Katri luukka dissertation without appendices
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Katri luukka dissertation without appendices

on

  • 8,093 views

A study of social media leadership experiences

A study of social media leadership experiences

Statistics

Views

Total Views
8,093
Views on SlideShare
8,059
Embed Views
34

Actions

Likes
13
Downloads
146
Comments
6

6 Embeds 34

http://www.linkedin.com 27
http://www.junctionmarketing.com 2
https://twitter.com 2
http://twitter.com 1
http://www.slideshare.net 1
https://si0.twimg.com 1

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Katri luukka dissertation without appendices Katri luukka dissertation without appendices Document Transcript

  • K. LUUKKAManagers’ Experiences of the Use of the Social Media as Part of TheirLeadership: Towards to the Social Media Leadership Theory MBA University of Wales 2011
  • DECLARATIONThis work has not previously been accepted in substance for any degree and is notbeing concurrently submitted in candidature for any degree.Signed………………………………………….. (candidate)Date………………………………………………STATEMENT 1This work is the result of my own investigations, except where otherwise stated. Wherecorrection services have been used, the extent and nature of the correction is clearlymarked in a footnote(s).Other sources are acknowledged by footnotes giving explicit references. A bibliographyis appended.Signed………………………………………….. (candidate)Date………………………………………………STATEMENT 2I hereby give consent for my work, if accepted, to be available for photocopying and forinter-library loan, and for the title and summary to be made available to outsideorganisations.Signed………………………………………….. (candidate)Date……………………………………………… 2
  • AcknowledgementsMy interest in social media leadership started along with my MBA studies three yearsago. Since then my use of social media has extended from personal use to be a part ofmy leadership. I have learnt so much about management and leadership with my fellowstudents, that first of all, I want to thank you all for the peer support during the wholestudy process.Our MBA course director Steve Griffiths, many thanks to you for the confidence to getour assignments and dissertation done in time, you were right. My dissertationsupervisor Lucy Griffiths, thank you for your guidance and online discussions onFacebook. Lucy, your supportive and encouraging feedback made me work in plannedschedule. Mrs Marja Orpana-Niitlahti, the friendliest person in the world, thank you forlanguage maintenance.My boss, principal Marita Modenius, I owe my thanks to you. You have encouraged methroughout my MBA studies, even when studying in one‟s work context was not alwayseasy. I wish that every worker, at least once in his/her life, would have the opportunity tohave a boss like you, Marita: positive, supportive and visionary. My adult educationmanagement team: Hannu, Hely, Hilkka, Iiris, Jyrki, Kaarina, Risto and Tuula. How can Iever thank you enough? You have all been supportive and willing to test the possibilitiesoffered by social media in your own leadership. It has been a pleasure to share theexperiences with you and alongside renew myself as a director.And last but not least, I want to thank my family. My husband Eero and our daughtersSanna and Marleena have shared everyday life online and offline with me, and havereminded me that there is life also outside and after a dissertation. Sanna and Marleenahave leaded me to use social media as part of my life. I thank you both. You have beenmy inspiration and strength while doing my MBA studies.Helsinki, 20th March 2011Katri Luukka 3
  • ABSTRACTThis research had three aims: 1) to investigate managers‟ social media leadershipexperiences, how open leadership theory (Li 2010) works in practical leadershipsituations, 2) to research how negative experiences, feelings and face to face leadingare part of social media leadership and 3) to expand researcher‟s knowledge and skillsof social media and to find useful practical solutions for the use of social media as partof her leadership in an adult education organization from offline /face-to-face leadingculture to new online- offline leading culture.The theoretical background of the study highlights social media tools: blogs, Facebook,Twitter, LinkedIn, Shared documents and Video Conferences and social media‟spossibilities to improve business leadership. The leadership theories are presented fromtrait theories (Taylorism) to behavioral leadership theories. After that followscontingency leadership theories and the recent transactional and transformationalleadership theories. Finally Charlene Li‟s (2010) open leadership theory is presented.This research had a case study and action research approaches. Data has beencollected