neo-Confucianism – hierarchy, social stratification, obedience, __________, social beha...
Latin America Political 600-1450 Mayan, Aztec, Incan Led by Emperors seen as _________ (Pachacuti, Montezuma) Centralized ...
Latin America Economic 600-1450 Agricultural economy based on ______, potato Mayans used slash and burn, Aztecs used _____...
Latin America Social 600-1450 Population increase – Urbanization ____________ religion – ___________ sacrifice  Social hie...
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China review

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China review

  1. 1. CHINA: Big Picture Themes
  2. 2. Political 600-1450 Tang Dynasty- 618-907 Song Dynasty– 906-1279 Civil Service Exams Mandate of Heaven Mongol Invasions – Yuan Dynasty 1279-1368 Kublai Khan - New Capital city No service exams Ming Dynasty- 1368-1644 Neo-Confucianism Civil Service Exams Tributary States (S.E. Asia, Korea, Tibet) 1450- 1750 Ming Dynasty Highly centralized Bureaucracy – Scholars and Eunuchs in power Absolute Ruler – Hongwu, Yongle Forbidden City Qing Dynasty- 1683-1911 Last Dynasty Emperor Kangxi and Qianlong Forbidden City 1750-1914 Qing loses Opium war 1839-1842 – British take Hong Kong Taiping Rebellion- 1850-1864 (Failed) Boxer Rebellion 1898 Open Door Policy – 1899 Spheres of Influence Empress Cixi Chinese Revolution – Nationalists (Sun Yixian) end Dynastic rule 1911 1914-Present Qing Dynasty ends 1911 – causes years of instability and war with warlords May Fourth Movement – students want self determination after WWI Japanese invasion of Manchuria and China 1931-1945 Jiang Jieshi and Mao Zedong fight civil war- Communists win 1949 Taiwan issue, Deng Xiaoping, Tiananmen Square Massacre
  3. 3. Economic 600-1450 Urbanization – Canton Silk Road trade Grand Canal is built Tributary system Technology – gunpowder, paper money, compass, math, science, astronomy, block printing, junks Marco Polo – 1271-1295 Treasure Fleet– Zheng He 1405-1433 1450- 1750 Largest cities in the world- Canton, Macao, Beijing Silk Road trade – some contact with Europeans Government regulation and isolation Silver Sink- import Silver from Americas and Japan Golden Age of art, literature, pottery, porcelain 1750-1914 European influence creates unfavorable balance of trade (Opium) Spheres of Influence – Open Door Policy Port cities increase – Shanghai, Hong Kong Some industrialization and westernization (Infrastructure, Military) 1914-Present Most Populous nation (1.3 billion) – communist five year plans, collectivization (Great Leap Forward 1958-1961) – massive famine killed 40 million Four Modernizations (1980) transform China into economic power – Modern technology, space program, workers rights violations, child and forced labor Took Hong Kong in 1997 – some economic freedoms allowed.
  4. 4. Social 600-1450 Ethnocentric Neo-Confucianism – hierarchy, social stratification, obedience, education, social behavior Strict subordination of women- footbinding, some inheritance and property rights Buddhism and Daoism Bubonic Plague 1450- 1750 Ethnocentric Neo-Confucianism Scholar-Gentry on top Merchants on bottom Stopped Exploration Women still seen as inferior – footbinding Christian Missionaries (Francis Xavier and Matteo Ricci) 1750-1914 Ethnocentric – growing resentment toward foreigners Some cultural diffusion medicine, trains, schools- but mostly Confucian Women still seen as inferior Christian Missionary work continues – Hong Xiaquan influenced Nationalism develops – Sun Yixian 1914-Present Ethnocentric – Cultural diffusion- technology, sports, film, music Women gain rights – can work outside home, political equality due to communism but one child policy has created uneven ratios of men to women. Mao’s Cultural Revolution (Little Red Books) attacked educated elite and created “Lost Generation” (Red Guards) - Lack of Religious freedom
  5. 5. China Conclusions 1. China has tradition of Dynastic Rule until 20 th century – but tradition of absolute power continued with Communist takeover. 2. China has always been concerned about keeping out foreigners. (Not always that effective) 1. China has been a leader in technology and intellectual ideas up until their isolation from world trade and lack of an industrial revolution in 18 th century. 2. Throughout time, civilizations have wanted goods from China, but China has been reluctant to adopt foreign technology or ideas. 1. Most Chinese dynasties were based on Confucian ideals, but when these dynasties fall into times of chaos, Buddhism rises as basis for social order. 2. Women were consistently seen as inferior to men and only recently have been given more political and social rights. Political Economic Social
  6. 6. Latin America: Big Picture Themes
  7. 7. Political 600-1450 Mayan, Aztec, Incan Led by Emperors seen as gods (Pachacuti, Montezuma) Centralized Bureaucracy City-States – capital cities (Chichen Itza, Tenochtitlan, Cuzco) Used force to create a tribute empire (mita system) Inca used marriage, language, roads to unify Empire 1450- 1750 Conquest of the Aztecs and Incas by Spanish 1519, 1532) Encomienda System, Bureaucracy- Council of Indies Viceroyalty – Power of King and Pope (Treaty of Tordesillas 1494) Built New Capital Cities 1750-1914 Independence Movements (Haiti, Colombia, Argentina, Mexico) Enlightenment Leaders Bolivar, L’Ouverture, Hildalgo, San Martin) Rule of Caudillos – (De Rosas, Santa Ana, Diaz) Liberal vs Conservative Revolutions- Cuba 1898, Mexico 1910 US involvement – Cuba, Panama Canal, Caribbean 1914-Present Struggle for Democracy (Mexico, El Salvador, Haiti, Argentina) Dominant political parties (PRI, ARENA), Military dictators (Peron, Obregon, Papa Doc) Socialist/communist movements (Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala) U.S. involvement.
