Cellulose-Based Industrial Wastewater Byproduct as a Broiler Bedding Material

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For more: http://www.extension.org/67685 The increased cost and decreased availability of traditional poultry bedding material, such as pine shavings, has facilitated the need to identify alternative bedding materials for poultry growers. The objective of this study was to evaluate a cellulose by-product from the paper manufacturing industry on its comparability to pine shavings on broiler production performance standards and litter quality parameters.

The experimental design consisted of 25 pens (3.7 m2 each) containing 55 Cobb broilers (0.07 m2/bird) per pen. Five treatments with five replicate pens per treatment were set up to evaluate varying levels of cellulose inclusion as bedding. The five cellulose treatments consisted of 0% (Control, 100% pine shavings), 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% cellulose by-product. The first phase of the experiment included litter moisture, litter pH, and footpad dermatitis (FPD) scores at Day 7. At Day 7, the mean litter moisture (%) of the Control (23.9) and 25% (23.9) treatments were not significantly different from the 50% (16.9) treatment, but were significantly greater than the 75% (15.0) and 100% (14.8) treatments. At Day 7, the mean percentage (%) of birds with no footpad downgrades in the 100% (99) and 75% (95) treatments were not significantly different from the 50% (87) treatment, but were significantly greater than the 25% (76) and Control (66) treatments. An evaluation of litter moisture versus FPD scores produced a correlation coefficient of 0.73, indicating a strong cause-and-effect relationship between increasing litter moisture and incidence of FPD.

Based on phase one results, the cellulose by-product is at least comparable if not superior to pine shavings as a broiler bedding material based on litter moisture and subsequent incidence of FPD during the brooding phase of broiler production.

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Cellulose-Based Industrial Wastewater Byproduct as a Broiler Bedding Material

