Preparation and Plant-growth Efficiency Assessment of Biochars

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  • The existing literature (Haefele et al., 2011; Rawat et al., 2010) has also illustrated that the soil OM increases the WHC of sandy loam while increasing aeration in silt and clay loam. It also indicates the releasing of OC and NPK to soil OM through decomposition reaction.
    we can conclude that the decomposition of OC in biochar to soil OM resulting in the increase in WHC and the decreasing in silt is the mechanism of WB and RHB application in this study.
  • Preparation and Plant-growth Efficiency Assessment of Biochars

    1. 1. 國立屏東科技大學熱帶農業暨國際合作系 Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation National Pingtung University of Science and Technology 博士學位論文 Ph.D. Dissertation Preparation and Plant-growth Efficiency Assessment of Biochars 指導教授: 黃武章(Wu-Jang, Huang) 研究生: 歐蒂娣(Odette Marie Varela Milla) 中華民國102年05 月16日 May 16, 2013
    2. 2. 2 General Introduction Literature Review Identifying the Advantages of Using MSW Bottom Ash in Combination with Rice Husk and Bamboo Biochar Mixtures as Soil Modifiers: Enhancement of the Release of Polyphenols from a Carbon Matrix Feasibility Study using Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash and Biochar from Binary Mixtures of Organic Waste as Agronomic Materials Agronomic Properties and Characterization of Rice Husk and Wood Biochars and their Effect on the Growth of Water Spinach in a Field Test The Effects of Rice Husk Biochar and its Silicon Content on Corn (Zea mays L.) Growth Effects of Pyrolyzation Temperature of Bamboo Biochars on the Germination and Growth Rates of Zea Mays L. and Brassica Rapa
    3. 3. 3
    4. 4. Definition: ▪ Biochar is commonly defined as charred organic matter, produced with the intent to deliberately apply to soils to sequester carbon and improve soil properties (Lehmann and Joseph, 2009). Organic Matters (Wastes) Carbonization Bio-Char ? Activation Activated Carbon 5
    5. 5. 6 Biochar Charcoal Biochar vs. charcoal Feedstock Unlike regular charcoal creation, biochar creation helps mitigate climate change via carbon sequestration, increasing soil fertility in the process
    6. 6. Motivation 7 Biochar research is in its first steps and as such, substantially more data is required before robust predictions can be made regarding the effects of biochar application to soils, across a range of soils, climatic, and land management factors. Concomitant with carbon sequestration, biochar is intended to improve soil properties and soil functioning relevant to agronomic and environmental performance. Hypothesized mechanisms were suggested but are not very clearly, for potential improvement water and nutrient retention (as well as improved soil structure, drainage) would be mainly enhanced. Considering the multi-dimensional and crosscutting nature of biochar, an imminent need is anticipated for a strong and balanced scientific review to effectively inform policy development on the current state of knowledge with reference to biochar application to soils.
    7. 7. Activated carbon: (Material) charcoal for application to soil (noun). Charcoal produced to optimize its reactive surface area (e.g. by using steam during pyrolysis). Anthrosol: (count noun) A soil that has been modified profoundly through human activities, such as addition of organic materials or household wastes, irrigation and cultivation. Biochar: (Concept) “charcoal (biomass that has been pyrolyzed in a zero or low oxygen environment) for which, owing to its inherent properties, scientific consensus exists that application to soil at a specific site is expected to sustainably sequester carbon and concurrently improve soil functions. Black carbon: (noun) All C‐rich residues from fire or heat (including from coal, gas or petrol). 8
    8. 8. Black Earth: (mass noun) Term synonymous with Chernozem used (e.g. in Australia) to describe self‐mulching black clays. Char: (mass noun) 1. Synonym of ‘charcoal’; 2. charred organic matter as a result of wildfire (verb) synonym of the term ‘pyrolyze’ . Charcoal: (mass noun) charred organic matter. Chernozem: (count noun) A black soil rich in organic matter; from the Russian ‘chernij’ meaning ‘black’ and ‘zemlja’ meaning ‘earth’ or ‘land’. 9
    9. 9. Coal: (mass noun) Combustible black or dark brown rock consisting chiefly of carbonized plant matter, found mainly in underground seams and used as fuel. Organic carbon: (noun) biology C that was originally part of an organism; (chemistry) C that is bound to at least one hydrogen (H) atom. Terra Preta: (noun) Colloquial term for a kind of Anthrosol where charcoal (or biochar) has been applied to soil along with many other materials, including pottery shards, turtle shells, animal and fish bones, etc. 10
    10. 10. 11 Carbon sequestration potential of biochar The global flux of CO2 from soils to the atmosphere is in the region of 60 Gt of C per year. The black numbers indicate how much carbon is stored in various reservoirs, in billions of tons (GtC = Gigatons of Carbon). The purple numbers indicate how much carbon moves between reservoirs each year, i.e. the fluxes. The sediments, as defined in this diagram, do not include the ~70 million GtC of carbonate rock and kerogen (NASA, 2008). Figure 2.1 Diagram of the carbon cycle. (NASA, 2008). The principle of using biochar for carbon (C) sequestration is related to the role of soils in the C-cycle. This CO2 is mainly the result of microbial respiration within the soil system as the microbes decompose soil organic matter (SOM).
    11. 11. 12 Objectives  To generate biochars from organic wastes, to analyze their concept and origins, to investigate their key roles on agriculture application, at the same time we aim to study the effect of production process on plant germination rate and their potential uses with other industrial solid wastes, such as bottom ash.
    12. 12. 13
    13. 13. CO2 World carbon dioxide emissions are expected to increase by 1.9 percent annually between 2001 and 2025 N2O Nitrous oxide (5 percent of total emissions), meanwhile, is emitted from burning fossil fuels and through the use of certain fertilizers and industrial processes. CH4 Methane, comes from landfills, coal mines, oil and gas operations, and agriculture; it represents 9 percent of total emissions. 14
    14. 14. 15 In a study by Rondon et al. (2007), biochar addition to soils has been shown to reduce the emission of both CH4 and N2O. They reported that a near complete suppression of methane upon biochar addition at an application rate of 2% w w-1 These results indicate that the effect of biochar additions to soils on the N cycle depend greatly on the associated changes in soil hydrology and those thresholds of water content effects on N2O production may be very important and would have to be studied for a variety of soil-biochar-climate conditions.
    15. 15. 16 Other relevant minerals can occur in the biomass, such as silicon (Si), which occurs in the cell walls, mostly in the form of silica (SiO2). Making biochar from biomass waste materials should create no competition for land with any other land use option such as food production or leaving the land in its pristine state. Biochar can and should be made from biomass waste materials.
