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Ss aguiar reg psych consciousness 2013

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  • Sleep is a circadian rhythm, lasting 24 hours, and is a product of the activity of the hypothalamus, the hormone melatonin, the neurotransmitter serotonin, and body temperature.
  • The average amount of sleep needed by most adults is about 7 to 9 hours within each 24-hour period.
  • Infants need far more sleep than older children and adults. Both REM sleep and NREM sleep decrease dramatically in the first 10 years of life, with the greatest decrease in REM sleep. Nearly 50 percent of an infant’s sleep is REM, compared to only about 20 percent for a normal, healthy adult.
  • We pass through a cycle of five sleep stages that total about 90 minutes. As we lie awake and relaxed, before we sleep, our EEG shows relatively slow alpha waves.
  • Stage 1 sleep is light sleep.
    Stage 2 sleep is indicated by the presence of sleep spindles, bursts of activity on the EEG.
    Stage 3 is highlighted by the first appearance of delta waves, the slowest and largest waves, whereas Stage 4 is predominantly delta waves, and the body is at its lowest level of functioning.
  • REM sleep occurs four or five times a night, replacing Stage 1 after a full cycle through Stages 1 through 4 and then back to Stage 1. It is accompanied by paralysis of the voluntary muscles but rapid movement of the eyes.
  • The graph shows the typical progression through the night of Stages 1–4 and REM sleep. Stages 1–4 are indicated on the y-axis, and REM stages are represented by the green curves on the graph. The REM periods occur about every 90 minutes throughout the night.
  • The graph shows the typical progression through the night of Stages 1–4 and Stage 1 REM sleep. Stages 1–4 are indicated on the x-axis, and REM stages are represented by darker bars on the graph. The REM periods occur about every 90 minutes throughout the night.
  • D
  • Nightmares are bad dreams, and some nightmares can be utterly terrifying. Children tend to have more nightmares than adults do because they spend more of their sleep in the REM state, as discussed earlier.
  • Rank orders these from most threatening to least threatening.
    mostly children, experience night terrors. They sit up or walk around, talk incoherently, experience a doubling of heart and breathing rates, and appear terrified. Children also are most prone to sleepwalkin
  • Scott Falater, 43 years old, was accused of murdering his wife in 1997. A neighbor, looking over a fence, witnessed Scott holding his wife’s head under water in the swimming pool. He called the police, who found a bloody pool and the body of Yamila Falater with 44 stab wounds. Falater had performed a series of very deliberate and time-consuming actions in cleaning up after the murder. But Falater claimed to be sleepwalking during all of these actions. Although sleep experts for the defense stated that Falater’s story was possible, the prosecution pointed to marital troubles as motive. Most damaging to his case was the witness who stated that three weeks before the murder, Falater had been discussing the case of Kenneth Parks and Parks’s acquittal for murder based on a sleepwalking defense. The jury found Falater guilty of murder in the first degree and he was given a life sentence.
  • One in 10 adults, and 1 in 4 older adults, complain of insomnia—problems in falling or staying asleep. Rarer but more severe than insomnia are the sleep disorders narcolepsy and sleep apnea. People with narcolepsy suffer periodic, overwhelming sleepiness, sometimes at the most inopportune times. The person sometimes collapses directly into a brief period of REM sleep. Those who suffer sleep apnea (mostly overweight men) intermittently stop breathing during sleep. After an airless minute or so, decreased blood oxygen arouses the sleeper to snort in air for a few seconds.
    Rank orders these from most threatening to least threatening.
  • Our dreams are mostly of ordinary events; they often relate to everyday experiences and more frequently involve anxiety or misfortune than triumphant achievement. The story line of our dreams—what Sigmund Freud called their manifest content—sometimes incorporates traces of previous days’ experiences and preoccupations. Only 1 in 10 dreams among young men and 1 in 30 among young women have sexual overtones. The sensory stimuli of our environment may also intrude on our dreams.
    Freud believed that a dream’s manifest content is a censored version of its latent content, which gratifies our unconscious wishes.
    Freud – dreams as wish fulfillment.
    Manifest content – the actual dream itself.
    Latent content – the true, hidden meaning of a dream.
    Activation-synthesis hypothesis - explanation that states that dreams are created by the higher centers of the cortex to explain the activation by the brain stem of cortical cells during REM sleep periods.
    Activation-information-mode model (AIM) - revised version of the activation-synthesis explanation of dreams in which information that is accessed during waking hours can have an influence on the synthesis of dreams.
    Cartoon: ©The New Yorker Collection 1973 Dana Fradon from cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved.
