Co2 australia sem 4 group 3


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  • 'Third way' was promising, but lacked focus, and we don't learn 'what to do when we leave the room.' Some unclear language (last point on slide 26 is an example) that blurs the potential impact of an otherwise Interesting proposal (though employers and accreditation agencies are certainly key stakeholders that you overlooked).
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Co2 australia sem 4 group 3

  1. 1. AB0401 Seminar 04 Group members:  CHNG Si Lin Jocelyn  CHUA Jun Xiang  LEE Josiah  LIM Jia Min Cheryl  WONG Yik James C02 Australia Changing our World: do we plant trees or create online courses? 1
  2. 2. Agenda 1. Calculations of Carbon Footprints 2. Stakeholder Analysis 3. Alternative Environmental Initiatives 4. Executive Summary 2
  3. 3. Carbon Footprint What constitutes to the carbon footprint calculations? Wiedmann & Minx (2007): “a measure of the exclusive total amount of carbon dioxide emissions that is directly and indirectly caused by an activity or is accumulated over the life stages of a product”. 3
  4. 4. Steps to carbon footprint calculations 1. Create a process map 2. Defining the boundaries of the analysis 3. Collecting the necessary data 4. Calculation of the footprint. More information : S2050_Guide.pdf 4 Inputs Processes Outputs The process map will include all stages and potential emission sources from any activity that contributes to the delivery or use of the service. The system boundary defines the scope for the product carbon footprint, i.e. which life cycle stages, inputs and outputs should be included in the assessment. Begin collecting more specific data following the requirements and recommendations of PAS 2050, which will enable assessment of the carbon footprint in more detail. Two necessary data types: activity data & emission factors
  5. 5. Activity Data Activities that lead to emissions E.g.amount of gasoline used in a certain time frame (in litres), or the amount of paper consumed (in kilograms). Mandatory activities to include in the CO2 calculations 5
  6. 6. Mandatory activities to include in the CO2 calculation:  Electricity consumed,  Heat generated,  Employee commuting,  Paper usage,  Employee travel,  Emissions of student commuting (waste, water, electricity T&D losses, other on-campus stationary sources, water and direct transportation ) 6
  7. 7. Carbon Footprint Calculations Two basic types of data are necessary to calculate the CO2 emissions : Activity data & Emission Factors  Emission factor (CO2 per unit)  Emissions can be expressed into CO2 emitted per unit of measurement (kg / km / l / etc).  For example, an emission factor could state the amount of CO2 that is emitted per kilogram of paper. 7
  8. 8. Carbon Footprint Calculations  The total CO2 emission of the university should be calculated by multiplying emission factors and activity data for all the (sub)categories; taking the sum of these multiplications gives the total CO2 emission of the university. CO2 emission = Activity data (kg / km / litres / etc) * Emission factor (CO2 per unit).  The degree of uncertainty of the calculations can be assessed by doing a sensitivity analysis. (Stefan Sprangers) 8
  9. 9. Carbon Footprint Estimate Scope Source Scope 1 Total emissions (kg), C02 Campus-generated electricity Negligable Campus-owned transport Scope 2 2,155.40 25,484,680.00 Heat/Air-conditioning Scope 3 Purchased electricity 18,723,120.00 Faculty Commuting 2,697,869.20 Student Commuting 6,343,091.30 Financed Travel 488,023.90 Paper consumption Waste 145,003.95 175,100.90 Total 54,059,044.65 Students 32,862 Employees 4,214 Total per student (kg) 1407.23 Total per employee (kg) 1854.43 9
  10. 10. Estimation Notes  A significant portion of NTU‟s carbon footprint comes from airconditioning expenses  Student commuting is relatively minimal due to large amount of oncampus accommodation  NTU students are still relatively paper-reliant  Overall emissions are high  No significant on-campus energy generation, and little/no use of alternative “green” energy sources such as solar or hydraulics 10
  11. 11. STAKEHOLDERS By integrating and matching their interests with our value proposition, we will be able to effectively convince our stakeholders to buy-in to our initiatives 11
  12. 12. Stakeholders The table provides information of our primary stakeholders and their interests, who will benefit from our initiatives. Stakeholder NTU Interests Value Proposition Admin cost, reputation in terms of ranking, CSR goals, good learning and working environment Eco-efficiency Guenster et al. (2006) Students Cost of education, convenience, effective learning, quality of learning Employees Pay, working conditions, promotions Government Budget variances, sustainability initiatives, CSR Environmen-talists CSR, carbon footprint, green efforts 12
  13. 13. A vicious cycle    De Vries (2011) and Guenster et al. (2006) Ecoefficiency How well an organization manages its carbon footprint will in return provide good service to its financial and non financial goals and vice versa Cost savings Reputation An organization that fails to assess and manage its carbon footprint will inadvertently be producing excess carbon which means more dollar values are being disposed to unnecessary carbon emissions which otherwise could have been better invested for higher returns Value add 13 Reduce carbon