    16. 16. 17 Pyrolysis is the chemical decomposition of an organic substance by heating in the absence of oxygen. Pyrolysis occurs spontaneously at high temperatures (generally above approximately 300°C for wood, with the specific temperature varying with material). It occurs in nature when vegetation is exposed to wildfires or comes into contact with lava from volcanic eruptions. At its most extreme, pyrolysis leaves only carbon as the residue and is called carbonization Source: www.carbonzero.ch
    17. 17. Table 2.1 Mean of post-pyrolysis feedstock residues resulting from different temperatures and residence times (IEA, 2007). Mode Conditions Liquid Biochar Syngas Fast pyrolysis Moderate temperature, ~ 500°C, short hot vapor residence time of ~ 1 s 75% 12% 13% Intermediate Pyrolysis Moderate temperature, ~ 500°C, moderate hot vapor residence time of 10 - 20 s 50% 20% 30% Slow Pyrolysis (Carbonization) Low temperature, ~ 400°C, very long solids residence time 30% 35% 35% Gasification High temperature, ~ 800°C, very long vapor residence time 5% 10% 85% 18 With regard to the use of biochar as a soil amendment and for climate change mitigation it is clear that slow pyrolysis, would be preferable, as this maximizes the yield of char, the most stable of the pyrolysis final products.
    18. 18. 19 The design was handed for mechanical construction and assembly to a company in Pingtung City and was completed on May 2010. This system was able to pyrolyze from 1 to 3kg of biomass (wood pellets, rice husk, and others) per run. The batch reactor vessel is a stainless steel horizontal tube with a diameter of 60 cm x 90 cm. (1) Smoke chimney, (2a) stainless steel mixing arm, (2b) biochar mixing discs, (3) Reactor cover, (4) stainless steel pyrolysis drum, (5) temperature sensor, (6) stainless steel tube inserted in reactor wall perforation passed though (7) valve for sensor (placed in the lowest point of the reactor, inside drum reaching floor and fire flame), (8) gas tank, (9) gas-reactor valve, (10) gas feeder tube, (11) fire plate, (12) reactor wheels.
    19. 19. 20 (a) Front view of biochar reactor, (b) Movable capsule inside the reactor, it separates the fire and the biomass during pyrolysis, (c) Temperature sensor, can reach 1000 C∘, (d) Flat cover avoids oxygen exchange, (e) Concave cover goes after flat cover, helps to direct the smoke emitted while charring to the excess pipe, (f) Reactor cover and excess pipe, (g) valve used to insert temperature sensor during pyrolysis, (h) Inside of reactor, (i) We count with 2 reactors for our research. (a) Dried muskmelon waste, (b) Muskmelon waste inside of the reactor, (c) Reactor feed by gas, (d) and (e) Flat and concave covers, we can observe how the charcoal is adhered to the flat cover after pyrolysis process, (f) Reactor after biochar production, (g) Final product: muskmelon biochar.
    20. 20. Biochar production from muskmelon waste 1st test Initial weight 1.293 kg Final weight 0.447 kg Loss 0.846 kg Initial temperature 33∘C Final temperature 195∘C Time 96 minutes 21 1 tone of biomass gives 400 kg of biochar
    21. 21. 22
    22. 22. 23 Ideal biochar structure development with highest treatment temperature. (HTT): (a) increased proportion of aromatic C, highly disordered in amorphous mass; (b) growing sheets of conjugated aromatic carbon, turbostratically arranged; (c) structure becomes graphitic with order in the third dimension (Emmerich et al., 1987) 20μm 200μm The porous structure of biochar invites microbial colonization. Source: (left photo) S. Joseph; (right photo) Yamamoto, in Lehmann and Joseph (2009).
    23. 23. 24 phenols phenolic acids flavonoids anthocyanins
    24. 24. Polyphenols include several classes of compounds, such as phenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and others, with more complex structures, tannins and lignins. The mixed combination of biochar and polyphenols applied at 1.5 % w/w to compost led to highest root yields (Jordan et al., 2011) Niggli and Schmidt (2010) tested biochar in Vineyards and found that grapes from biochar-treated plots had a 10% higher polyphenol content. Together with the much higher amino acid content, this was an indication of a greater aromatic quality of the grapes, which is then passed into the wine. 18
    25. 25. Agricultural profitability Management of pollution and eutrophication risk to the environment Restoration of degraded land Sequestration of C from the atmosphere 26 The purpose of applying biochar to soil mainly falls into four broad categories:
    26. 26. 27
    27. 27. 29  To investigate the value of biochar and MSWIBA mixtures as soil modifiers and determine their effects on plant growth, root yield and the dry biomass weight of corn (Zea mays L.). And to find advantages to the addition of biochar to the BA.
    28. 28. 30 Polyphenolic compounds are the most important types of secondary metabolites that perform an important role in the biosynthesis process (Bennet and Wallsgrove, 1994). Natural polyphenols are necessary compounds in the stimulus of plant development and growth. Stimulus or inhibition capacity on plant growth and development is closely correlated with the concentration of Polyphenolic compounds used (Anghel, 2001). In some cases, the presence of these compounds in low concentrations can have a favorable effect on plant development. In other cases, when concentrations are high, there is an inhibition effect (Popa et al., 2007).
    29. 29. 31
    30. 30. 32 DTAIC
    31. 31. 33
    32. 32. 34
    33. 33. 35 The soil sample used for this experiment was collected from the National Pingtung University of Science and Technology field. “Ultisol” clay type, is an acidic soil with a pH of 4.02, organic matter (OM) 1.33, clay content 7%, silt 72%, sand 21%, organic carbon (OC) 0.77. In terms of increasing plant growth, biochar with various pore sizes may be best suited to enhancing the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soils.
    34. 34. 36
    35. 35. 37 Each biochar was mixed separately with soil and bottom ash. Trays were filled with either soil or soil-biochar- bottom ash mixtures, randomly placed on net house benches and watered before sowing the seeds. For each bottom ash test, 7 pots were used with 4 replicates each (n=4) Mixtures: 1- soil, 2- bottom ash + soil, 3- bottom ash + rice husk 400, 4- bottom ash + rice husk 500, 5- bottom ash + bamboo 300, 6- bottom ash + bamboo 600 and 7- bottom ash. Plants were harvested after one month. They were cleaned, and washed with DI water. Excessive water was removed to later obtain the total weight.
