Chapter 4 consciousness, sleep, dreams, hynosis & drugs notes

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Chapter 4 consciousness, sleep, dreams, hynosis & drugs notes

  1. 1. Chapter 4: Consciousness, Sleep,Chapter 4: Consciousness, Sleep, Dreams, Hypnosis & DrugsDreams, Hypnosis & Drugs • Consciousness- Awareness of everythingConsciousness- Awareness of everything going on around a person at any givengoing on around a person at any given moment, which is used to organizedmoment, which is used to organized behavior including thoughts, sensationsbehavior including thoughts, sensations and feelingsand feelings • Waking Consciousness- Thoughts,Waking Consciousness- Thoughts, feelings & sensations are clear andfeelings & sensations are clear and organized and the person feels alertorganized and the person feels alert
  2. 2. ConsciousnessConsciousness • Altered States of Consciousness- Shift inAltered States of Consciousness- Shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity asthe quality or pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciousnesscompared to waking consciousness – Thoughts are fuzzy, less alert, thoughts takeThoughts are fuzzy, less alert, thoughts take bizarre turnsbizarre turns – Drive to work, but don’t remember how youDrive to work, but don’t remember how you got theregot there – Driving and on cell phone as dangerous asDriving and on cell phone as dangerous as drinking and drivingdrinking and driving
  3. 3. Consciousness: Altered StatesConsciousness: Altered States • SleepSleep – BiologyBiology • Sleep is a biological rhythm-natural cycle the bodySleep is a biological rhythm-natural cycle the body MUST go throughMUST go through • Circadian Rhythms- The 24 hour sleep-wake cycleCircadian Rhythms- The 24 hour sleep-wake cycle – HypothalamusHypothalamus • Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)- internal clock thatSuprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)- internal clock that tells when to sleep and waketells when to sleep and wake – Sensitive to lightSensitive to light – Tells pineal gland to release melatonin to make feelTells pineal gland to release melatonin to make feel sleepy or stop melatonin to wake upsleepy or stop melatonin to wake up – Serotonin and body temperature are correlated withSerotonin and body temperature are correlated with sleepsleep – SCN may be responsible for resetting the biological clockSCN may be responsible for resetting the biological clock to 24 hours everydayto 24 hours everyday
  4. 4. HypothalamusHypothalamus • The price of not sleepingThe price of not sleeping – Microsleeps- brief seconds of sleepMicrosleeps- brief seconds of sleep • May be the cause of many car accidentsMay be the cause of many car accidents • Makes doing minor tasks very hardMakes doing minor tasks very hard – Sleep deprivation- Significant loss of sleepSleep deprivation- Significant loss of sleep that causes lack of concentration andthat causes lack of concentration and irritability problemsirritability problems • Actually lose more information staying up andActually lose more information staying up and studyingstudying • Symptoms- droopy eyes, inattention & irritabilitySymptoms- droopy eyes, inattention & irritability • Even only 6 hours of sleep is equivalent to noEven only 6 hours of sleep is equivalent to no sleep for 2 days!sleep for 2 days! • Those sleep deprived totally for 3 days were notThose sleep deprived totally for 3 days were not aware of their impairmentaware of their impairment
  5. 5. HypothalamusHypothalamus • Adaptive theory of sleepAdaptive theory of sleep – Sleep patterns are developed to avoidSleep patterns are developed to avoid predatorspredators • Restorative theory of sleepRestorative theory of sleep – Sleep is necessary to restore chemicals andSleep is necessary to restore chemicals and repair cells in the bodyrepair cells in the body • How much sleep is needed?How much sleep is needed? – Varies according to age and personVaries according to age and person
  6. 6. Quiz 4-1Quiz 4-1
  7. 7. Stages of SleepStages of Sleep • Rapid Eye Movement (REM)- Eyes moveRapid Eye Movement (REM)- Eyes move rapidly, typically dream stagerapidly, typically dream stage – Body move littleBody move little • Non-REM Sleep (NREM)- Deeper moreNon-REM Sleep (NREM)- Deeper more restful sleeprestful sleep – Body is free to moveBody is free to move • Beta Waves- Awake=very fast and smallBeta Waves- Awake=very fast and small • Alpha Waves- Sleepy=very slow and largeAlpha Waves- Sleepy=very slow and large • Theta Waves- More sleepy=slower andTheta Waves- More sleepy=slower and largerlarger