from six international managers on Facebook‟s private discussion group. Datawas analyzed by using a content analysis method.Summary of findings was that Li‟s (2010) open leadership theory considers the basicsfor the social media leadership theory. However, there is a need to develop a moredetailed social media leadership theory, based on the transformation of communicationfrom face-to-face leadership, offline working culture to the new online-offline workingculture. Li‟s (2010) open leadership theory had disadvantage in that it doesn‟t putattention to: 1) sustainable and green business while using more social media as partof leadership, 2) how negative experiences of the use of social media should behandled, 3) comparing face-to-face- leading and online social networking leading and 4)discussion of changes to the emotional part of leadership while working changes fromoffline to online working culture. The researcher‟s knowledge and skills have expandedon how to use social media as part of her leadership in an adult education organizationduring this research project.Keywords: social media, leadership, open leadership 4
  • CONTENTSABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………………………..41 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………....82 REVIEW OF LITERATURE………………………………………………………………..102.1 Social Media..……………………………………………………………………………..10 2.1.1 An Introduction to Social Media………………………………………..10 2.1.2 Social Media Tools: Blogs, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Shared documents and Video Conferences……………………………………13 2.1.3 Social Media‟s Possibilities to Improve Business and Leadership….192.2 Leadership Theories………………………………………………………………..…….23 2.2.1 A Brief History of Leadership Theories…………………………..…….23 2.2.2 Transformational Leadership Theory…………………………..………24 2.2.3 Open Leadership Theory………………………………………..………263 METHODOLOGY………………………………………………………………………..….30 3.1 Research Set-up, Aims and Questions ……………………………………..……….30 3.2 Data Collection……………………………………………………………………..…...32 3.3 Data Analysis……………………………………………………………………..……...33 3.4 Evaluation of the Research………………………………………………...…………..344 RESULTS……………………………………………………………………………...……..374.1 Managers‟ Use of Social Media as Part of Their Work Now………………………....374.2 Managers‟ Experiences Related to the Open Leadership…………………………….41 4.2.1 Sharing in Open Leadership………………………………………….....41 4.2.2 Cultural issues in Open Leadership…………………………………....43 4.2.3 Transformation in Open Leadership…………………………………....44 4.2.4 Mind-sets and Traits in Open Leadership…………………………...…46 4.2.5 Learning in Open Leadership……………………………………………48 4.2.6 Benefits in Open Leadership…………………………………………….50 4.2.7 Monitoring in Open Leadership………………………………………....51 4.2.8 Risks in Open Leadership……………………………………………….53 5
  • 4.3 Managers‟ Experiences of the Negative Issues, Feelings and Face-to-face Leadingin Social Media Leadership…………………………………………………….....................54 4.3.1 Negative Experiences in Social Media Leadership…………………...54 4.3.2 Feelings in Social Media Leadership…………………………………...55 4.3.3 Face-to-Face- leading in Social Media Leadership…………………...574.4 Social Media as Part of Managers‟ Leadership in the Future…………………...……584.5 The Researcher‟s Experiences and Use of Social Media as a Result of ResearchProject…………………………………………………………………………………….…….604.6 Discussion of Findings……………………………………………………………………675 CONLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS…………………….……716 BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………………………………………..…75APPENDICES:Appendix 1. Participants of the ResearchAppendix 2. A Matrix of the Facebook‟s Group Discussion Themes 6
  • List of Figures:Figure 1. A Matrix for evaluation of external forces against internal capability…………19Figure 2. A Feeling mirror; critical reflection as a tool for learning from experiences….61Figure 3. A Quick test for manager‟s and organization‟s social media skills……………63 7
  • 1 INTRODUCTIONTime magazine has named Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg as a Person of theYear (Time 2010). One reason for this nomination is how social networking has duringthe year 2010 moved from a personal communications tool to a business tool thatbusiness leaders are using to transform communications with their employees andcustomers, as it shifts from one-way transmission of information to two-way interaction(George 2010). Also a radical transformation that journalism is experiencing is a clearexample of how the world of communication is changing to digital all the time (Cambiéand Ooi, 2009 p. 9, TNS 2010). The ministry of Finance has launched the Finnishnational online customer service program (SADe) in 2009. The aim of the program is tocontribute all key online customer services for