  1. 1. AbstractIntroductionMaterials and MethodsResults and DiscussionConclusionsCellulose-based Industrial Wastewater By-product as Broiler Bedding MaterialB.H. Kiepper, C.W. Ritz, and B.D. FairchildDepartment of Poultry Science, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA• The CB material is comparable to pine shavings on the incidence offootpad dermatitis.• Study results indicate that the industrial wastewater by-product tested isa viable alternative to traditional broiler wood bedding because it achievesthe requirements for broiler bedding materials, while producing no adversebird performance.• Wastewater cellulose by-product is comparable to pine shavings as abedding material for broiler production and would perhaps be best utilizedas a blending product to reduce the volume of pine shavings needed foroptimal bedding depth.• Future plans will include assisting the paper milling industry in preparingthe CB material for commercial-scale field tests under standard productionenvironmental conditions and to assess the economic potential for reducedbedding costs.Acknowledgements: Project funded by Brunswick Cellulose, Inc., adivision of Georgia-Pacific, LLC.Paper mill wastewater cellulose by-product (CB) was tested at the University of Georgia PoultryResearch Center in Athens, Georgia, in a pen trial wherein the suitability of the wastewatermaterial as a poultry bedding was determined by evaluating: 1) broiler performance asindicated by body weight gain, feed efficiency, and footpad (paw) scores, and 2) materialperformance as influenced by bulk density, moisture content, ammonia evolution, andaccumulation of compacted litter or “litter cake”. The experimental design consisted of 25 pens(3.7 m2 each) containing 55 male Cobb broilers (0.07 m2/bird). Five treatments consisted ofapproximately 8 cm depth of 0% (Control, 100% pine shavings), 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%cellulose by-product with five repetitions. The material was dried to a moisture content of lessthan 10% prior to placement within the pens. The study was designed to replicate commercialconditions of stocking density and water delivery as closely as possible to compare the pineshaving control to the varying levels of cellulose inclusion.ObjectiveInvestigate the applicability of utilizing a cellulose-based wastewater by-product as a beddingmaterial for commercial broiler production housing.A cellulose-based wastewater by-product (CB) from a large paper manufacturing facility wasevaluated as a potential broiler bedding material. Efficacy of the material was determined by: 1)broiler performance (i.e., body weight gain, feed efficiency, and footpad (paw) scores), and 2)bedding material performance (i.e., bulk density, moisture content, ammonia evolution, andaccumulation of compacted litter or “litter cake”). Four inclusion levels of the material wereevaluated in comparison to traditional pine shavings. No significant differences in body weightor feed efficiency were noted between the bedding treatments. Footpad scores weresignificantly lower with increased inclusion of the CB material during the beginning of the flock,though by the end of the trial there were no differences between the treatments. The earlyimproved scores may be a function of both litter moisture content and coarseness of thematerial as compared to the pine shaving control. The CB material did have a propensity tocake more as the percent inclusion increased but this trend did not result in increased overalllitter moisture. No differences in ammonia generation were notable between the treatments.Key Words: broiler, wastewater by-product, cellulose, paw scores, bedding materialPaper mill wastewater cellulose residuals are a solid waste accumulation concern for the papermanufacturing industry and for local municipalities. Traditional bedding material supplies for thecommercial broiler industry in the southeastern United States, namely pine wood shavings, hasdeclined in availability with the drop in new housing starts and competition for the material fromother wood product manufacturing and landscaping industries. With the decline in availabilitycomes an increase in cost of the remaining material that is available for broiler growers to utilizeas bedding material. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of utilizing acellulose-based wastewater by-product from a large paper manufacturing plant as a beddingmaterial for commercial broiler production housing.Bird Performance:• No significant difference (P0.05) among treatments for body weight,feed efficiency, or total mortality were noted by the end of the 6-weekstudy. This would indicate that the CB material did not impede birdgrowth or performance.• An evaluation of litter moisture versus footpad score produced acorrelation coefficient of 0.73, indicating a strong cause-and-effectrelationship between increasing litter moisture and decreasing footpadquality. Early in the trial, footpad scores were significantly better withinthe higher level cellulose treatments than the control, though by the endof the trial there were no differences between the treatments.Bedding Performance:• Moisture (%) was significantly lower and pH was significantly greater inthe 75% and 100% CB treatments versus the Control treatment for thefirst week but not by the end of the study.• All final litters had a N-P-K fertilizer value of 3-3-3• Caking (%) of 75% and 100% CB treatments were significantly greaterthan Control treatment by the end of the study, though it was notindicative of any change within the final litter moisture content withineach treatment.• No significant difference among treatments for ammonia concentration(ppm), final moisture (%) or pH were noted.The initial raw material is high in moisture at over 50%, and will need to bepreconditioned to a level below 20% before placement into broiler housingbefore it can be considered suitable for use as bedding.Figure 4. Bedding performance parameters as influenced by percent inclusion of thecellulose based wastewater by-product (CB) material within the treatments.Figure 3. Description of footpad scoring system employed within the study.Figure 2. Footpad scores based on percent inclusion of the cellulosebased wastewater by-product (CB) material.The visual ranking system used to score footpad lesions indicated a score of 0 for nolesion present, a score of 1 for a mild lesion (lesion ≤ 7.5mm) and a score of 2 for asevere lesion (lesion > 7.5 mm). Bilgili, et al. JAPR 15:433-4410 1 2Photo courtesy of C.W. Ritz0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Percent Cellulose By-Product0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Percent Cellulose By-Product0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Percent Cellulose By-Product210Day 7 Day 21 Day 42aaabbccaabbccc<0.0001Bulk Density (kg/m3) Caking (%) Ammonia (ppm)Day 0 Day 42 Day 21 Day 42 Day 21 Day 42P-value <0.0001 0.2464 0.0116 0.0011 0.4690 0.6341Control 66c 359 30b 55b 7.6 66.2CB 25% 74b 370 35ab 55b 12.8 63.6CB 50% 89b 375 45ab 75a 9.8 75.4CB 75% 99a 372 60a 70ab 10.2 42.4CB 100% 104a 396 60a 75a 15.0 66.2Figure 1. 100% cellulose based wastewater by-product (CB) appearance.

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