  8. 8. Stages of SleepStages of Sleep • Non-REM stage one: Light SleepNon-REM stage one: Light Sleep – If awakened will not think they were asleepIf awakened will not think they were asleep – Hypnagogic images- flashes of light/images that seem realistic,Hypnagogic images- flashes of light/images that seem realistic, may be cause for “ghost/alien” sightingsmay be cause for “ghost/alien” sightings – Hypnic Jerk- Body jerks awakeHypnic Jerk- Body jerks awake • Ancestors slept in treesAncestors slept in trees • Non-REM stage two: Sleep SpindlesNon-REM stage two: Sleep Spindles – Body temp drops, heart & breathing slowsBody temp drops, heart & breathing slows – Theta waves predominantTheta waves predominant • Non-REM stage three and four: Delta WavesNon-REM stage three and four: Delta Waves – Delta waves predominantDelta waves predominant – Deepest stage of sleepDeepest stage of sleep – Bodies lowest level of functioning, hard to awakenBodies lowest level of functioning, hard to awaken – When body growsWhen body grows – Boys experience more sleep disorders than girls due toBoys experience more sleep disorders than girls due to testosterone which causes boys to sleep deepertestosterone which causes boys to sleep deeper
  9. 9. REM SleepREM Sleep • After being in stage 4 for some time the sleeperAfter being in stage 4 for some time the sleeper will progress up to stage 3, then 2 and finally thewill progress up to stage 3, then 2 and finally the body temp will rise, breathing slows andbody temp will rise, breathing slows and deepens and move to REM sleepdeepens and move to REM sleep • 90% of dreams take place in REM sleep90% of dreams take place in REM sleep • Dreams do occur in NREM sleep, but they areDreams do occur in NREM sleep, but they are regular thoughts and not as vividregular thoughts and not as vivid • REM paralysis- The body cannot move duringREM paralysis- The body cannot move during this type of sleepthis type of sleep • Physical stress= more NREM sleep longerPhysical stress= more NREM sleep longer • Emotional stress= more REM sleep longerEmotional stress= more REM sleep longer
  10. 10. REM SleepREM Sleep • REM Rebound- If do not get enough REMREM Rebound- If do not get enough REM sleep, will make up for it the next nightsleep, will make up for it the next night • Adult REM Sleep- Spend 20% of sleep inAdult REM Sleep- Spend 20% of sleep in this stage, EEG readings not the same asthis stage, EEG readings not the same as infants, and cannot move bodyinfants, and cannot move body • Infant REM Sleep- Spend 50% of sleep inInfant REM Sleep- Spend 50% of sleep in this stage and can still move the bodythis stage and can still move the body • Infants do not dream in this stage b/c busyInfants do not dream in this stage b/c busy making neural connectionsmaking neural connections • Infants sleep for brain developmentInfants sleep for brain development
  11. 11. Sleep DisordersSleep Disorders • REM Behavior Disorder- Mechanism thatREM Behavior Disorder- Mechanism that prevents person from moving doesn’t workprevents person from moving doesn’t work and may act out nightmaresand may act out nightmares – Generally found in men over 60Generally found in men over 60 • Stage 4 sleep disordersStage 4 sleep disorders – Sleepwalking (somnambulism)- hereditarySleepwalking (somnambulism)- hereditary and found more in male children. May just sitand found more in male children. May just sit up in bed or even eat food from the fridge.up in bed or even eat food from the fridge. Lack of sleep may induce this behavior andLack of sleep may induce this behavior and may wake them upmay wake them up
  12. 12. Sleep DisordersSleep Disorders • Night Terrors- Person screams out or even runsNight Terrors- Person screams out or even runs without waking up during deep sleepwithout waking up during deep sleep – Rare, and found in childrenRare, and found in children – Generally do not remember the night terror episodeGenerally do not remember the night terror episode – Night terrors occur in NREM sleep and nightmares inNight terrors occur in NREM sleep and nightmares in REM sleepREM sleep • Insomnia-Inability to get to sleep, stay asleep, orInsomnia-Inability to get to sleep, stay asleep, or get quality sleepget quality sleep – Psychological CausesPsychological Causes • Worry, trying too hard to sleep, anxietyWorry, trying too hard to sleep, anxiety – Physical CausesPhysical Causes • Too much caffeine, indigestion, aches and painsToo much caffeine, indigestion, aches and pains