citizens and enterprises before 2013. AllFinnish public services should be available online for the customers then. The aim isalso to reconcile information technology systems to work together better (SADe 2009).The Ministry of Finance has also published Finnish National Social Media InformationSecurity Guidelines in December 2010 (Ministry of Finance 2010). An aim of thisguideline is to encourage administration in the public sector to use social media as partof work with better security. Generation Y, the 76 million Millennials born between 1982and 2000; are looking for meaningful work where they can express their potential. Thevoice they respect most is that of authenticity and competence, the voice of socialmedia (Cambié and Ooi 2009, 64-65.) Tapscott (2010 p. 30) calls this generation the“grown up digital generation”. The information technology is developing all the time andalso citizens‟ skills especially Generation Y‟s skills to use information technology viasocial media are changing them into publishers, which is going to changecommunication structures between people and organizations (Safko and Brake, 2009 p.69-94).This research focuses on social media as part of leadership due to the fact that there isa pressure to change a traditional adult education business to online business by usingmore social media tools like blogs, Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn as part of work andleadership. The pressure comes from this changing world, where the new youngcustomers are used to communicating and working on the Web. The researcher worksas a vice principal in one of the largest adult education organizations in Finland. Theorganization‟s current leadership culture was based at the beginning of the research 8
  • purely on face- to-face leading and therefore an action research approach was taken asa framework for this study to find out new solutions to improve social media as part ofmanagement team‟s leadership access. Charlene Li‟s (2010) open leadership theorywas chosen as a theoretical background for this study. Open leadership theory statesthat sharing is a key issue while using social media tools and it is going to changeorganization‟s culture transparent and therefore there is a need to transformorganization‟s culture as well (Li 2010). This research had three aims: 1) to investigatemanagers‟ social media leadership experiences, and how open leadership theory (Li2010) works in practical leadership situations, 2) to research how negative experiences,feelings and face-to-face leading are part of social media leadership and 3) to expandresearcher‟s knowledge and skills of social media and to find useful practical solutionsfor the use of social media as part of her leadership in an adult education organizationfrom an offline /face-to-face leading culture to a new online-offline leading culture.At the beginning of this study the researcher used Jue et. al.‟s (2010) definition of socialmedia to describe to the research participants, what social media meant in this study.Jue et. al. (2010 p. 44) defines social media as follows: “today social mediaencompasses all the Internet-enabled capabilities for communicating through differentmeans: audio, video, text, images and every other combination or permutationimaginable”. At the end of this study after analysis of the empirical data, the researchermade her own definition for social media. “Social media is collaborative online workingby using social media tools or social networking communities and other Internet basedsolutions to achieve a common goal for online working” (Luukka 2011a, 21.2.2011).This research report has the following structure. After introduction there followsliterature review of the social media and leadership theories. Then follows methodology-chapter which includes: 1) research set-up, aims and questions, 2) data collection, 3)data analysis and 4) evaluation of the research. After that the results are presented thefollowing order: 1) managers‟ use of social media as part of their work now, 2)managers‟ experiences related to the open leadership, 3) managers‟ experiences of thenegative issues, feelings and face-to-face leading in social media leadership, 4) socialmedia as part of managers‟ leadership in the future, 5) researcher‟s experiences anduse of social media as a result of research project and 6) ddiscussion of findings. At the 9