  8. 8. Economic 600-1450 Agricultural economy based on maize, potato Mayans used slash and burn, Aztecs used chinampas, Inca used terrace farming Regional trade with both land and water routes (Obsidian, jade, llamas) Use of marketplace Use of forced labor (mita) Government controlled 1450- 1750 Agricultural economy based on sugar, slaves Spain used encomienda system, large haciendas – cash crops and mita system for silver mining - Mercantilism Columbian Exchange, Global trade controlled by mother country Spanish style towns, cities 1750-1914 Agricultural economy based on cash crop exports, import manufactured goods Political independence but economic imperialism by U.S. and Europe Some industrialization and modernization – banks, utilities, mines, railroads 1914-Present Mostly agricultural economy but has developed some industrialization and manufactured goods. Import substitution. Large foreign loans caused debt, inflation, depressions - shantytowns, favelas Drug Cartels (Colombia, Mexico) Oil (Venezuela, Mexico) Communism (Cuba)
  9. 9. Social 600-1450 Population increase – Urbanization Polytheistic religion – human sacrifice Social hierarchy – Rulers, priests, nobles, commoners, slaves Concept of zero, writing system, quipu, astronomy, calendar, Women inferior but did inherit land, worked in fields, weaving, 1450- 1750 Population decrease – disease, forced labor Spread of Roman Catholic Faith Castas system – Peninsulares, Creole, Mestizos, Mulattos, natives Use of horse, cattle, manufactured goods Women seen as inferior 1750-1914 Population increase – immigration from Europe Domination of Roman Catholic Faith Social Structure – Elite, wealthy land owners, high church officials, military, commoners, peasants Slave trade and slavery ended, Enlightenment ideas Women seen as inferior 1914-Present Population increase – Urbanization – some flight to U.S. for jobs Roman Catholic Faith still dominates but rise of Protestantism – Rise of a middle class but still large poor population. Increased education, Green Revolution, Industrialization Women gain rights (suffrage), playing a role in business and the government
  10. 10. Latin American Conclusions 1. Latin America has a tradition of Autocratic rule until 20 th century – but has recently struggled to achieve democracy and social equality. 2. Latin America has history of being controlled and influenced by outsiders. 1. Latin America has consistently been an agricultural society with an economy based on crops dependent on weather and global markets. 2. Throughout time, many Latin American governments have controlled, altered, or influenced the infrastructure, industry, and wealth of their people. 1. Latin American society has been clearly defined by a minority of wealthy landlords with all the power and a majority of poor peasants with few political rights. 2. Women were consistently seen as inferior to men and only recently have been given more political and social rights. 3. The role of Religion has been vital to the identity and culture of the people Political Economic Social
  11. 11. China Political 600-1450 Tang Dynasty- 618-907 Song Dynasty– 906-1279 _______________ Mandate of __________ Mongol Invasions – Yuan Dynasty 1279-1368 _______________ - New Capital city No service exams Ming Dynasty- 1368-1644 Neo-Confucianism Civil Service Exams __________ States (S.E. Asia, Korea, Tibet) 1450- 1750 Ming Dynasty Highly centralized Bureaucracy – Scholars and _________ in power Absolute Ruler – Hongwu, Yongle ______________ City ____ Dynasty- 1683-1911 Last Dynasty Emperor Kangxi and Qianlong Forbidden City 1750-1914 Qing loses Opium war 1839-1842 – British take ______________ Taiping Rebellion- 1850-1864 (Failed) Boxer Rebellion 1898 Open Door Policy – 1899 ___________________ Empress Cixi Chinese Revolution – Nationalists (Sun Yixian) end Dynastic rule 1911 1914-Present Qing Dynasty ends 1911 – causes years of instability and war with warlords ___________ Movement – students want self determination after WWI Japanese invasion of Manchuria and China 1931-1945 Jiang Jieshi and Mao Zedong fight civil war- Communists win 1949 Taiwan issue, Deng Xiaoping, ___________________ Massacre
  12. 12. China Economic 600-1450 Urbanization – Canton ____________ trade _____________ is built Tributary system Technology – _____________, paper money, compass, math, science, astronomy, ______________, junks Marco Polo – 1271-1295 Treasure Fleet– ___________ 1405-1433 1450- 1750 Largest cities in the world- Canton, Macao, Beijing Silk Road trade – some contact with Europeans Government regulation and _______________ ___________ - import Silver from Americas and Japan _______________ of art, literature, pottery, porcelain 1750-1914 European influence creates _____________ balance of trade (Opium) Spheres of Influence – Open Door Policy Port cities increase – Shanghai, Hong Kong Some industrialization and _______________ (Infrastructure, Military) 1914-Present Most Populous nation (1.3 billion) – __________ five year plans, collectivization (___________________ 1958-1961) – massive famine killed 40 million _____________________ (1980) transform China into economic power – Modern technology, space program, workers rights violations, _______________ labor Took Hong Kong in 1997 – some economic freedoms allowed.