  13. 13. Sleep DisordersSleep Disorders • Ways to sleepWays to sleep – Limit caffeine, take pain meds, don’t eat whatLimit caffeine, take pain meds, don’t eat what causes indigestion, deal with anxieties, go tocauses indigestion, deal with anxieties, go to be only when sleepy, only sleep in bed,be only when sleepy, only sleep in bed, regular bedtime, don’t take sleeping pills,regular bedtime, don’t take sleeping pills, don’t drink alcoholdon’t drink alcohol
  14. 14. Sleep DisordersSleep Disorders • Sleep Apnea- Stop breathing for 30 sec orSleep Apnea- Stop breathing for 30 sec or moremore – Associated with snoring, causes heartAssociated with snoring, causes heart problemsproblems – Obesity is a causeObesity is a cause – TreatmentsTreatments • May lose weight, use nasal opening devices,May lose weight, use nasal opening devices, CPAP-Continuous positive airway pressureCPAP-Continuous positive airway pressure – Found in infants-immature brain stem (SIDS)Found in infants-immature brain stem (SIDS)
  15. 15. Sleep DisordersSleep Disorders • Narcolepsy- Person falls immediately intoNarcolepsy- Person falls immediately into REM sleep without warning in the daytimeREM sleep without warning in the daytime – Cataplexy- loss of muscle tone from REMCataplexy- loss of muscle tone from REM paralysisparalysis • Dangerous if standing up and fallDangerous if standing up and fall • Excessive daytime sleepinessExcessive daytime sleepiness
  16. 16. Quiz 2Quiz 2
  17. 17. DreamsDreams • Freud’sFreud’s Interpretation of DreamsInterpretation of Dreams – Conflicts, events and desires are representedConflicts, events and desires are represented symbolically in dreamssymbolically in dreams – Manifest Content- What the dream actuallyManifest Content- What the dream actually entailsentails – Latent Content- True meaning in dreamsLatent Content- True meaning in dreams expressed in symbolsexpressed in symbols
  18. 18. DreamsDreams • Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis- AActivation-Synthesis Hypothesis- A different kind of thinking that comes fromdifferent kind of thinking that comes from past experiences and memoriespast experiences and memories • Signals sent from Pons to the Cortex toSignals sent from Pons to the Cortex to explain activity of brainexplain activity of brain • Frontal lobes are shut down duringFrontal lobes are shut down during dreams causing bizarre and unrealisticdreams causing bizarre and unrealistic dreamsdreams • Dreams can have meaning based onDreams can have meaning based on person’s reality and emotionsperson’s reality and emotions
  19. 19. DreamsDreams • Activation- information-mode model (AIM)-Activation- information-mode model (AIM)- brain uses info to create dream materialbrain uses info to create dream material so real life can impact what we dreamso real life can impact what we dream aboutabout • What do people dream about?What do people dream about? – Days occurrencesDays occurrences – Men dream about men and women dreamMen dream about men and women dream about bothabout both – Men are aggressive in dreams and womenMen are aggressive in dreams and women are victims in dreamsare victims in dreams – Culture impacts dreamsCulture impacts dreams
  20. 20. Quiz 3Quiz 3
  21. 21. Altered States: HypnosisAltered States: Hypnosis • Hypnosis- state of consciousness in whichHypnosis- state of consciousness in which a person is especially susceptible toa person is especially susceptible to suggestionsuggestion – 4 steps always present when hypnotizing4 steps always present when hypnotizing • Person told to focus on what is being saidPerson told to focus on what is being said • Person told to relax and feel tiredPerson told to relax and feel tired • Person told to let go and accept suggestions easilyPerson told to let go and accept suggestions easily • Person told to use vivid imaginationPerson told to use vivid imagination – Only 80% can be hypnotized; day dreamers,Only 80% can be hypnotized; day dreamers, fantasize, vivid imaginations are easilyfantasize, vivid imaginations are easily hypnotizedhypnotized
  22. 22. HypnosisHypnosis • Hypnotic susceptibility- Degree to whichHypnotic susceptibility- Degree to which someone is a good candidate for hypnosissomeone is a good candidate for hypnosis • Person being hypnotized is really inPerson being hypnotized is really in controlcontrol – Must be willing to be hypnotizedMust be willing to be hypnotized • Basic suggestion effect- Subject blamesBasic suggestion effect- Subject blames the hypnotist for controlling actionsthe hypnotist for controlling actions
