Carbon 101: Carbon accounting for hospitals


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Carbon 101: Carbon accounting for hospitals. Sources of GHG emissions in hospitals, current (2011) policy outlook, GHG Protocol, and tool kit. Canadian data.

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  • THIS VERSION removes a few animations from version 10 and speaking notes from the slides
  • The case for has been stated…
  • Agreements:Post-Kyoto – Copenhagen AccordU.S.-Canada Clean Energy DialogueMajor Economies Forum – 17 membersG8 Leaders
  • WCI – 11 members, including BC, PQ, California - 16 observers - regional cap-and-trade program Target: Reduce regional GHG emissions to 15 percent below 2005 levels by 2020 and spur investment in and development of clean-energy technologies, create green jobs, and protect public health.A few more targets: Ontario targets emissions reductions of 6% below 1990 levels by 2014, 15% by 2020, and 80% by 2050.MOU with QuebecObserver of:Regional Greenhouse Gas InitiativeMidwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction AccordMore Memberships…The Climate RegistryInternational Carbon Action Partnership
  • Ontario’s Climate Change Action Plan, Annual Report 2008-2009 (December 2009)Ontario’s ambitious target:Ontario targets emissions reductions from 1990, not 2005, and are much steeper:6% below 1990 levels by 2014, 15% by 2020, and 80% by 2050.Between 1990 and 2007, Ontario’s total annual GHG emissions rose by 13 per cent, from 175 Mt of CO2 eq to 197 Mt of CO2 eq.To hit that target, we need to cut 13% just to break even, then another 15%, by 2020. What does that look like?
  • ~25% from 2007How is Ontario going to do that? A number of mechanisms, such as promotion of green energy through the FIT program, but also through cap and trade.
  • Substance forming behind commitmentsThe Environmental Protection Amendment Act (Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading) 2009 - Ontario Regulation 452/09 – requiring affected facilities to report greenhouse gas emissions. Sets a 25,000 cap, how to report, and the need for 3rd party verification.Conservation Plans: Report -Half of Ontario’s Long Term Energy Plan conservation target (of 7,100MW by 2030) comes from the commercial sector, which includes institutional buildings in the Broader Public Sector.
  • A global issue :A global unitAgnosticTechnology – doesn’t favour CCS overCogen, Plasma gasification over incineration, bugatti over volkswagon beetlePolitically - waxing waning politically - but always true: A direct relationship to climate change - Carbon is the language of climate science. Even the US speaks of METRIC tonnes of CO2.Regionally – doesn’t single out anyone
  • Conservation of Energy will get you there – the question is, HOW MUCH conservation is needed? Between 1990 and 2007, Ontario’s total annual GHG emissions rose by 13 per centBusiness-as-usual ALREADY commits us to 2 degrees of warming by 2021. Will we “run out of atmosphere” before we run out of oil, gas, coal…?Are there smarter ways to use less?Are other sources of GHG important? Medical gases, landfills, agriculture, industry, cement production…The only way to figure that out how we are performing is to speak in the terms of climate change – CO2
  • International Energy Agency released a publication that estimated that existing buildings are responsible for more that 40% of the world’s total primary energy consumption and for 24% of global carbon dioxide emissions.Buildings in Canada account for:x34% of Canada's energy consumption50% of our extracted natural resources25% of our landfill waste10% of our airborne particulatesx35% of our greenhouse gas emissionsCaGBC
  • KP: One of the largest HC Providers in the States, has begun looking at GHG – 150,000 employees serving 8.2M people Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE)Waste, supply chain could be spoken to.
  • We spend a lot…Understanding that some of the big hospitals generally exceed 10M – approaching 20M – we are updating this data in 2011Utility costs represent approximately 47 % of their total plant operations and maintenance expenditures.We can save a lot…Cost Effective:Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (AR4) found that the global potential for cost-effective reductions projected baseline emissions by 2020 amounts to 29% in the residential and commercial sector (giving it the highest of all the sectors studied). They considered that substantial reductions in CO2 emissions were possible “using existing, mature technologies for energy efficiency that already exist widely and that have been successfully used”.
  • Existing BuildingsIn any given year, only 1% of buildings are newly constructed.Even when we are shooting for the stars – 80% reduction by 2050 – baseless claim or inspired challenge – take your pickApproximately ¾ of the buildings that we will use in 2050 has already been built. The solution HAS TO INCLUDE EXISTING HOSPITALSThis makes existing buildings the biggest energy consumer of all the sectors – addressing existing buildings is imperative.