  13. 13. China Social 600-1450 Ethnocentric Neo-Confucianism – hierarchy, social stratification, obedience, __________, social behavior Strict subordination of women- ___________, some inheritance and property rights _________ and Daoism Bubonic Plague 1450- 1750 Ethnocentric Neo-Confucianism ______________ on top Merchants on bottom Stopped Exploration Women still seen as inferior – footbinding _________ Missionaries (Francis Xavier and Matteo Ricci) 1750-1914 Ethnocentric – growing resentment toward foreigners Some cultural diffusion ________, trains, schools- but mostly Confucian Women still seen as inferior Christian Missionary work continues – Hong Xiaquan influenced __________ develops – Sun Yixian 1914-Present Ethnocentric – Cultural diffusion- technology, sports, film, music Women ___________ – can work outside home, political equality due to communism but _______________ has created uneven ratios of men to women. Mao’s _________________ (Little Red Books) attacked educated elite and created “Lost Generation” (Red Guards) - Lack of _____________ freedom
  14. 14. Latin America Political 600-1450 Mayan, Aztec, Incan Led by Emperors seen as _________ (Pachacuti, Montezuma) Centralized Bureaucracy _________ – capital cities (Chichen Itza, Tenochtitlan, Cuzco) Used force to create a _________ empire (mita system) Inca used __________, language, roads to unify Empire 1450- 1750 Conquest of the Aztecs and Incas by __________ 1519, 1532) _____________ System, Bureaucracy- Council of Indies Viceroyalty – Power of King and _____ (Treaty of Tordesillas 1494) Built New Capital Cities 1750-1914 ______________ Movements (Haiti, Colombia, Argentina, Mexico) Enlightenment Leaders ____________, L’Ouverture, Hildalgo, San Martin) Rule of ______________ – (De Rosas, Santa Ana, Diaz) Liberal vs Conservative Revolutions- Cuba 1898, Mexico 1910 ____ involvement – Cuba, Panama Canal, Caribbean 1914-Present Struggle for ______________ (Mexico, El Salvador, Haiti, Argentina) Dominant political parties (PRI, ARENA), ________ dictators (Peron, Obregon, Papa Doc) _________/communist movements (Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala) U.S. involvement.
  15. 15. Latin America Economic 600-1450 Agricultural economy based on ______, potato Mayans used slash and burn, Aztecs used ___________, Inca used terrace farming Regional trade with both land and water routes (Obsidian, _____, llamas) Use of _____________ Use of forced labor (mita) Government controlled 1450- 1750 Agricultural economy based on ______,______ Spain used encomienda system, large haciendas – cash crops and mita system for silver mining - ________________ ___________ Exchange, Global trade controlled by mother country Spanish style towns, cities 1750-1914 Agricultural economy based on cash crop exports, import ______________ goods Political independence but economic ____________ by U.S. and Europe Some industrialization and modernization – banks, utilities, mines, _____________ 1914-Present Mostly agricultural economy but has developed some industrialization and manufactured goods. ___________________. Large foreign loans caused debt, inflation, depressions - _________________, favelas _____ Cartels (Colombia, Mexico) Oil (Venezuela, Mexico) Communism (Cuba)
  16. 16. Latin America Social 600-1450 Population increase – Urbanization ____________ religion – ___________ sacrifice Social hierarchy – Rulers, priests, nobles, commoners, slaves Concept of _____, writing system, quipu, astronomy, calendar, Women inferior but did inherit land, worked in fields, weaving, 1450- 1750 Population decrease – _________, forced labor Spread of ___________ _____________ Faith ___________ system – Peninsulares, Creole, Mestizos, Mulattos, natives Use of ________, cattle, manufactured goods Women seen as inferior 1750-1914 Population increase – immigration from _______ Domination of Roman Catholic Faith Social Structure – Elite, wealthy land owners, high ______ officials, military, commoners, peasants Slave trade and slavery ________, Enlightenment ideas Women seen as inferior 1914-Present Population increase – _________________ – some flight to U.S. for jobs Roman Catholic Faith still dominates but rise of _________________ – Rise of a ___________ but still large poor population. Increased education, Green Revolution, Industrialization Women ___________ (suffrage), playing a role in business and the government

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