  23. 23. HypnosisHypnosis • TheoriesTheories – Hypnosis as DissociationHypnosis as Dissociation • Hypnosis worked only on immediate part of mind,Hypnosis worked only on immediate part of mind, hidden part was aware (driving and nothidden part was aware (driving and not remembering how you got there)remembering how you got there) – Hypnosis as Social Role-PlayingHypnosis as Social Role-Playing • (Social Cognitive Theory)(Social Cognitive Theory) – People are not in an altered state, but playing the role ofPeople are not in an altered state, but playing the role of what is expected from a hypnotized personwhat is expected from a hypnotized person – People may not even realize they are not hypnotizedPeople may not even realize they are not hypnotized
  24. 24. Quiz 4Quiz 4
  25. 25. Psychoactive DrugsPsychoactive Drugs • Psychoactive Drugs- alter thinking,Psychoactive Drugs- alter thinking, perception, and memoryperception, and memory – Were first used to help peopleWere first used to help people • Surgeries, deal with pain, insomnia, ADDSurgeries, deal with pain, insomnia, ADD – When abused or misused they are veryWhen abused or misused they are very dangerousdangerous – May cause psychological/physicalMay cause psychological/physical dependencedependence
  26. 26. Psychoactive DrugsPsychoactive Drugs • Physical Dependence- Body becomes unable toPhysical Dependence- Body becomes unable to function normally w/out the drugfunction normally w/out the drug – This is addictionThis is addiction • Drug Tolerance- Larger doses are needed to getDrug Tolerance- Larger doses are needed to get the same effectthe same effect • Withdrawal- Symptoms are present when notWithdrawal- Symptoms are present when not taking the drugtaking the drug – Headaches, nausea, irritability, pain, shaking, highHeadaches, nausea, irritability, pain, shaking, high blood pressureblood pressure
  27. 27. Psychoactive DrugsPsychoactive Drugs • Psychological Dependence- Think thePsychological Dependence- Think the drug is needed to continue feeling ofdrug is needed to continue feeling of emotional or psychological goodnessemotional or psychological goodness – PersonPerson thinksthinks he/she needs ithe/she needs it – This addiction can last foreverThis addiction can last forever
  28. 28. Stimulants “Uppers”Stimulants “Uppers” • Drugs that increase the functioning of theDrugs that increase the functioning of the nervous system (Heart and brain speed up)nervous system (Heart and brain speed up) • Amphetamines- Stimulants that are made in labsAmphetamines- Stimulants that are made in labs • EX. Benzedrine, Methedrine & DexedrineEX. Benzedrine, Methedrine & Dexedrine • Methamphetamine “Crystal Meth” used forMethamphetamine “Crystal Meth” used for recreationrecreation • Truck drivers may use stimulants to drive longerTruck drivers may use stimulants to drive longer • Overweight people use to lose weightOverweight people use to lose weight • Does not give “extra” energy, but uses all theDoes not give “extra” energy, but uses all the energy the person has= they will “crash”energy the person has= they will “crash”
  29. 29. Stimulants “Uppers”Stimulants “Uppers” • AmphetaminesAmphetamines – SymptomsSymptoms • Nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure & strokesNausea, vomiting, high blood pressure & strokes – Amphetamine Psychosis- Person becomesAmphetamine Psychosis- Person becomes delusional and paranoid from taking largedelusional and paranoid from taking large doses of amphetaminesdoses of amphetamines – Violence is commonViolence is common
  30. 30. Stimulants “Uppers”Stimulants “Uppers” • Cocaine- Natural drug from cocoa leavesCocaine- Natural drug from cocoa leaves – Produces feelings of euphoria, power, energy,Produces feelings of euphoria, power, energy, and pleasureand pleasure – Deadens pain and suppresses appetiteDeadens pain and suppresses appetite – Was used by doctors and dentistsWas used by doctors and dentists – Was present in Coca-ColaWas present in Coca-Cola – May die from convulsions the first useMay die from convulsions the first use – Mice would give selves cocaine instead ofMice would give selves cocaine instead of eating and drinking to the point of deatheating and drinking to the point of death