  • Motivational Slide Alert!If we solve buildings – we solve global warming SAVE THE WORLDHow’s that for first do no harm? Hippocratic oath
  • The most widely used and adapted methodologyDeveloped by World Resources Institute (WRI) and World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) in partnership with businesses, NGOs, governments and others.UNDERPINS:Carbon Trading MarketsThe baseline development for complianceUsed by: CDP, UK-ETS, EU-ETS, CCX, VCS, CDM, WCIAbout WBCSD The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) is a coalition of 170 international companies united by a shared commitment to sustainable development via the three pillars of economic growth, ecological balance and social progress. Members are drawn from more than 35 countries and 20 major industrial sectors. About WRI World Resources Institute is an independent nonprofit organization with a staff of more than 100 scientists, economists, policy experts, business analysts, statistical analysts, mapmakers, and communicators working to protect the Earth and improve people’s lives. WRI strives to harness the power of business to create profitable solutions to environment and development challenges.
  • Ontario Regulation 452/09 (Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting)
  • GASEScarbon dioxide (CO2) – natural gas, electricity, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)methane (CH4)nitrous oxide (N2O) – medical gashydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) – refridgerants / firesupressantsperfluorocarbons (PFCs)Nitrogen trifluoride- O. Reg. 452/10, s. 6 adds Nitrogen trifluoride, USEPA is considering adding additional gases.In any case – a GHG is a greenhouse gas regardless of policyAnd organizes emissions into 3 “scopes” in order to categorize their source and ownership
  • Why scopes?The categorize what you have control over… Scope 1: Fuel use for Heating and TransportationScope 2: Electricity & Purchased SteamScope 3: Waste, Resource Consumption, Contracted Services
  • Your inventory will set the foundation for years to come, and be the denominator Choose a base year for which verifiable emissions data are available and specify reasons for choosing that particular yearMight not be THIS YEAR – often, you roll back a few years before your last big retrofit.Identifysources within company’s boundary:Stationary combustion: combustion of fuels in stationary equipment (boilers, furnaces, etc)Mobile combustion: combustion of fuels in transportation devicesProcess emissions: emissions from physical or chemical processesFugitive emissions: intentional and unintentional releases (equipment leaks)Collect activity data and emission factors - Be transparent: Disclose your calculations (you'll thank yourself later).
  • Proposed Energy Conservation Measures reduce electricity by 9.4% and natural gas consumption by 27% and pay for themselves in 3.3 years.Generally 33 % Scope 1, 66% Scope 2.
  • Proposed Energy Conservation Measures reduce electricity by 9.4% and natural gas consumption by 27% and pay for themselves in 3.3 years.Generally 33 % Scope 1, 66% Scope 2.
  • Proposed Energy Conservation Measures reduce electricity by 9.4% and natural gas consumption by 27% and pay for themselves in 3.3 years.Generally 33 % Scope 1, 66% Scope 2.
  • Proposed Energy Conservation Measures reduce electricity by 9.4% and natural gas consumption by 27% and pay for themselves in 3.3 years.Generally 33 % Scope 1, 66% Scope 2.
  • Previous examples largely pulled from audits. Virtually all of the technologies in the previous slides were considered “low hanging fruit” in our pilot studies.Typical HospitalElectricity - 7,250,000 kWh - Natural Gas - 1,085,000 m3 - Sqft - 250,900 sqft.Conservation –low hanging fruit:9.4% Electricity 27% Natural Gas – using “cost-effective reductions” and “existing, mature technologies for energy efficiency that already exist widely and that have been successfully used”.
  • $5,300 - savings through 10% diversion($1,000 - $57,000) – typical project returns at 7 pilot sites
  • Carbon and energy aren't everything:Water - poorly expressed -energy required for treatment / delivery not the issue, cheapens the result. Often presented on its own merits. For Instance, A 2004 Practice Green Health Study on a shared linen service provided the following benefits:11% Reduction in Energy Use 12.6% Reduction in Water Use 40% Reduction in Pollutants Discharged
  • And don’t forget % reductions towards you target!Measuring Energy Savings and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission Reductions Benefits Resulting From Recycling In Canada (Recycling Council of Ontario and Government of Canada, 2002)
  • End with a quote: Not a lot of happy quotes out there… this is the happiest one I could find!!