    36. 36. Plants were washed, cut into small pieces and dried in an oven at 65°C for 72 h. The dried material was ground and passed through a 250 Hm sieve mesh. The total phenolics were determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteau method (Rossi, 1965; Waterhouse, 2002; Koffi et al., 2007). The samples were filtered through a 0.45 mm Millipore syringe filter The total phenolics in the filtrate were determined colorimetrically. A volume of 100 mL of filtrate was added to 900 mL of distilled water, and 5 mL of 0.2 N Folin– Ciocalteau reagent was mixed. Absorbance was read at 750 nm with a UV/VIs-105 Genesys spectrophotometer (Thermo, USA). The total phenolic content of the samples were calibrated using catechins mono-compound and was expressed as parts per million and converted to (mg/L). All measurements were performed in duplicate. 38
    37. 37. Heavy metal analysis (ICP) was carried out to identify the properties of the different bottom ashes used. The leaching extraction procedure followed USA EPA method # 1311 with minor modifications (EPA, 1990). Five grams of ground and weighed bottom ash were put in a volumetric flask together with 1000 ml of distilled water and 5.7 ml of acetic acid. Samples were left for 18 h in a toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) rotator. After this procedure, samples where filtered and analyzed through a Perkin-Elmer 3000-XL inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES) spectrometer. 39
    38. 38. The contents determined by ICP showed that bottom ash from the three different cities did not differ from each other in most of the elements. There were differences in only four elements: Calcium > Lead > Sodium > Iron (Ca > Pb > Na > Fe>). Calcium constituted the largest proportion of the elements present in the bottom The pH of the bottom ash, when mixed with water, was as follows: Pingtung = 4.92, Chiayi = 6.63 and Chunghua = 6.59. There was not a high reduction in pH after leaching of metals. 40 Elements Pingtung Chiayi Changhua mg/L Fe 285.3 - - Al 54.3 - - Si 74.7 48.5 38.6 Pb 317.0 0.0 0.1 Zn 107.3 6.7 39.4 Cd - - 0.0 Ni 0.7 0.2 0.3 Cr 0.9 0.0 - Na 69.5 290.0 173.3 K 18.9 109.5 65.8 Sb 1.6 0.2 0.2 Ca 1099.0 2392.0 2481.0 Mn 11.6 3.2 3.1 Mg 30.2 49.9 47.7 Sr 3.5 6.2 5.9 Ba 0.5 0.6 0.5 Cu 2.0 2.5 4.1 “‐” means not detectable.
    39. 39. 41 Bottom ash treatments Pingtung Chiayi Chunghua Mixed matrix % of germination NF F NF F NF F 1 Soil 90 45 80 90 95 95 2 Bottom ash + soil 80 95 55 50 45 70 3 Bottom ash + rice husk 400 100 100 75 70 85 90 4 Bottom ash + rice husk 500 95 95 75 80 80 70 5 Bottom ash + bamboo 300 90 95 70 80 85 70 6 Bottom ash + bamboo 600 90 100 75 35 75 85 7 Bottom ash 65 70 - - - - NF= no fertilizer was applied, F= use of fertilizer. Germination results in treatments of bottom ash binary mixtures showed that the treatment with the most consistent results was the one source in Pingtung City. Rice husk biochar (400ºC) presented the highest germination percentage in all treatments having no differences among fertilizer applications and non-applications, followed by bottom ash + rice husk 500, bottom ash + bamboo 300 and bottom ash + bamboo 600. Treatments with soil+biochar+bottom ash gave better germination percentage than those were only soil was used or in combination of bottom ash showing seed germination inhibition. Inhibition effect may perhaps have some explanations: in this study the inhibiting effect of bottom ash on seed germination was tested at high concentrations, such as to reduce the germination percentage
    40. 40. 42 In our results of plant growth we found differences among the 3 sources of bottom ash in combinations with biochars (Figure a,b and c). Pingtung showed the best results with differences among treatments and fertilizer applications (Bottom ash + IRRI 400 °C), bottom ash applied alone showed inhibition in plant growth. The lowest average was observed in Chunghua bottom ash (Figure (c)). Plant size of MSWI bottom ash and biochar mixed matrix treatments. (a), (b) and (c), graphs show the differences between the three sources of bottom ash and their combinations with biochar with and without additions of fertilizer.
    41. 41. 43 We proposed that this interaction might decrease the use of fertilizer in agricultural soils. Therefore, the application of the mixed matrix of bottom ash and biochar is ideal for these types of soils as an organic fertilizer amendment and and also for its polyphenol content. From the analysis performed, polyphenols released from a BA/biochar mixture were found to have a linear relationship with the stem size quantified in plants (see Figure 3.2). We also observed that the biomass weight was proportional to the polyphenol amount (Figure 3.3).
    42. 42. With these results, we can state that bottom ash can be used in combination with biochar. When these materials are mixed the generation of polyphenols increases. Since the mixed matrix of bottom ash and biochar releases a large amount of polyphenols, the use of fertilizer is not needed. We found that the use of fertilizer on the BA/biochar mixture had a negative effect on plant growth. Therefore, when assessing the efficiency of applying biochar, the fertilizer should not be added, given that the use of fertilizers increases the release of polyphenols inhibiting plant growth. When measuring root length and comparing it to the addition of fertilizer, we observed that root length decreased in the fertilized region (see Figure 3.4). Effect of polyphenol on plant dried biomass tissue before and after addition of fertilizer. Effects of polyphenol on plant dried biomass tissue before and after addition of fertilizer where Chunghua bottom ash was applied
    43. 43. 45
    44. 44. 46
    45. 45. 47  To quantify the impact of: (1) rice husk biochar (RHB) with MSWI bottom ash and (2) bamboo biochar (BB) with MSWI bottom ash during germination and development of maize seedlings, as well as plant growth and amount of biomass produced.  To determine if the mixtures prepared for this study may have had a positive effect on the development of maize seedlings; therefore, the use of binary mixtures of bottom ash and biochar for plant growth may be feasible in Taiwan.
    46. 46. 48
    47. 47. 49
    48. 48. 50 Different types of MSWI bottom ash were obtained at a processing facility located in Pingtung County. Bottom ash from three different cities (Pingtung, Chiayi and Chunghua City) was collected and was air dried for 3 days at room temperature Then it was sieved using two mesh sizes (mesh 1- 19.10 mm and mesh 2- 4.700 mm). The all kinds of ash particles, especially in the area of small particles, have a relatively big surface area, porous surface, and for this reason they could have a huge absorptions capacity. Two different feedstocks were used to produce the biochars used in this report: rice husks and bamboo. each material was generated at different temperatures. The rice husks from the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) - 400ºC, rice husk biochar from the Asahi Company - 500ºC. Bamboo Biochar from the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) - 300ºC and 600ºC. All biochars were obtained by pyrolysis.