  31. 31. Stimulants “Uppers”Stimulants “Uppers” • Cocaine withdrawalCocaine withdrawal – Mood swing into depression, tiredness,Mood swing into depression, tiredness, nervousness, inability to feel pleasure &nervousness, inability to feel pleasure & paranoiaparanoia – Signs of physical dependenceSigns of physical dependence • Compulsive use- can’t say noCompulsive use- can’t say no • Loss of control- If available must use it, to point ofLoss of control- If available must use it, to point of exhaustionexhaustion • Disregard for the consequences of use- nothingDisregard for the consequences of use- nothing else matterselse matters
  32. 32. Stimulants “Uppers”Stimulants “Uppers” • Nicotine- Active ingredient in tobaccoNicotine- Active ingredient in tobacco – Gives the smoker a “rush” when inhaledGives the smoker a “rush” when inhaled • Increases: heart beat, blood pressure. ReleasesIncreases: heart beat, blood pressure. Releases adrenalin, reduce stressadrenalin, reduce stress • Was first used as insecticideWas first used as insecticide • More addictive than heroine or alcoholMore addictive than heroine or alcohol • Delayed smoking- delay the first cigarette moreDelayed smoking- delay the first cigarette more and more each day, eventually do not smokeand more each day, eventually do not smoke
  33. 33. Stimulants “Uppers”Stimulants “Uppers” • Caffeine- Stimulant found in coffee, tea, and other plantCaffeine- Stimulant found in coffee, tea, and other plant based substancesbased substances – Helps maintain alertness and increase effectiveness of painHelps maintain alertness and increase effectiveness of pain relieversrelievers • Replaced the use of cocaine in medicinesReplaced the use of cocaine in medicines – Drinking coffee will cure drunkenness is mythDrinking coffee will cure drunkenness is myth • Wide awake drunkWide awake drunk • Barbiturates- depressant drugs that induce sleepBarbiturates- depressant drugs that induce sleep (sedative)(sedative) – Known as major tranquilizersKnown as major tranquilizers – Overdose can lead to death when breathing and heart stopOverdose can lead to death when breathing and heart stop – Highly addictive and easy to gain toleranceHighly addictive and easy to gain tolerance – Drug interaction- when several drugs are combined andDrug interaction- when several drugs are combined and generally causes deathgenerally causes death • Alcohol and barbiturates can be deadlyAlcohol and barbiturates can be deadly
  34. 34. Stimulants “Uppers”Stimulants “Uppers” • Benzodiazepines (Minor tranquilizers)-Benzodiazepines (Minor tranquilizers)- Drugs that lower anxiety and reduceDrugs that lower anxiety and reduce stressstress – Valium, Xanax, Halicon, Ativan and LibriumValium, Xanax, Halicon, Ativan and Librium – Addictive and deadly when combined withAddictive and deadly when combined with alcoholalcohol – Rohypnol- “date rape drug”= person becomesRohypnol- “date rape drug”= person becomes unconsciousunconscious
  35. 35. AlcoholAlcohol • A depressant made from fermented orA depressant made from fermented or distilled vegetablesdistilled vegetables – Risks to heart, brain & liver along with loss ofRisks to heart, brain & liver along with loss of job, work time & economic stabilityjob, work time & economic stability – Alcohol abuseAlcohol abuse • Binge drinking- drinking 4-5 drinks w/in shortBinge drinking- drinking 4-5 drinks w/in short amount of timeamount of time • Alcoholism signs- drunkenness, drinking in A.M.,Alcoholism signs- drunkenness, drinking in A.M., guilty feelings, drinking to recover, drinking alone,guilty feelings, drinking to recover, drinking alone, blackouts, lying about drinking, passing outblackouts, lying about drinking, passing out • Korsakoff’s Syndrome- Dementia from vitamin B1Korsakoff’s Syndrome- Dementia from vitamin B1 deficiency from lack of eating fooddeficiency from lack of eating food
  36. 36. AlcoholAlcohol • Pregnant women should not drink-Fetal alcoholPregnant women should not drink-Fetal alcohol syndrome & mental retardationsyndrome & mental retardation • Alcohol increases risk of bone density loss andAlcohol increases risk of bone density loss and heart diseaseheart disease • Alcohol confused as a stimulant because ofAlcohol confused as a stimulant because of “happy feelings”“happy feelings” – This relieves inhibitions- keep a person followingThis relieves inhibitions- keep a person following social rulessocial rules – Alcohol induces the release of GABAAlcohol induces the release of GABA neurotransmitters which slow down brain functionneurotransmitters which slow down brain function – Women’s bodies process alcohol differently than menWomen’s bodies process alcohol differently than men