  • Carbon 101: Carbon accounting for hospitals

    1. 1. Carbon Footprinting 101Carbon Accounting for Hospitals June 15, 2011
    2. 2. “The problem of global “Climate change… is theclimate change is one that only thing that I believe hasaffects us all and action the power to fundamentallywill only be effective if it is end the march of civilizationtaken at the international as we know it, and make alevel... What do we, the lot of the other efforts thatinternational community, were making irrelevant anddo about it?” impossible”Margaret Thatcher Bill Clinton "We are playing Russian “We call on all people and roulette with features of the nations to recognize the serious planets atmosphere that and potentially irreversible will profoundly impact impacts of global warming generations to come. How caused by the anthropogenic long are we willing to emissions of greenhouse gases gamble?“ and other pollutants” David Suzuki Vatican 2
    3. 3. Carbon Footprinting 101 State of Carbon Why Hospitals Matter GHG Protocol Communicating CO2 3
    4. 4. STATE OF CARBON IN 2011 4
    5. 5. Political Landscape• Government of Canada• Aligned with the US and shares targets with major economies• Committed to reducing Canadas total greenhouse gas emissions by 17 percent from 2005 levels by 2020 5
    6. 6. Political Landscape• Government of Ontario• Member of the Western Climate Initiative• Ontario’s Climate Change Action Plan• Reduce regional GHG emissions to 15 percent below 1990 levels by 2020 6
    7. 7. Ontario’s Climate Change Action Plan 7
    8. 8. Ontario’s Climate Change Action Plan • Ambitious target: • Reduce GHG emissions by 15 percent from 1990 levels by 2020 149 Mt (2020) 8 80% in 2050…
    9. 9. Ontario’s Acts and Regulations• The Environmental • Green Energy Act Protection Amendment (GEA) 2009 Green Act (GHG Trading) Energy Act (GEA) 200 2009 • Energy Conservation • Ontario Regulation 452/09 Plans for Public Agencies: (Greenhouse Gas Proposed Regulation Emissions Reporting ) • BPS (including hospitals) • Requires facilities emitting report energy use and 25,000 t CO2e to report CO2 • Invited: Many • All hospitals (proposed) • Required: Few 9
    10. 10. What does it all mean?• A growing expectation to measure and report: • Directly – Cap and Trade (2011) • Indirectly – Energy Conservation Plans (2013) • Public Disclosure, Public Interest, Engagement, Outreach• A growing opportunity for carbon-financing projects: • First Ontario Emissions Reports (2011) • “Aligned” with the US, and the US is going forward • Post-Kyoto Copenhagen Accord • Western Climate Initiative • Still plenty of uncertainty… 10
    11. 11. WHY CARBON
    12. 12. Why Carbon?• A global issue : A global unit• Agnostic • Technology • Politically • Regionally Conservation is KEY but the question is… 12
    13. 13. Why Carbon? Are weconserving enough? 13
    14. 14. HOSPITALS MATTER 14
    15. 15. The Case for Hospitals• Buildings account for 40% of the developed world’s energy consumption.• Hospitals have the highest energy intensity of all publicly- funded facilities, and 2.5x the GHG emissions of commercial buildings.• Many operate 24/7 International Energy Agency U.S. Hospital Energy Alliance (HEA) 15
    16. 16. The Case for Hospitals • In addition to high energy use: • Hospitals have unique challenges with high GWP medical gases. • Medical gases in use with GWP of 300 to 1,000 times that of CO2. U.S. Hospital Energy Alliance (HEA) NRCan Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE)
    17. 17. The Case for Hospitals• The typical expenditure (2006) for utilities in Ontario hospitals is approximately: • $8,037,000 per year for teaching hospitals; • $2,472,000 per year for large/medium community hospitals • $1,121,000 per year for CCC/Rehab hospitals • $609,000 per year for smaller hospitals• Cost-effective measures could: • -29% GHG (IPCC) • -20-25% in utility costs Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (AR4) Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Ontario Hospitals (Sure Solutions, 2006) 17
    18. 18. The Case for Hospitals• Less than 1% of buildings are newly constructed.• Of the buildings that will exist in 2050… three out of four have already been built.• We need to focus on EXISTING HOSPITALS NOW 18
    19. 19. If we solve existingbuildingsWe solve globalwarmingAnd we… save theworld!! 19
    20. 20. THE GHG PROTOCOL 20
    21. 21. The GHG Protocol• The Greenhouse Gas Protocol is the international standard methodology for benchmarking greenhouse gas performance.• The GHG Protocol provides organizations of all types with a transparent, standardized, and auditable method to quantify, classify, and report GHG emissions.• It is the basis for the dominant regional and international carbon markets and compliance scenarios, including the Western Climate Initiative (WCI). WBCSD/WRI Greenhouse Gas Protocol: A Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard, Revised Edition (2004).
