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NYWEA Climate Change for Municipalities
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NYWEA Climate Change for Municipalities

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Climate change and effects on municipalities and POTWs

Climate change and effects on municipalities and POTWs

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  • 1. Climate Change & Water/Wastewater Operations Marc Karell, P.E. Climate Change & Environmental Services, LLC NYWEA 2009 Spring Technical Conference & Exhibition West Point, NY June 2, 2009
  • 2. Goals: Background and Why is This Important • Understand the basics of climate change and greenhouse gases (GHGs). • Learn how POTWs and water plants can take advantage of the new realities and develop an economically and socially beneficial carbon management program.
  • 3. Is Climate Change for Real? Part 1: Global Warming Is Happening • Avg. global temp.  1.10F in past century. Real, and larger than that seen in any century. – Another 40F rise in next 35 years? • If continued, there will be long-term effects on: – our climate, – water supply, – diseases, – agricultural, tourist, insurance & oil markets. • Our economy and way of life • Together these effects are called: “Climate Change”
  • 4. The Arctic is Melting
  • 5. Potential Climate Change Effect Impacts
  • 6. Is Climate Change for Real? Part 2: Causes of Climate Change • Certain compounds in our atmosphere trap heat, called “greenhouse gases” or GHGs. • From natural & man-made sources. – CO2 levels have risen by nearly 40% since industrial revolution – Global temp. rise correlates with activities • Large majority of scientists in field believe that man-made emissions contributes significantly to climate change.
  • 7. From the Pew Center on Global Climate Change
  • 8. Common GHGs GHG GWP Common POTW Sources CO2 1 Digester gas, combustion CH4 25 Influent, anaerobic digesters N2O 298 Nitrification HFCs wide range Refrigeration gases PFCs wide range SF6 22,800
  • 9. Climate Change: Public Perception • 94% of respondents said the U.S. should take actions to limit its GHG emissions, at least as much as other developed countries do on average. • 73% said the U.S. should participate in Kyoto, up from 64% in 2002. Source: 2005 U.S. Ford Foundation-funded poll
  • 10. Global Attempt to Address Issue: Reduce GHG Emissions • Because effect is global, action must be global. • To reverse effects: achieve global GHG reductions • Many nations under the auspices of the United Nations met in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan • Agreed to reduce global GHG emissions in 2008-12 by 5.2% relative to 1990 “Kyoto Protocol”
  • 11. Kyoto Protocol Philosophy • Affected industries are those highest in fuel use: power, cement, glass, steel, paper • Different limits for different nations – “Developed” vs. “Developing” nations • Progress wherever reductions occur, even far away • Market-based. Cap and trade. Affected facilities have a limit, but may exceed it if they obtain “credits” from another. $ invested in GHG reductions can be made back by sale of credits. – GHG credits as money making currency
  • 12. Where Things Stand in the U.S. • The Kyoto Protocol was not approved in the US. • Obama Administration and new Congress promised aggressive federal GHG emission reduction rules • Some states currently developing their own rules • There are additional economic drivers that make a GHG reduction program beneficial
  • 13. U.S. GHG Programs • Current/future regulations – Northeast “RGGI” trading program – California AB-32 and Western Climate Initiative • Voluntary programs – USEPA “Climate Leaders” – USDOE “1605b” – Chicago Climate Exchange – The Climate Registry
  • 14. RGGI Regulation - Here in NY • Market-based CO2 trading program involving power plants with units ≥25 MW: 10 NE states. • Affected states must meet total CO2 emissions equal to an early 2000’s baseline emissions this year and a 10% reduction by 2019. • Virtually all allowances will be auctioned. Thus, power plants must pay to emit CO2.
  • 15. New Proposed Federal GHG Reporting Rule! • Applicable to any facility that emits >25,000 metric tons of CO2e/yr or facility in any of 20 source categories, which includes industrial wastewater treatment plants! • Must report 2010 emissions of GHGs by March 31, 2011 using accepted methods • Will be 40 CFR Part 98 • April 10, 2009 Fed. Register – Can still comment up until June 9
  • 16. What an Industrial WWTP Must Report • Annual CH4 emissions from anaerobic wastewater treatment processes • Annual CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions from stationary combustion devices and flares.