  37. 37. NarcoticsNarcotics • Suppress the sensations of pain, slowSuppress the sensations of pain, slow down nervous systemdown nervous system • All narcotics are derived from opiumAll narcotics are derived from opium • Opium- substance from opium poppyOpium- substance from opium poppy • Paregoric- form of opium used for teethingParegoric- form of opium used for teething infantsinfants • Morphine- narcotic used to treat severeMorphine- narcotic used to treat severe painpain – Still used by doctors in small, controlled dosesStill used by doctors in small, controlled doses – ““God’s own medicine”God’s own medicine”
  38. 38. NarcoticsNarcotics • Heroin- Extremely addictive narcoticHeroin- Extremely addictive narcotic – Inhibits the production/release of endorphinsInhibits the production/release of endorphins which block painwhich block pain – When in withdrawal there is no protectionWhen in withdrawal there is no protection from the pain so they want to use againfrom the pain so they want to use again – Methadone is narcotic used to wean personMethadone is narcotic used to wean person off of heroin because it is not as addictiveoff of heroin because it is not as addictive
  39. 39. CuesCues • People, places, things that make a personPeople, places, things that make a person want to start using again- classicalwant to start using again- classical conditioningconditioning • Behavioral therapyBehavioral therapy – Contingency management therapy- EarnContingency management therapy- Earn vouchers for non-drug usevouchers for non-drug use
  40. 40. HallucinogensHallucinogens • Hallucinogens- cause false sensoryHallucinogens- cause false sensory messages, altering the perception ofmessages, altering the perception of realityreality – Synesthesia- sensory distortions; colors haveSynesthesia- sensory distortions; colors have sounds, sounds have smells, ectsounds, sounds have smells, ect – Two types of hallucinogensTwo types of hallucinogens • ManufacturedManufactured – Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)- Ergot fungus found onLysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)- Ergot fungus found on grainsgrains  May have a “bad trip”May have a “bad trip”  May make poor decisions or not notice dangerMay make poor decisions or not notice danger
  41. 41. HallucinogensHallucinogens • ManufacturedManufactured – Phenyl cyclohexyl piperidine (PCP)-animalPhenyl cyclohexyl piperidine (PCP)-animal tranquilizer with effects of stimulant,tranquilizer with effects of stimulant, depressant, narcotic or hallucinogenicdepressant, narcotic or hallucinogenic – MDMA (Ecstasy)- stimulant andMDMA (Ecstasy)- stimulant and hallucinogenic effectshallucinogenic effects • Dehydrates body and raises temp.Dehydrates body and raises temp. • Drink lots of water, but not too much- may disruptDrink lots of water, but not too much- may disrupt salt content in body and regular body functionssalt content in body and regular body functions
  42. 42. HallucinogensHallucinogens • Non-manufacturedNon-manufactured – Though found in nature, still very dangerousThough found in nature, still very dangerous – Mescaline- made from peyote cactus buttonsMescaline- made from peyote cactus buttons • Used by Native Americans for out of bodyUsed by Native Americans for out of body experienceexperience – Psilocybin- Found in mushroomsPsilocybin- Found in mushrooms • Used by Native AmericansUsed by Native Americans • Not physically addictive, but may beNot physically addictive, but may be psychologicallypsychologically
  43. 43. HallucinogensHallucinogens • MarijuanaMarijuana – Mild hallucinogen derived from hemp plantMild hallucinogen derived from hemp plant (cannibus sativa)(cannibus sativa) – Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)- ActiveTetrahydrocannabinol (THC)- Active ingredientingredient – May experience mild euphoria, relaxation,May experience mild euphoria, relaxation, altered sense of time, visual distortionsaltered sense of time, visual distortions – Higher doses may cause hallucinations,Higher doses may cause hallucinations, delusions and paranoiadelusions and paranoia – Not physically addictive buy are withdrawalNot physically addictive buy are withdrawal symptoms of irritability, memory difficulties,symptoms of irritability, memory difficulties, sleep problems and increased aggressionsleep problems and increased aggression
  44. 44. HallucinogensHallucinogens • Psychological addiction is evidentPsychological addiction is evident • More carcinogens than cigarettesMore carcinogens than cigarettes • Can cause breathing difficulty, lungCan cause breathing difficulty, lung cancer, asthmacancer, asthma

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