    22. 22. Principles• Relevance •• Completeness •• Consistency •• •• Accuracy •
    23. 23. Regulated Greenhouse Gases & Global Warming Potentials Common Name Formula Global Warming Potential Factor1 Carbon dioxide CO2 12 Methane CH4 213 Nitrous oxide N2O 3104 Sulfur hexafluoride SF6 23,9005 Nitrogen trifluoride NF3 17,2006… Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) CxHxFx 12 to 11,7007… Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) CxFx 6,500 to 9,200 O. Reg. 452/09, s. 6. 23
    24. 24. Scope NF3 WBCSD/WRI Greenhouse Gas Protocol: A Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard, Revised Edition (2004). 24
    25. 25. Scope Scope 1 Scope 2 Scope 3• Direct GHG • Indirect GHG • Other Optional emissions emissions Indirect GHG emissions• Fuel use for Heating • GHG emissions • Waste, EPP, flights, and Transportation, from purchased travel, purchased fugitive emissions electricity, steam, or goods or services chilled water
    27. 27. Build your Baseline Inventory Identify your base year Identify boundaries, sources, and Scope 3 Collect data and emission factors Measure your impact Roll-up data to corporate level Be strategic: Have targets and a plan Communicate, Communicate, Communicate 27
    28. 28. Now you have a Baseline and a Plan 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Scope 1 Scope 2 Scope 3 Fuel use for Electricity & Contracted Heating and Purchased Services, Transportatio Steam Waste, Other n, Fugitives 28
    29. 29. Measure Your Impact•• • • • • • • • • • •
    30. 30. Scope 1 – Direct Emissions• High efficiency boiler 50 45 installation 40• Solar Hot Water 35 30• Eliminate CFC 25 refrigerants 20 15• Efficient diesel backup 10• Waste heat recovery 5 0 Scope 1 Scope 2 Scope 3 Fuel use for Electricity & Contracted Heating and Purchased Services, Transportatio Steam Waste, Other n, Fugitives 30
    31. 31. Scope 2 – Indirect Emissions• Lighting retrofit: Occupancy 50 Sensors 45• Lighting retrofit: T12 to T8 40• Recover rejected heat from chillers• Install high efficiency motors 35• White Roof Installation 30• Tower - Fluid Cooling Loop 25 20• Cogeneration 15• Solar Photovoltaic 10• Data Centre Virtualization 5• Demand Management / Peak 0 Avoidance Scope 1 Scope 2 Scope 3• Deep Lake Cooling (EnWave) Fuel use for Electricity & Contracted Heating and Purchased Services, Transportatio Steam Waste, Other n 31
    32. 32. Scope 3 – Other / Optional Indirect Emissions• Waste Diversion 50 45 Strategy 40• Sharps Service 35 30• Anesthetic Gas Capture 25• Local Food programs 20 15• Extended Supplier 10 Responsibility (i.e. 5 0 reducing packaging) Scope 1 Scope 2 Scope 3• Contracted Services (i.e. Fuel use for Electricity & Contracted outsourced linen service) Heating and Transportatio Purchased Steam Services, Waste, Other n 32
    33. 33. Impact felt in both Scope 1 and 2• Occupant Awareness 50 45 Program 40• Recommissioning and 35 30 Optimization 25• Update O&M Measures 20 15• Set forward / set back 10 temperature policy 5 0• Weather Stripping Scope 1 Scope 2 Scope 3• Building Insulation Fuel use for Electricity & Contracted Heating and Purchased Services, Transportatio Steam Waste, Other n 33
    34. 34. Example: Bundling Cost-Effective EnergyOpportunitiesProposed Energy Conservation Measures reduce electricity by 9.4% andnatural gas consumption by 27% and pay for themselves in 3.3 years.Financial Benefits Typical HospitalProjects 8Total Investment $585,000Annual Savings $178,000ROI (years) 3.3Environmental Benefits Typical HospitalEnergy Conservation (GJ) 13,608Energy Conservation (homes) 127Avoided GHG Emissions (tCO2e) 664Avoided GHG Emissions (cars) 136 Preliminary Data: Average results from 5 energy audits having a gross floor space of 250,900 sqft. 34