    49. 49. 51 For the plant growth test, one pot was used for each of the binary mixtures. In total, seven pots were used for each one of the four treatments for the three different locations Each biochar was mixed separately with soil and bottom ash. Trays were filled with either soil or soil-biochar-bottom ash mixtures, randomly placed on net house benches and watered before sowing the seeds. Prior to planting in pots, a germination test was performed. Thirty maize seeds (Zea mays L.) were sown into germination trays using one tray for each of the different test Teatments (M1+F=Mesh 1 with fertilizer, M1/wF=Mesh 1 without fertilizer, M2+F=Mesh 2 with fertilizer and M2/wF= Mesh 2 without fertilizer). Trays were watered daily. Germination percentages were recorded between days 5 and 10 after sowing. (M1WF=Mesh 1 with fertilizer, M1NF=Mesh 1 without fertilizer, M2WF=Mesh 2 with fertilizer and M2NF=Mesh 2 without fertilizer). Pots were prepared and seeds were sown at a depth of 2 cm Water was applied after sowing the seeds. Fertilizer (N-P-K) was added 2 days after germination Data are presented only for the 7th day of sowing corresponding to peak germination. Plants were harvested after one month and washed with DI water. Excess water was removed and the total fresh weight was measured.
    50. 50. Material Quantity (g) Soil 100% 474.0 Soil 50% 237.0 Bottom ash (19.10 mesh) - 100% 518.0 Bottom ash (19.10 mesh) - 25% 129.5 Bottom ash (4.700 mesh) - 100% 497.0 Bottom ash (4.700 mesh) - 25% 124.25 Bamboo 300 - 100% 154.0 Bamboo 300 - 25% 38.5 Bamboo 600 - 100% 16.01 Bamboo 600 - 25% 40.5 RH 400 - 100% 129.0 RH 400 - 25% 32.25 RH 500 - 100% 45.0 RH 500 - 25% 11.25 Pot size 142.70 cm3 52 Heavy metal analysis (ICP) was carried out to identify the properties of the different bottom ashes and biochar used. We examined the effect and the interaction of rice husk biochar, bamboo biochar and MSWI bottom ash on the germination and growth of maize plants. Accumulation of trace elements in plant tissue was measured using Atomic- Absorption Spectroscopy (AA).
    51. 51. 53 The first aim of our research is to determine whether adding biochar to soil has an effect on seed germination. The following results have been seen in previous experiments for rice husk biochar applications: a) increased the soil pH, thus increasing phosphorus (P), b) enhanced aeration in the crop root zone c) enhanced the water-holding capacity of the soil and d) improved exchangeable potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) levels (FFTC, 2001). It has been found that when incorporated with sludge composting, bamboo biochar is an effective fertilizer reducing nitrogen loss in the soil (Hua et al., 2009). The positive outcome was linked to the high adsorption capacity of biochar particles during the composting process (Dias et al., 2007). In similar research, Asada et al., (2002) found that bamboo biochar is effective in absorbing ammonia in soils. This was attributed to acidic functional groups being formed as an effect of thermolysis of cellulose and lignin at temperatures of 400 and 500°C (Lehmann and Joseph, 2007).
    52. 52. Our preliminary results in plant germination showed that application into the soil of rice husk biochar and bamboo biochar in combination with MSWI bottom ash without fertilizer differs slightly from the mixtures where fertilizer was used This suggests that the application of fertilizer to the binary mixture did not cause any impact in the germination of Zea mays L. seeds. This effect was attributed to the high content of beneficial nutrients already present in bottom ashes and possibly to the efficient absorption of heavy metals. While the use of two different meshes used for the bottom ash in this experiment (19.10 (Mesh 1) and 4.700 (Mesh 2)) did not have any influence on the germination results From the three different cities, the bottom ash binary mixture with the most consistent results was the one source in Pingtung City. Rice husk biochar (400ºC) presented the highest germination percentage (100%) in all treatments 54
    53. 53. 55
    54. 54. 56 Plant total weight (kg) Treatments 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0.040 0.035 0.030 0.025 0.020 0.015 0.010 0.005 0.000 Plant weight Pingtung BA-M1WF 0.025 0.034 0.024 0.029 0.031 0.013 Soil BA+S BA+ RH400 BA+ RH500 BA+ B300 BA+ B600 BA a) Plant weight Pingtung BA-M1NF 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0.040 0.035 0.030 0.025 0.020 0.015 0.010 0.005 0.000 Plant total weight (kg) Treatments 0.009 0.011 0.027 0.021 0.023 0.024 0.011 Soil BA+S BA+ RH400 BA+ RH500 BA+ B300 BA+ B600 BA b) Plant weight Pingtung BA-M1WF 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 c) 0.040 0.035 0.030 0.025 0.020 0.015 0.010 0.005 0.000 0.011 Plant total weight (kg) Treatments 0.021 0.009 0.029 0.022 0.021 0.009 Soil BA+S BA+ RH400 BA+ RH500 BA+ B300 BA+ B600 0.040 0.035 0.030 0.025 0.020 0.015 0.010 0.005 0.000 0.012 Plant total weight (kg) Plant weight Pingtung BA-M2NF BA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Treatments 0.013 0.014 0.027 0.018 0.010 0.014 Soil BA+S BA+ RH400 BA+ RH500 BA+ B300 BA+ B600 BA d) Pingtung BA‐M1WF = Pingtung bottom ash mesh 1 with fertilizer, b) Pingtung BA‐M1NF= Pingtung bottom ash mesh 1 without fertilizer, c) Pingtung BA‐M2WF= Pingtung bottom ash mesh 2 with fertilizer, d) Pingtung BA‐M2NF = Pingtung bottom ash mesh 2 without fertilizer. Error bars show standard deviation of data. Pingtung bottom ash (mesh 1 and 2, with and without fertilizer) biomass total weight. Figures b, c and d showing the best results in the application of the biochar-MSWI bottom ash binary mixture Were rice husk biochar (400 ºC) showed the highest weight in treatments with exception of “a”, were Pingtung BA-M1WF treatment BA+S (bottom ash with soil) showed the higher total weight.