  • The information-processing perspective suggests that dreams help us process information and fix it in memory. Some physiological theories propose that REM- induced regular brain stimulation helps develop and preserve neural pathways in the brain. The activation-synthesis explanation is that REM sleep triggers impulses in brain areas that process visual images, but not the visual cortex area, evoking visual images that our brain weaves into a story line. The brain-maturation/cognitive development perspective maintains that dreams repre- sent the dreamer’s level of development, knowledge, and understanding. Despite their differences, most theorists agree that REM sleep and its associated dreams serve an important function, as shown by the REM rebound that occurs following REM deprivation.
    Activation-synthesis hypothesis - explanation that states that dreams are created by the higher centers of the cortex to explain the activation by the brain stem of cortical cells during REM sleep periods.
  • The information-processing perspective suggests that dreams help us process information and fix it in memory. Some physiological theories propose that REM- induced regular brain stimulation helps develop and preserve neural pathways in the brain. The activation-synthesis explanation is that REM sleep triggers impulses in brain areas that process visual images, but not the visual cortex area, evoking visual images that our brain weaves into a story line. The brain-maturation/cognitive development perspective maintains that dreams repre- sent the dreamer’s level of development, knowledge, and understanding. Despite their differences, most theorists agree that REM sleep and its associated dreams serve an important function, as shown by the REM rebound that occurs following REM deprivation.
    Activation-synthesis hypothesis - explanation that states that dreams are created by the higher centers of the cortex to explain the activation by the brain stem of cortical cells during REM sleep periods.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Consciousness, Sleep & Dreams
    • 2. Section 1: Rhythms and Consciousness Learning Goals •Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What is consciousness and what are it’s two levels? 2. What is explicit and implicit processing? 2 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 3. When we are awake we are? In a state of Consciousness Our awareness of ourselves and our surroundings. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 4. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 5. Peter Tripp.. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 6. How important is sleep to humans?  Sleep is vital to mental health.  Peter Tripp found out that if a person is deprived of sleep, he or she will have psychological symptoms (although not all people have symptoms as extreme as Tripp’s).  Most people think of sleep as a state of unconsciousness, punctuated by brief periods of dreaming; this is only partially correct. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 7. Consciousness Sleep is a state of altered consciousness, characterized by certain patterns of brain activity.  What is consciousness?  Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 8. •9.1 What are the different levels of consciousness? Awareness of everything going on inside and outside of you onsciousness Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 9. Consciousness • Waking: Thoughts, feelings, sensations are clear • Altered state: Shift in quality or pattern of mental activity Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 10. Consciousness Consciousness can range from alertness to nonalertness.  People who are fully aware with their attention focused on something are conscious of that “something.”  A person who is not completely aware is in a different level of consciousness–an altered state of consciousness.  Sleep illustrates an altered state of consciousness. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 11. Freud’s Levels of Consciousness Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 12. Consciousness according to… Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 13. Processing LO 9.2 What is the difference between explicit and implicit processing? • Explicit processing - processing that is conscious, in which you are aware of your thought process (effortful processing). • Implicit processing - process that happens without conscious awareness (automatic processing). Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 14. Stages of Sleep: Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 15. Necessity of Sleep •9.4 What theories exist about the function of sleep? •Circadian rhythm: 24 hour bodily rhythm •Suprachiasmatic nucleus: Internal clock tells people wake up/fall asleep •Hypothalamus: Tiny section of brain influences glandular system Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 16. Circadian Rhythm Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 17. Fun Fact: What is Sleep Onset? • SLEEP ONSET – The point of falling asleep and the brain shutting down – HYPNIC JERK- The feeling of falling as your body goes to sleep- Brain and body not in congruence 17 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 18. Necessity of Sleep – Microsleeps: Sleep lasting only a few seconds – Sleep deprivation: Sleep loss that impairs concentration and results in irritability Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 19. Why We Sleep •Adaptive theory: Animals evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators by sleeping when predators are most active. ZZZ •Restorative theory: Sleep replenishes chemicals and repairs cellular damage. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 20. Why do we need sleep? 1. Ecological Niche: back in the day, darkness meant death, those that slept did not go out, thus did not die. Sleep protects us. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 21. Sleep Patterns of Infants and Adults 9.5 How does the sleep cycle work? Source: Roffwarg, 1966 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 22. Sleep Cycle • Use an EEG machine to measure stages of sleep. • When you are the onset of sleep you experience alpha waves. • Produces mild hallucinations, like a feeling of falling. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 23. Stages of Sleep: Pre-Sleep – Beta waves (smaller/faster): Person is wide awake and mentally active – Alpha waves (larger/slower): Person is relaxed or lightly sleeping Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 24. Stages of Sleep: Non-REM Stage 1: Stage 2: Stages 3 and 4: Theta waves; light sleep; hypnic jerk; hypnagogic images Temperature, breathing and heart rate decrease; sleep spindles Delta waves; growth hormones released; hard to wake up Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 25. Stage 1 • Kind of awake and kind of asleep. • Only lasts a few minutes, and you usually only experience it once a night. • Your brain produces Theta Waves. