Ottoman Empire

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Mrs. Castle's class November 2009.

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Ottoman Empire

  1. 1. The Ottoman Empire <br />1280-1918<br />1<br />
  2. 2. The Ottomans were:<br />·Turkish (capital Istanbul)<br />·Muslim<br />·The largest empire in the world<br />
  3. 3. Osman I (Othman): 1299-1326<br />
  4. 4. Tamerlane (1336-1405)<br />or “Timur, the Lame”<br />
  5. 5. Mehmet I: 1413-1421<br />
  6. 6. Mehmet II (“the Conqueror”), who ruled from 1451-1481<br />http://home.earthlink.net/<br />~snailstales2/fatih.jpg<br />6<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8. The Fall of Constantinople: 1453<br />
  9. 9. The End of the Byzantine Empire<br />
  10. 10. Islam and the Ottoman Empire<br />·Sultan = caliph (head of Islam)<br />·Divided the empire into Millets (religious groups)<br />·Divided the world into “the House of Islam” and the “House of War”<br />10<br />
  11. 11. The Ottoman Bureaucracy<br />SULTAN<br />Divans<br />(Governors)<br />Heads of Religious Millets<br />Social/Military<br /> Divans<br />Jews<br />Muslims<br />Local Administrators/Military<br />Christians<br />Landowners/Tax Collectors<br />
  12. 12. Selim I, ”the Grim”: 1512-1520<br />
  13. 13. Suleyman the Magnificent (or “the Law Giver,” ruled 1520-1566<br />12<br />http://commons.wikimedia.org/<br />wiki/Image:Suleyman_young.jpg<br />
  14. 14. Summary of the devshirme system:<br />·Slaves were taken from any non-Muslim areas. Race and language didn’t matter. <br />·Slaves were given jobs according to their interests and abilities. (Slaves did NOT do agricultural work – as American slaves did.)<br />16<br />
  15. 15. Devshirme (devşirme)<br />http://www.pravoslavie.domainbg.com/<br />images/iljustracii/devshirme.jpg<br />17<br />
  16. 16. Importance of the System:<br />·Government positions were based on merit, not on birth.<br />·Slaves were loyal to the sultan. – They owed their rank to him, and they had no powerful families to support them if they rebelled.<br />·When the system ended in the mid-1600s, the government and military declined.<br />18<br />
  17. 17. Three Ottoman Strengths:<br />
  18. 18. 1. Control of Trade<br />·Location on the east/west trade route<br />·Control of the Waterways<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
  21. 21. 2. Wealth from trade<br />
  22. 22. Sultan’s headpiece, decorated with gold, emeralds, rubies, diamonds, and pearls<br />27<br />www.tourism.gov.tr<br />
  23. 23. Jeweled Dagger<br />www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~history/<br />Pictures2/topkapi_dagger_1746.jpg<br />28<br />
  24. 24. Golden cradle<br />29<br />www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~history/Pictures2/goldencradle_16cc.jpg<br />
  25. 25. Gold dishes (for eating sweetmeats)<br />30<br />www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~history/Pictures2/Yeni/trea1.JPG<br />
  26. 26. The gate of the Topkapi Palace, the oldest and largest of the remaining palaces in the world.<br />31<br />http://www.bibleplaces.com/istanbul.htm<br />
  27. 27. It’s a huge palace - the outer wall surrounding it is 3 miles long.<br />32<br />http://www.iconofile.com/events/images/topkapi.jpg<br />
  28. 28. The Blue Mosque<br />33<br />http://lloydi.com/travel-writing/turkey/wallpaper/blue-mosque-1x7.jpg<br />
  29. 29. Inside the Blue Mosque<br />34<br />http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=95924&rendTypeId=4<br />
  30. 30. 3. Superior technology<br />(the benefit of diffusion)<br />
  31. 31. Ottoman Sipahi (cavalry)<br />21<br />http://www.osmanischesreich.com/Geschichte/Armee/Heerwesen_I/Sipahi1530.jpg<br />
  32. 32. Janissaries<br />
  33. 33. Musket<br />Cannon<br />Swords<br />
  34. 34. How did the empire end?<br />The Europeans destroyed their strengths.<br />
  35. 35. Ottoman Strength #1: Control of trade.<br />·Europeans broke this strength by going around Africa and gaining control of trade.<br />
  36. 36.
  37. 37. Ottoman Strength #2: Wealth<br />·Discovery of the New World leads to great wealth for Europe from the gold andsilver found there.<br />
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
  40. 40. Ottoman Strength #3: Technology<br />·The technology of Europeans surpassed the Ottoman superiority especially in production of guns and munitions and otherproducts necessary for war.<br />
  41. 41. Until the 18th century, the Ottoman Empire was one of the greatest empires in the world.<br />43<br />
  42. 42.
  43. 43. Attachments<br />Conquerors__Suleyman_the_Magnificent.asf<br />

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