    55. 55. 57 To determine the total heavy metal content of the samples, bottom ash leaching samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES The contents determined by ICP showed that the different biochars had important element content that is beneficial for plant development. The contents determined by ICP showed that bottom ash from the three different cities did not differ from each other in most of the elements. There were differences in only four elements: Ca > Pb > Na > Fe. Calcium constituted the largest proportion of the elements present in the bottom ash with a high difference in the content between in Pingtung and Chiayi BA, and showing similar content between Chiayi and Changhua BA. The pH of the bottom ash, when mixed with water, was as follows: Pingtung = 4.92, Chiayi = 6.63 and Changhua = 6.59. There was not a high reduction in pH leaching of metals.
    56. 56. 58 The bioaccumulations in tissue of Sr and Cu were higher than lead (Pb) contents in biomass tissue. Cooper (Cu) concentration was the highest in plants tissue with P1 F + BA + RH 500 (219.607 mg/L) followed by the use of P2 NF + BA + BAMBOO 300 (23.999 mg/L) and the use of P2 NF + BA + SOIL (24.446 mg/L) . According to Hong et al. (2008), bioaccumulation of elements in different parts of the plants varies both with the concentration of the elements and the type of vegetable. In this research, the bioaccumulation of elements in plan tissue was found in concentrations not permitted for food products according to Hong Kong Government Center for food safety (2011). Special attention should be placed into the bioaccumulation of Cu, since it was the heavy metal that accumulated in higher concentration.
    57. 57. Treatments Pb(mg/L) Cu(mg/L) Sr(mg/L) P1 F + BA 4.064 0.06 3.506 P1 F + BA + BAMBOO 300 ND 0.56 3.637 P1 F + BA + BAMBOO 600 ND 0.096 4.244 P1 F + BA + RH 500 ND 219.607 5.083 P1 F + BA + RH 400 ND 3.717 3.243 P1 F + BA + SOIL 4.203 6.308 3.167 P1 NF + BA 7.375 0.624 5.56 P1 NF + BA + BAMBOO 300 ND 0.457 2.98 P1 NF + BA + BAMBOO 600 ND 1.78 2.674 P1 NF + BA + RH 500 ND 3.594 3.663 P1 NF + BA + RH 400 3.875 0.131 3.385 P1 NF + BA + SOIL ND 0.424 3.192 P1 NF + SOIL ND 3.962 2.643 P2 F + BA 4.569 5.311 5.12 P2 F + BA + BAMBOO 300 0.075 1.611 3.055 P2 F + BA + RH 500 4.121 1.267 2.974 P2 F + BA + RH 400 ND 1.969 2.824 P2 F + BA + SOIL 0.67 2.159 2.746 P2 F + BA +BAMBOO 600 1.378 0.947 3.365 P2 F + SOIL ND 2.059 2.431 P2 NF + BA + BAMBOO 300 4.187 23.999 2.763 P2 NF + BA + BAMBOO 600 ND 0.22 3.594 P2 NF + BA + RH 500 ND 2.173 2.789 P2 NF + BA + RH 400 2.253 2.237 2.498 P2 NF + BA + SOIL ND 24.446 3.018 P2 NF + SOIL ND 2.733 3.627 59 Table 4.5, shows results of Pb, Cu, and Sr analyzed for Pingtung bottom ash, due to its high plant growth on treatments P1= Pingtung mesh 1(19.10 m/m-) P2= Pingtung mesh 2 (4.700 m/m-), F= With addition of fertilizer NF= No fertilizer was used, BA= Bottom ash, RH 400 IRRI = Rice husk biochar pyrolyzed at 400°C RH 500 Company= Rice husk biochar pyrolyzed at 500°C Bamboo 300 = Bamboo biochar pyrolyzed at 300°C Bamboo 600 = Bamboo biochar pyrolyzed at 600°C.
    58. 58. 60 ICP of Biochars RH RH 400 500 Bambo o 300 Bambo o 600 Elements mg/L Fe 77.4 3.36 0.462 1.02 Zn 5.07 0.64 5 0.569 0.97 Na NA 17.8 5.65 5.62 K 62.2 159 82 103.0 Ca 18.2 39.4 7.9 13.0 Mn 4.65 6.94 1.67 2.62 Mg 23 17.9 13.4 22.2 Cu 0.15 4 0.15 7 0.101 0.293 Elements Pingtung Chiayi Changhua mg/L Fe 285.3 Al 54.3 Si 74.7 48.5 38.6 Pb 317.0 0.0 0.1 Zn 107.3 6.7 39.4 Cd 0.0 Ni 0.7 0.2 0.3 Cr 0.9 0.0 Na 69.5 290.0 173.3 K 18.9 109.5 65.8 Sb 1.6 0.2 0.2 Ca 1099.0 2392.0 2481.0 Mn 11.6 3.2 3.1 Mg 30.2 49.9 47.7 Sr 3.5 6.2 5.9 Ba 0.5 0.6 0.5 Cu 2.0 2.5 4.1
    59. 59. 61
    60. 60. 62
    61. 61. 63 To demonstrate that rice husk biochar could act as a soil conditioner, enhancing water spinach growth by supplying and retaining nutrients and thus improving the soil’s physical and biological properties. To explore whether rice husk biochar (RHB) and wood biochar (WB), in combination with fertilizers, could increase the biomass yield of water spinach. We hope that the results of our work may help to determine which of the biochars is more beneficial in boosting the production of water spinach.
    62. 62. 64
    63. 63. 65
    64. 64. Production of rice husk biochar (RHB) was carried out by the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), located in Hsinchu, Taiwan. RHB was pyrolized using a small-scale reactor at 300-350ºC with a residence time of 1 hour. These temperatures may be applicable for small scale farmers who lack access to credit and cannot afford high-scale pyrolysis plants. 66 In a study made by Hossain et al. (2011) concerning the influence of pyrolysis temperature on production and the nutrient properties of biochar, researchers concluded that pyrolysis temperature has a significant effect on the chemical properties of the biochar produced. Wood biochar (WB) was purchased in an agricultural shop near the experimental site and WB was prepared by open-burn (the proposed temperature was 250-300 ºC). In order to observe the performance of both biochars in their original shapes, we avoided the use of grinders or sieves to reduce the particle size in the soil applications.
    65. 65. 67 By using an SEM S-3000N HITACHI production microscope, the morphology of both WB and RHB samples was examined A Perkins-Elmer EA analyzer determined the elemental composition of the biochar, such as the biomass that would be ideal for application as biochar for carbon sequestration. A Bruker Vector-22 FT-IR spectrometer identified the sample to determine the organic functional groups present for each biomass, especially carbons. Volatile matter in biochar was determined following the ASTM D 3175 -07 standard test method. A Beckman Coulter SA 3100 BET analyzer containing approximately 0.1000 g to 0.2000 g of each biochar sample was then used at a temperature of 50Cº for 60 to determine the surface area of each biochar. Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids were measured using a SUNTEX SC-110 portable conductivity-meter. The trace metals analysis in the samples was realized by using a Perkin-Elmer 3000- XL inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES) spectrometer.