  • end of the research report are conclusions, limitations and recommendations and finallybibliography.2 REVIEW OF LITERATUREThe literature review considers two aspects for this study: social media and leadership.The social media chapter introduces basic concepts of Web 2.0 and social media andalso criticism against it. After that follows an overview of social media tools: blogs,Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, shared documents and video conferences and finallysocial media‟s possibilities to improve business and leadership and its benefits anddoubts. After social media follows the leadership chapter which has an introduction tothe history of leadership theories from the beginning of 1900 trait leadership theories tocurrent transformation and to the latest open leadership theory.2.1 Social Media2.1.1 An Introduction to Social MediaWeb 2.0 (Relationship Web) and Social MediaTim O‟Reilly (founder of O‟Reilly Media) used term Web 2.0 to describe the significantshift in how software developers and users were interacting with the Web in 2004. Youcould not do this with earlier Web sites, which were primarily used for two things: toprovide information or as Web services. Web 2.0 is working like a relationship Web forusers. Organizations use sites to attract, create, build and deepen relationships withpeople: internally with employees and externally with customers, partners, investors orprospective employees and customers. (Brown, 2009 p. 9, Lincoln, 2009 p. 7, PaukerKreizberg 2009, Mustonen, 2009 p.10-11.) Term social media refers to activities,practices, and behaviors among online communities, where people share information,knowledge, and opinions by using Web 2.0 technologies for conversational interactions(Safko and Brake, 2009 p. 6-7). The idea of communication through social media in webpages is that they are open to everyone. The social media based on web. 2.0 (Funk2009, Cesar 2008, Shuen 2008), where, for example, Facebook is an online socialnetworking site (Baloun 2007, Holzner 2009) and Second Life (DeMesa 2009,Freedman 2008, Terdiman 2008) is a virtual social networking site. Web 2.0 are webbased platforms, which provide solutions for online social networking communities. 10
  • Mustonen (2009, 8) continues that social web can be defined as the online place wherepeople with a common interest can gather to share thoughts, comments, opinions andother information. Social media can also seen largely as “all the Internet-enabledcapabilities for communicating through different means: audio, video, text, images andevery other combination or permutation imaginable” (Jue et. al., 2010 p. 44). Socialmedia (Web 2.0) is interactive, where users expect to be able to participate andgenerate content and voice opinion and get immediate feedback. Users expect Websites to be user-centric. Belsky (2010 p. 129-130) argues that social media tool likeFacebook and Twitter are making the creative process more transparent. The use ofsocial media tools and social networking are leading organizations towards to thetransparency (Evans D., 2010 p. 207-208, Phillips and Young, 2009 p.37-44, Scott,2010 p. 191). Social media culture means interactivity in the organisations. (Lincoln,2009 p.10, Pauker Kreizberg 2009.) Social media has changed the communicationbetween companies and customers and therefore it can also call as “consumer-generated media” (Mangold and Faulds 2009) or consumer-generated content (Taylorand Kent 2010).Pauker Kreizberg (2009) states five characteristics for the friendly social media (Web2.0) culture: 1) transparent (open about their actions), 2) user centric (focus on people,both internal and external), 3) agile (are nimble and quick to adjust), 4) empowering(give people information and the ability to take action) and 5) creative (encourageexperimentation and innovation). She also indicates ten barriers to friendly social mediaculture: 1) Security (ensure security without stifling creativity and communication), 2)Compliance (balance enterprise needs vs. ease and accessibility of Web tools), 3)Usability (core competence in usability and user centricity are essential), 4)Competition (more agile, creative and smaller companies may present a real threat), 5)Empowerment (people go online to get info they need and take action), 6) Public Face(user-generated posts can remain available for years, anywhere, on the Web), 7)Transparency (information is more open, easily found and circulated), 8) GenerationGap (Boomers and Millennials use the Web differently), 9) Communication (effectivecross-functional communication is difficult whether on- or offline and 10) Behaviour(employees need to know company policy for online behaviour). (Pauker Kreizberg2009.) 11