  • 17. Why Develop a Climate Change (CC) Program? Many Business (Non-regulatory) Reasons 1. $$$. The growing cost of energy – Actions that reduce energy usage reduce GHGs – Given the price of energy these days, much $$$ will be saved! – Example. DuPont claims they invested $120 million in CC (energy efficiency) programs in the 1990’s and as a result has saved over $3 billion in avoided energy costs
  • 18. Why Develop a Climate Change (CC) Program? Many Business (Non-regulatory) Reasons 2. $$$. GHG emission reductions achieved and verified can become sellable credits, even in the US (the voluntary market). – Example. Blue Heron Paper Co. (OR) improved energy efficiency by 25% (191,000 metric tons GHGs/yr). Financial incentives, tax credits for project and a pledge to buy all verified GHG emission reduction credits.
  • 19. Why Develop a Climate Change (CC) Program? Many Business (Non-regulatory) Reasons 3. Pressure from financial market, insurance, accounting, governmental bodies – Example. The Equator Principles gives financial institutions social and environmental benchmarks (including CC) to finance a project – Insurance companies are terrified about their costs of rising sea levels
  • 20. Why Develop a Climate Change (CC) Program? Many Business (Non-regulatory) Reasons 4. CC risk – Usually, we are concerned with how a plant impacts the environment. For the first time, we are worried about how the environment will impact plant operations! – These may directly affect WWTP operations: • Flooding • Hot weather • Illness, lost productivity – More extreme rainfalls, changes in snowmelt patterns would result in greater short-term flows and challenge capacity design. • POTW operators are beginning to study this – “Climate Change Adaptation”
  • 21. Physical Effects – Now!
  • 22. Why Develop a Climate Change (CC) Program? Many Business (Non-regulatory) Reasons 5. Public relations – Just say “Climate Change” to Toyota and GE! – Further the climate change/sustainability goals of a municipality (NYC 2030) 6. Pleasing customers. Firms ask about the “carbon footprint” of products. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) – Major retailers Wal-Mart, Tesco now request suppliers provide GHG information throughout product life cycle. – Example. CA entrepreneur performed LCA to compare proposed sludge treatment to form alternative fuel with conventional sludge treatment and endpoint (land application, on-site combustion, etc.)
  • 23. GHG Emissions Along Product Life Cycle New Sales and Supply Production/ Recycling/ Investment/ Distribution Consumer Chain Operation End of Life Design End Use • Green Building • Emissions related • Emissions related • raw / input materials Emissions related to to energy demand to energy demand • raw / input materials Emissions related to of processes at end user filling facility processing related /to Emissions of raw • Emissions due to • input materialsraw / processing of storage, cooling usage • input materials Transport emissions • Transport emissions • Transport • Transport emissions emissions • Emissions related to energy demand for waste disposal recycling
  • 24. Climate Change Opportunities for POTWs • Actions to reduce GHG emissions will lead to direct cost savings • Show progress to stakeholders and the public; positive social profile • Understand the physical, operational risks that Climate Change represent • Can Climate Change be an opportunity? (Hint, ask Toyota or GE)
  • 25. Summary: Why Should a Municipality Invest in Carbon Management? • Reduce exposure to future rules, carbon trading • Direct economic benefits of GHG reductions • Carbon management should be part of overall planning – effects of future changes • Integrate GHG metrics into EH&S reporting • Respond to stakeholders, do the “right” thing • Carbon management as VALUE, not LIABILITY, as pollution is normally considered.
  • 26. Climate Change & Environmental Services, LLC • Nearly 25 years of experience in diverse climate change and air quality services: – GHG emission inventories – Strategies to achieve cost saving, beneficial reductions – Energy and green building assessments – LCAs – Emission inventories (criteria and toxics) – Air compliance audits – Permitting for maximum operational
  • 27. “With regard to excellence, it is not enough to know, but we must try to have and use it.” - Aristotle 384-322 BC
  • 28. Thank you. Questions? Marc Karell, P.E. Climate Change & Environmental Services, LLC www.ccesworld.com 914-584-6720 climatechangeenv@gmail.com

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