    66. 66. Field trial The experiment was carried out between December 2010 and February 2011 on the campus of National Pingtung University of Science and Technology (22°38'N, 120°36'E) in Pingtung County in the southern part of Taiwan. Soil analysis Soil was sampled from a 0 to 20 cm horizon on a clayey Ultisol, which is typically used for vegetable and fruit production in southern Taiwan. 68
    67. 67. Water spinach plants were germinated for two weeks and later transplanted into plots. Each plot was 1.94 m x 1.10 m. Five different treatments were assigned to each of the biochars and to one control group. RHB and WB were weighted and added to each plot. Every plot was mixed with the assigned quantity of biochar using the “top soil” mixing technique (Major, 2009). The effect of biochar on root growth was measured to compare the effects of the different types and quantities of rice husk and wood biochars used. After eight weeks of growth, the plants were harvested. Plant morphological characteristics measured included: leaf number, leaf length, leaf width, stem number, stem size, fresh plant weight, root growth and the chlorophyll content of the leaves Before transplanting, each plot was irrigated for 20 min. Plants were transplanted 15 cm apart, with 22 plants per plot. A perforated pipe system was used to water the plants every 2 days for 10 min. Soluble N-P-K fertilizer 20-20-20 was applied to the crops Relative chlorophyll content (Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD)) was measured every two days using a Minolta chlorophyll meter (model SPAD 502). 69
    68. 68. 70 There were eleven treatments for rice husk biochar and wood biochar, along with one control group. Four soil samples from each treatment were dried in a precision oven at 35ºC, homogenously mixed, ground and passed through a 2mm sieve. A 20:20 (soil: distilled water) solution ration was prepared for the determination of pH. Organic carbon (OC) and organic matter (OM) were determined using the Walkley-Black method (Walkley and Black, 1934). Soil texture and characteristics were also obtained using the hydrometer method (Milford, 1997).
    69. 69. 71 The SEM-EDX analysis showed that the microstructure of the rice husk biochar was highly heterogeneous Rice husk biochar particles consisted of higher silicon (Si) mineral agglomerates on lower carbon content fibers with structures typical of its biomass origin. They exhibited a large degree of macro-porosity in the 1 to 10 micron scale, with contents of carbon (C), oxygen (O) and potassium (K). On the other hand, SEM-EDX analysis for WB indicated that the biochar particles consisted of high potassium, and calcium mineral agglomerates.
    70. 70. Elements evaluated Fresh rice husk Rice husk biochar Wood biochar Characteristics of materials T (⁰C) - 300 - 350 - Si (mg/kg) 107 171 10 Ca (mg/kg) 108 220 273 K (mg/kg) 9523 175 305 Mg (mg/kg) 175 182 72.23 Water (%) 11.3 3.9 - Ash (%) 12.63 50.53 - pH (%) 6.41 8.02 7.32 Elemental analysis Fixed C (mg) - 43.73 52.74 H (mg) - 2.38 3.58 N (mg) - 1.0 0.72 S (mg) - 0.19 0.37 O (mg) - 2.36 - VM Volatile Matter (%) 2.42 1.86 1.70 BET Surface Area Analysis (m²) - 2.21 37.95 Salinity EC (μs/cm) 1220 1392 704 TDS (ppm) 488 558 282 Sal (ppt) 0.2 0.2 0.1 Heavy metal analysis Fe (mg/L) - 8.72 0.1 Al (mg/L) - 0.97 0.37 Cu (mg/L) - 0.09 0.01 Pb (mg/L) - - - Zn (mg/L) - 0.7 0.4 Cd (mg/L) - - - Ni (mg/L) - 0.11 - Cr (mg/L) - 0.03 - Na (mg/L) - 7.49 23.9 Sb (mg/L) - - - 72 Results from several analyses, including: EA, BET surface area, EC, TDS, and ICP heavy metal analysis, revealed the applicability of rice husk and wood biochars on soil. Results from EA tests show a high percentage of carbon in wood biochar. According Stoylle (2011), a high percentage of carbon means the biochar can absorb more atmospheric C from the environment. Rice husk had a higher VM content as compared to rice husk and wood biochars. In comparison with rice husk, wood exhibits a larger BET surface Rice husk biochar has a area/m². significantly higher EC value than wood biochar, meaning greater quantities of dissolvable ions are present in rice husk biochar than in wood (Basile-Doelsch et al., 2007). Concentrations of heavy metals in the tested biochars were all far below the ICP detection limits. Major differences between wood and rice biochar were in the content of Sodium (Na) and Manganese (Mn).
    71. 71. As indicated in Figure “a”, the WB added to soil increased the plant weight of water spinach by increasing the root size and leaf width; while the RHB added soil increased the plant weight of water spinach by increasing the stem size and leaf length as seen in figure “b”. 73 (a) The relations between root size and leaf wide and plant weight of WB and figure 5.5 (b), relations between stem size and leaf length and plant weight of RHB added plant samples.
    72. 72. In Figure “a”, the stem size of water spinach is shown to be proportional to the WHC/silt ratio, while the root size of water spinach is proportional to the OM/OC 74 ratio, as shown in Figure “b”. (a) The relations between and WHC/silt ratio and stem size of RHB and WB added plant samples and figure 5.6 (b) relations between and OM/OC ratio and root size of RHB and WB added plant samples.
    73. 73. Based on the changes in the silt and sand content in soil described in the figures, we can conclude that the decomposition of OC in biochar to soil OM resulting in the increase in WHC and the decreasing in silt is the mechanism of WB and RHB application. The stability of biochar is affected by pre-existing soil OM; the results indicate that the decomposition reaction of WB biochar is faster than that of RHB under a lower dosage amount (< 1.5 kgm3), while this reaction is inversed with an increased dosage ( > 3.0 kgm3). 75 (a) Changes of sand and silt content in the WB added soil and figure 5.7 (b) changes of sand and silt content in the RHB added soil.
    74. 74. 76
    75. 75. 77
    76. 76. 78 To assess the potential effects biochar from rice husks pyrolized on Corn (Zea mays L.) seeds germination and plant growth.  To observe how the silicon content rice husk biochar could affect the development of the crop.