  14. 14. BENEFITS of measuring carbon footprints 1. Financial benefits  Provide a strong incentive to reduce the carbon emissions and hence save a substantial amount of costs from being eco-friendly  Able to provide more services at lower prices to students and others Gain competitive advantage against other universities (Porter & van der Linde, 1996) 14
  15. 15. BENEFITS of measuring carbon footprints 2. Reduce carbon emission  NTU, as one of the fastest growing universities, should move in pace with this development and start measuring and reporting about their carbon emissions  Be socially responsible in mitigating effects of climate change and environmental pollution created by their operations 15
  16. 16. BENEFITS of measuring carbon footprints 3. Value add and support to other stakeholders’ interests  Reducing costs means higher profits (ceteris paribus)  Cost savings can be used to meet other stakeholders‟ needs like reducing tuition fees for students, providing better pay and improving working conditions to employees etc 16
  17. 17. BENEFITS of measuring carbon footprints 4. Reputation benefits  Works positively on stakeholders like the media, governmental institutions, employees, investors and potential partners in improving reputation 17
  18. 18. ALTERNATIVE environment initiatives Think Green, Choose Wisely, Create, Deliver, Less Usage, Use Wisely and Recycle & Reuse 18
  19. 19. ALTERNATIVE environmental initiatives 1. Transforming a significant proportion of our course delivery from classroom to an online format 2. Buying an equivalent amount of carbon offset credits from CO2 Limited Group 3. Other viable alternatives leading to a carbonneutral future 19
  20. 20. 1. Transforming a significant proportion of course delivery from classroom to an online format  NTU can use social media or online platforms to conduct lessons  Benefits of using online platforms to conduct lessons  Reduce carbon emissions from commuting, printing of papers and electricity  Able to transcend time and space across international borders  More interactive with videos, sounds and images (meet interest of students’ learning experience)  Students able to learn at their own pace, more effective learning 20
  21. 21. 2. Buying equivalent amount of carbon offset credits from CO2 Group Limited  A carbon credit is an offset that can be exchanged on a market  For example, company A may have established an emission reduction of 200 tons CO2 this year. However, company A does not need this emission reduction to meet Kyoto Protocol targets. Thus, company A goes to the Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism to get a Certified Emission Reduction (CER), which is a credit that can be sold on the market  This credit enables organizations to reach their overall „green‟ target while signaling organizations to be mindful of their carbon emissions 21
  22. 22. 2. Buying equivalent amount of carbon offset credits from CO2 Group Limited PROS  Hassle-free (Do not have to modify current practices) CONS  NTU would spend money (lower profits) by buying carbon offset credits  May not be a long-term solution (only short-term compensatory solution) 22
  23. 23. 3. Other viable alternatives leading to a carbon-neutral future. Mete out punishments and rewards according to Vroom‟s expectancy theory  Punish employees for unfavorable variances from utilities (electricity, water) and stationery expenses (e.g. paper)  Reduce year-end bonuses  Impose penalties  Reward employees for favorable variances from utilities and stationery expenses  Increase year-end bonus  Allow them to use cost savings for towards department‟s welfare (e.g. cohesion day) 23
  24. 24. 3. Other viable alternatives leading to a carbon-neutral future.  Optimized green and privacy solar absorbing glasses that can reduce the heat entering classrooms and staffrooms  Pre-set air conditioning to 24 degree Celsius (no option to lower temperature)  Electrical saving day (similar to e-learning week where students will not be required to come to school but lessons be conducted through e learning)  Have outdoor learning 24
  25. 25. 3. Other viable alternatives leading to a carbon-neutral future.  Partner recycling companies to help recycle waste created by schools  Use gas instead of electricity as resource  Partnering industry to develop and adopt greener technologies  Seek governmental aid and support required to develop greener technologies (Lee and Win, 2004) 25
  26. 26. Proposed recommendations for action by NTU • Popular usage and ease of accessibility to information technology today  Transform a few chapters of module to be taught in class to online format first • Concurrently, phase out implementations of our viable alternatives our team proposed over a period of 2 years 26
  27. 27. Executive Summary  We all know the damaging effects of C02 to the environment such as its potent contribution to greenhouse effects. But how many of us know how much are we contributing to the environment from our daily activities?  NTU teaches us corporate social responsibility and the significance of giving back to society. But first and foremost, how can the university be at the forefront of carbon reduction?  This keynote suggests viable alternatives the university can partake in, how they can calculate the carbon footprint to identify major contributors that need to be cut down and the stakeholders directly affecting and affected by carbon emissions.  It also attempts to persuade NTU to join forces in “going green” for a more sustainable world. 27