    35. 35. Example: Potential In-House Waste OpportunitiesConventional “In-House” Waste Reduction and Diversion increases by 10%.Financial Benefits Typical HospitalProjects 4Investment Not yet availableAnnual Savings $5,300 ($1,000 - $57,000)ROI <1 yearEnvironmental Benefits Typical HospitalWaste Diversion 10% (tonnes) 75.9Waste Diversion 10% (homes) 124Avoided GHG Emissions (tCO2e) 212Avoided GHG Emissions (cars) 44 Preliminary Data: Projected Non-Hazardous Waste Savings is limited to direct savings through in-house non-hazardous waste diversion initiatives at 7 piloted sites. 35
    37. 37. Do’s and Donts DO DON’T• Stick to the Protocol • …Use carbon where it• Ensure data is complete doesn’t fit and accurate • …Overstate benefits• Be consistent and transparent in your • …Bring in Scope 3 if there’s approach. no value• Use simple metrics to communicate • …Forget about non-CO2• Set a target, and invest in it benefits• Engage staff 37
    38. 38. Visualizing Impact Take “X” Cars off the road •4.87 tCO2e/car •Midsize, 20,000 km per year •USEPA Power “X” Homes •107 GJ / house (all fuels) •Households and the Environment Survey: Energy Use (Statistics Canada, 2007.) Fill “X” TTC Subway Cars Back-to-Back •1 subway car, 22.7m long, per 33 tonnes of waste •150 kg/m3 uncompacted waste per m3 •22.7m x 3.1m x 3.1m (220m3) subway car Fill “X” Olympic Swimming Pools •2,500m3 pool 38
    39. 39. Carbon Footprinting is an Opportunity• “There is still time to avoid the worst impacts of climate change, if we take strong action now.” • Sir Nicholas Stern, Economist, London School of Economics • Stern Review Report on the Economics of Climate Change 39
    40. 40. Go ‘Nucks!Thank YouGraham TakataOHA Green Health Find out more 40
    41. 41. APPENDIX
    42. 42. Scope 1, 2, 3 Definitions• In accordance with the GHG Protocol, emissions are divided into three categories: scope 1, scope 2, and scope 3.• Scope 1 emissions are direct emissions that occur from sources owned or controlled by the company, such as natural gas used to heat company buildings or emissions due to company owned fleet vehicles.• Scope 2 accounts for GHG emissions from the generation of purchased electricity consumed by the company. Purchased electricity is defined as electricity that is purchased or otherwise brought into the organizational boundary of the company. Scope 2 emissions physically occur at the facility where electricity is generated.• Scope 3 is an optional reporting category that allows for the treatment of all other indirect emissions. Scope 3 emissions are a consequence of the activities of the company, but occur from sources not owned or controlled by the company. Some examples of scope 3 activities are extraction and production of purchased materials; transportation of purchased fuels; and use of sold products and services (such as paper use or shipping services).
    43. 43. Key Resources• Canadas Greenhouse Gas Inventory•• Greenhouse Gas Emissions Quantification Guidance• • Emission Factors • Electricity Intensity Tables • Global Warming Potentials • Useful Conversion Factors and Units • Sector-Specific Guidance Manuals• Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data• indicators/default.asp?lang=en&n=BFB1B398-1 • By Province, Sector, and among nations 43
    44. 44. Key Resources• Ontario Regulation 452/09: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting• http://www.e- • Table 1: Complete list of GHGs• Guideline for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting, December 2010• html • Appendix 8 Electricity generation and cogeneration • Appendix 10 General stationary combustion - Table 20-2: Default Emission Factors by Fuel Type 44
    45. 45. Key Resources• The Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol)• • Standards • Calculation Tools• Waste Management Industry Survey: Business and Government Sectors, 2008• • Waste Generation• Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change• • Global Warming Potentials 45