    77. 77. 79 Rice-husk biochar has high silica (SiO2) contents and silicon (Si) is a beneficial element for plant growth that helps plants overcome multiple stresses including biotic and abiotic stresses. Silicon is effective in preventing rice lodging by increasing culm wall thickness and vascular bundle size (Shimoyama, 1958), thereby enhancing stem strength. Silicon plays an important role in increasing plant resistance to pathogens such as blast on rice (Datnoff et al., 1997) and powdery mildew on cucumbers (Miyake and Takahashi 1982). However, agronomists and farmers are not always aware that they could be able to improve crop production with increased stress and disease resistance by adding up a source of available silicon to the soil. Reports on the Si effect of rice husk biochar on plant seed germination are scant.
    78. 78. Four rice husk biochars were used in this study IRRI ITRI biochar was prepared by the Industrial Technology Research Institute in a specialized biochar reactor Several analyses including scanning electron microscopy (SEM),X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), volatile matter (VM), electrical conductivity (EC), water holding capacity (WHC), and heavy metal analysis (ICP), were used to characterize the biochars properties. NPUST Shui-known
    79. 79. 81 Treatment Percentage of combined materials pH of material s Pyrolysis Temperature IRRI-B 50% Soil+50% biochar 7.38 400Ԩ ITRI-B 50%Soil+50% biochar 8.02 500Ԩ NPUST-B 50%Soil+50% biochar 8.53 350Ԩ SK-B 50%Soil+50% biochar 10.04 700Ԩ DRH 50%Soil+50% rice husk 5.76 25Ԩ SOIL No soil amendment (control) 5.02 - SOIL-F Soil + fertilizer 6.00 - IRRI‐B = International rice research institute biochar, ITRI‐B = industrial technology research institute biochar, NPUST‐B = national pingtung university of science and technology biochar, SK‐B = shui‐known company biochar, DRH = dried rice husk, SOIL‐B = soil plus fertilizer.
    80. 80. 82 These seven treatments were arranged in fully randomized design with 4 replications, each one of 10 plants in separated pots The amount of soil amendment applied (45g) was calculated based on the surface area of the plastic pot used ( 4.5 x 5.0 cm). The amendments were mixed to a 5 cm depth, after preparation they were placed in the net house and watered every two days. 10 plants (pots) were grouped together to make one plot for a total of 7 treatments x 4 replications x 10 plants (pots)/plot = total of 280 plants (or pots). The germination and growth of corn plants was performed for 15 days. The plants were harvested at the end of the growth period and kept under refrigeration to further analysis. X-ray (EDX) was used to examine the morphology and silicon content of dried rice husk and biochar rice husk samples. FT-IR was used for the identification of the organic functional groups present for each biomass, especially carbons and -OH- groups. Differences between biochar treatments were analyzed by one way ANOVA using Duncan and LSD tests for means comparisons where ANOVA showed significant differences between treatments.
    81. 81. 83 The germination percentage for corn from the seven different treatments can be observed in figure 6.1(a). Germination started on the 3rd day after seeds were planted. Plants growth with biochar showed good development after germination. The treatment that showed the best germination was ITRI-B, which is a biochar produced by the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) Has a pH of 8.02 and was prepared at a temperature of 500Ԩ, unlike treatments with biochar additions from IRRI and SK, these treatments showed an inhibition in seeds germination Saeed A. Abro et al., in 2009, assessed the effects of different levels of Silicic acid on germination of wheat seeds, where 7.2g silicic acid Kg-1 was applied to treatments and decreased considerably the germination of wheat seeds, this shows that increased levels of silicic acid reduces the germination rate.
    82. 82. Stem size mean for corn from the seven different treatments can be observed in figure 6.1(e). The treatment that showed the highest stem mean was SK-B, has a pH. Root development (figure 6.1f) was found to be significantly affected by the use of rice husk biochars in plants in comparison with soil and soil with fertilizer treatments According to the Anova mean comparison (figure 6.1g), the rice husks biochar treatments showed significantly higher weight than the rest of the biochars and soil treatments on biomass growth were NPUST-B and ITRI-B. Studies realized around the world, have shown that applying supplemental silicon can inhibit plant disease, decrease insect pests injuries, and improve crop tolerance to environmental stress (Heckman, 2012). In a similar research made by Sundahri et al., (2001) were found positive 84 effects of gypsum and sodium silicate on the wheat grown under waterlogged soils especially in increasing plant height leaf and shoot dry mass.
    83. 83. 85 (d) (e) Scanning electron micrographs and EDX spectrograms of element particles found in raw rice husk and rice husk biochar from pyrolysis process at different temperatures: (a) in IRRI biochar, (b) in ITRI biochar, (c) in NPUST biochar, (d) in SK biochar and (e) in dry rice husk.
    84. 84. 86 Germination Mean Silicon Weight (%) 29.84% 8.75 24.38% 4.75 26.86% 9.0 1.06% 10.0 35.24% 1 2 3 4 5 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 0 2 4 6 8 5.0 IRRI-B ITRI-B NPUST-B SK-B DRH Seeds germinated (mean) and Si weight percentage Treatments with biochar IRRI‐B = International rice research institute biochar, ITRI‐B = industrial technology research institute biochar, NPUST‐B = national pingtung university of science and technology biochar, SK‐B = shui‐known company biochar, DRH = dried rice husk. Relationship between germination mean versus Si content for the tested rice husk biochars.
    85. 85. 87 The results detailing the growth of water spinach showed that the application of rice husk biochar improves biomass production, increased plant weight by increasing the stem size and leaf length of the water spinach. In addition, the stem size of water spinach was proportional to the WHC/silt ratio; whereas the root size of water spinach was proportional to the OM/OC ratio of soil. We also proposed that the working mechanism of RHB in soil would be such, that the decomposition of OC in biochar-added soil to OM resulted in increased WHC and decreased silt in biochar-added soil (Milla et al., 2013).
    86. 86. 88
    87. 87. 89
    88. 88. 90  To show that bamboo wood is a smart option for those industries that want to transform biochar into a profit without harming any ecosystem.  To investigate the potential capability of bamboo biochar to affect germination and growth of edible crops.  To demonstrate the effects on germination of different temperatures (240oC, 300oC, 600oC and 700oC) of bamboo biochars used in this study.