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 26. Stage 2 • More Theta Waves that get progressively slower. • Begin to show sleep spindles…short bursts of rapid brain waves. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 27. Stages 3 and 4 • Slow wave sleep. • You produce Delta waves. • If awoken you will be very groggy. • Vital for restoring body’s growth hormones and good overall health. From stage 4, your brain begins to speed up and you go to stage 3, then 2….then …… Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 28. Stages of Sleep: REM •Rapid eye movement (REM): – Eyes moving under eyelids – 90% of dreaming Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 29. Sleep Paralysis Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 30. Stages of Sleep Through the Night Source: Dement, 1974 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 31. Sleep and Brain Functions… Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 32. WHY WE NEED REM SLEEP • Paradoxical Sleep: Your body is paralyzed, but your mind, hormones, heart and breathing are very active – REM sleep increases the longer you sleep – Babies spend about 50% of sleep time in REM – You do not regulate your temperature during REM sleep • REM Sleep is what helps us process daily events into memory & recharge our brains so we can think clearly. • REM Rebound – When you do not get enough REM sleep, the body dips into REM quicker upon sleeping Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens 32
    • 33. Section 2: The Sleep Cycle Reflect on Learning Goals •Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What is the biological rhythm of our sleep? 2. What is sleep’s function? Good Good Understanding Understanding Fair Fair Understanding Understanding Little Little Understanding Understanding Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics 33 Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 34. Sleep Cycle Review: Are you Smarter than the average 10 grader? ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1.What type of brain waves do you have when you are awake, but relaxed? 2.What happens to the brain waves during stage 2 sleep? 3.What is another name for stage 3 and 4 sleep? 4.Why is stage 3 and 4 sleep important? 5.What is another name for REM sleep? 6.What happens in REM sleep? 7.How long is the sleep cycle? 8.Why do babies need so much sleep? 9.In a normal sleep cycle when does most of the deep sleep occur? 10.What psychological phenomenon occurs if a person has been deprived of REM sleep, but then gets a good night’s sleep? Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics 34 Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 35. Section 3: Sleep Disorders and Dreams Learning Goals •Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How does sleep loss affect us? 2. What do we dream and what is the function of dreaming? 35 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 36. ightmare Bad dreams arousing feelings of horror, helplessness, extreme sorrow, etc. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 37. Common Sleep Disorders- Continued • Night terrors– Sudden arousal from sleep with intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions – Occurs during stage 4 – Mostly found in children • Somnambulism– Sleepwalking – During the first two hours of sleep in stages 3 & 4 – Usually gone by age 40 – May be caused by an immature nervous system “Wait! Don’t! It can be dangerous to wake them.” 37 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 38. Dogs can sleepwalk too LO 9.6 What are the different types of sleep disorders? Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 39. Night Terrors Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 40. Can Sleepwalking be a Crime Defense? Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 41. Common Sleep Disorders • Insomnia– Having problems falling or staying asleep – 10-15% of adults – Becomes worse with sleeping pills and alcohol – Causes: Stress, Depression, Anxiety, Health Problems • Narcolepsy– Urge to fall asleep; may occur while talking or standing up – 1 in 2000 people – Cataplexy- the sudden loss of muscle tone – Possible reason: flu virus during third trimester • Sleep Apnea– Failure to breathe when asleep – 1 in 20 people – Mostly overweight men (snoring)- Can occur 400 times per night 41 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 42. Narcolepsy Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 43. Sleep Disorders Continued… Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 44. Rusty the Narcoleptic Dog <3 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 45. Sleep apnea Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 46. Dreams 4.5 Why do people dream and what do they dream about? • Freud – dreams as wish fulfillment – Sigmund Freud suggested that dreams provide a psychic safety valve to discharge unacceptable feelings. The dream’s manifest (apparent) content may also have symbolic meanings (latent content) that signify our unacceptable feelings. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 47. WHY DO WE DREAM? • Information Processing: – Dreams may help sift, sort, and fix a day’s experiences in our memories. • Activation-Synthesis Theory: – Suggests that the brain engages in a lot of random neural activity. Dreams make sense of this activity. Explains sudden visual images during REM 47 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 48. WHAT DO WE DREAM ABOUT? • Negative Emotional Content • 8 out of 10 dreams have negative emotional content. • Failure Dreams • People commonly dream about failure, being attacked, pursued, rejected, or struck with misfortune. • Sexual Dreams: • Contrary to our thinking, sexual dreams are sparse. Sexual dreams in men are 1 in 10; and in women 1 in 30. • Dreams of Gender: • Women dream of men and women equally; men dream more about men than women. 48 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 49. WHY DO WE DREAM? 49 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 50. Section 3: Sleep Disorders and Dreams Reflect on Learning Goals •Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How does sleep loss affect us? 2. What do we dream and what is the function of dreaming? Good Good Understanding Understanding Fair Fair Understanding Understanding Little Little Understanding Understanding Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics 50 Dreams Hallucinogens