    89. 89. 91 Bamboo charcoal may be an ideal amendment for nutrient conservation and heavy metal stabilization due to its excellent adsorption capability. Recent research found that biochar could act as soil fertilizers or conditioners to increase crop yield and plant growth by supplying and retaining nutrients (Glaser et al., 2000; Major et al., 2005; Steiner et al., 2007). Bamboo biochar has been used in studies where the content of polyphenols released by the carbon matrix was measured, as well has been tested is combination with the same type of bottom ash as agronomic materials (Milla and Huang, 2013 & Milla, Wang and Huang, 2013). However, there has been no research to date on the effects of pyrolyzation temperatures of bamboo biochar in seed germination and plant growth. In this study we present the results of a germination test and growth parameters made with four different biochars, produced under different pyrolysis temperatures (240, 300, 600 and 700ºC) and evaluated at two rates of applications (1- 100 (10%) t/ha, calculated as soil volume to 10 cm soil depth, and 2- pure biochar without soil application).
    90. 90. Biochar made from bamboo was used to produce the biochars applied in this test. Bamboo biochar was generated at different temperatures: 240, 300, 600 and 700ºC. All biochars were obtained by pyrolysis with a temperature raising rate of 5oC/min; biochars were sieved using a 4 mm sieve before use for the bioassays. Characterization of the material was made applying various test and analyses. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was carried out to identify any crystallographic structure in the four biochar samples Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy analysis (FT-IR) was used for the identification or fingerprint of a sample or solution to determine the organic functional groups. Heavy metal analysis (ICP) was carried out to identify the properties of the biochar used. A HITACHI S-3000N scanning electron microscope equipped an energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) was used to examine the morphology of the biochar samples. Volatile matter in biochar was determined following the ASTM D 3175 -07 standard test method (ASTM, 2004). Water holding capacity (WHC) of biochars was measured regarding the following procedures of soil analysis manual (Lee, 2007). Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and pH were measured using a SUNTEX SC-110 portable conductivity-meter. 92
    91. 91. Two different crops were evaluated, (glutinous corn and Chinese cabbage) addition of biochar at 100% (pure biochar without soil – test 1) and 50% biochar (50-50 soil-biochar relation – test 2) were evaluated. Seedbeds where prepared in order to test the four different temperatures of bamboo biochars. Each treatment had 16 pots. Seeds were sown in 500 mL soil in a plastic container (16 cm × 10 .5 cm × 5 cm), the data of germination rate, started to be quantified on the 3rd day followed by measures on the 5th and 7th day of the trial. For corn a single seed was placed into the germination pots unlike cabbage, where 2-3 seeds where placed, due to their difference in sizes. Stem size, leaf number, leaf width and leaf length of each one of the emerged plants for corn and cabbage was measured. Statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed using SAS (v.9.2) 93
    92. 92. ICP of Biochars Elements mg/L Raw Bamboo 240 °C 300 °C 600 °C 700 °C Fe 4.2 18.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 Zn 0.3 0.3 0.6 1.0 0.9 Na 6.4 6.0 5.7 5.6 12.7 K 59.9 62.6 82.0 103.0 131.0 Ca 8.6 8.5 7.9 13.0 12.3 Mn 0.4 0.5 1.7 2.6 2.7 Mg 19.9 7.1 13.1 22.2 18.8 Cu 1.0 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 WHC % 78.0 85.0 97.0 150.0 200.0 VM % 3.7 3.0 2.8 1.0 1.0 94 The contents determined by ICP showed that as pyrolysis temperature increased the presence of elements in their majority also increased (Na, K, Ca, Mn, Mg). Raw bamboo has a percentage water holding capacity of 78.0% that is enhanced by carbonization process, resulting in 200% water retention. In our study, water holding capacity (WHC) increased to a maximum value as pyrolyzation temperature increased.
    93. 93. 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 (a) (c) (b) (d) (e) Amine CO2 -CH3 Aromatic C-O -CH C=O 2- -OH 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 Intencity (%) Wave number(cm-1) 95 FTIR Spectra of tested samples, each letter (a,b,c,d,e) represents raw bamboo biomass and different pyrolysis temperature: (a) 240oC, (b) 300oC, (c) 600oC, and (d) 700oC. In this analysis of biochar, the FTIR was used specifically to determine the functional groups present for each temperature and biomass, especially carbons and aromatics. Various bonds in the spectra (at 3412.49 ~ 3469.91 cm−1) corresponds to -OH stretching vibrations and this may be caused by acid and/or alcohol structures. The results of FT-IR and elemental analysis shows regardless of the similarity in temperatures in some biochars, the intensity and the concentration of the surface functional groups would vary. All of the samples also have a C≡N bonding in the same position of the CO2 peak (2347.92 cm−1), this is expected due to the possible presence of nitrogen in the biochar. The importance of these differences from a soil fertility point of view is that surface area and porosity of the biochar plays a significant role in soil fertility. In contrast to the optimum conditions for the formation of the acid functional groups, more intense charring conditions (higher temperatures and longer charring times) are required for the formation of porosity and surface area in the biochar (Rutherford et al., 2004).
    94. 94. 96 a - Raw bamboo b - Bamboo 240 0C c - Bamboo 300 0C d - Bamboo 600 0C e - Bamboo 700 0C Cellulose Intensity (a. u.) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Graphite crystal 101 100 002 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 2 Theta (degree) X‐ ray diffraction patterns of biochar samples; each letter (a, b, c, d, and e) represents raw bamboo biomass and different pyrolysis temperature: (a) 240oC, (b) 300oC, (c) 600oC, and (d) 700oC.
    95. 95. 97 SEM–EDX analysis of biochar (a, b, c, d). The formation of particle size is showed for the four temperatures applied to obtain biochar. Is observed how porosity is developed, higher temperatures – the porosity number increases and the size of the pores narrows down, giving as a result better water holding capacity. The formation of particle size is showed for the four temperatures applied to obtain biochar. Is observed how porosity is developed, higher temperatures – the porosity number increases and the size of the pores narrows down, giving as a result better water holding capacity. If the development of pores in biochar samples is enhanced with increasing temperature (especially at 600 and 800oC), it may result in significant improvement in the pore properties of biochars (Mohammad et al., 2013).
    96. 96. 98 a a a a a a 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 b a b ab a ab b a 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Seed germination mean (%) Biochar treatments Pyrolysis temperatures 1) 240 0C 2) 300 0C 3) 600 0C 4) 700 0C Corn 50% Cabbage 50% Corn 100% Cabbage 100% (a) Effects of different temperatures and rates of bamboo biochar applied for corn and cabbage. (a) Seed germination percentage, (b) stem size (cm), and (c) leaf number were tested at rates of 50 and 100%. Error bars show standard errors of the mean. Mean data followed by a similar letter are not statistically significant within each biochar temperature. 100% - 600oC 100% - 700oC 50%-700oC
    97. 97. 99
    98. 98. 100
    99. 99. 101

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