  • Pauker Kreizberg (2009) states also four strategies for the managers to improve friendlysocial media culture: 1) help your leadership figure it out in terms of your business, 2)focus on relationships and demonstrate that value through user experiences, 3) coveryour assets with practices that protect the company but do not stifle creativity and 4)provide training that closes the gap in communication - whether it is across generations,functions, language, culture or physical proximity. (Pauker Kreizberg 2009.) Fernando(2010) has also created eight notions as best practice steering points for managers toimprove social media. His steps to social media are following:1) understand the end goals, 2) formulate strategy, 3) calibrate appropriate social mediatools to match strategy, 4) build an open extensible platform, 5) embody strongtaxonomy and structure, 6) assemble staff for involvement and knowledge contribution,7) anticipate and embrace varying use cases and 8) develop a company maturitymodel. Fernardo‟s (2010) social media steering points are quite similar to PaukerKreizberg‟s (2009) strategies but they are more detailed like calibrate appropriate socialmedia tools to match strategy, assemble staff for involvement and knowledgecontribution and build an open extensible platform.Criticism Against Social MediaJain Palvia and Pancaro (2010) are worried about how humans are turning into hermits.They argue that cyber space social interaction makes students and members ofcommunities lose touch with real social interactions and experiences. Rather thancalling somebody by phone, many people prefer using Facebook or similar websites toleave a comment on the receiver person‟s profile wall. The lack of synchronouscommunication and decreased desire to communicate face to face is transformingcommunication patterns. They continue that these technological toys make our liveseasier and presumably more productive, while enabling our separation from the realworld. As a conclusion they make a statement: “although we may never return to the“golden age” of face to face conversing with our fellow human beings, we need to becognizant of having a good balance between using technology mode and face to facemode of communication. There is a lot that can be learned from a person‟s tone of voiceand facial expressions through actively listening and observing. The global easyconnectivity offered by networking sites is turning humans into hermits”. (Jain Palviaand Pancaro 2010.) 12
  • Jain Palvia and Pancaros‟ (2010) critique is full of emotions to get back “the old goodtimes” before social media. The critique is quite heavy against social media, but it is notunusual to hear this kind of critique in everyday life. They argue that “cyber space socialinteraction makes students and members of communities to lose touch with real socialinteractions and experiences” shows that Jain Palvia and Pancaros are presenting thethinking which make a difference between real life and online interactions. The newGeneration Y, the 76 million Millennials born between 1982 and 2000 are not separatingonline-offline worlds like the older generations do, because they are the “grown updigital generation” like Tapscott (2010) calls them. Even though there are alsomistakes, which are possible to make in social media, which Howard (2011) highlightsfollowing way: 1) attempting to be an expert in everything, 2) providing vagueinformation about giveaways, 3) trying to reach everyone, all the time, 4) trying to beperfect and 5) spending time that you simply don‟t have.Carr (2010) highlights, how the internet is changing the way we think, read andremember. He argues that reading is now skimming and scrolling with little patience. Healso argues that using of the Internet gives a quick access to large quantities ofinformation with search filtering tools, and an easy way to share opinions with a smallbut interested audience. Even though, by using the Internet, you are losing the touch ofbooks and magazines, the benefits of Internet are bigger and therefore for some people,the very idea of reading a book has come to seem old-fashioned. (Carr, 2010 p. 8.) Carr(2010 p. 16) continues that the more you are using Internet the more your brains arebecoming “hungry of the Internet” and you want to be connected all the time. Lanier(2010 p. 83) is worried about young people, who are getting stressed to keep theirsocial networks (Facebook, Twitter) and they have to continuously to maintain theirnetworks reputation.2.1.2 Social Media Tools: Blogs, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Shared documentsand Video ConferencesBlogsThe use of blogs as part of leadership is quite common nowadays. The researcher hasalso written blogs as part of her work over two years. The author‟s social medialeadership blogs which are part of this research project are also secondary data of the 13
  • research and therefore blogs are presented more deeply with SWOT- analysis thanother social media tools in this literature review (Luukka 2011a, Luukka 2011b).Web logs are better known as blogs (Blossom, 2009 p. 32, Briggs and Burke, 2009 p.281, Burrows 2007, Kilpi, 2006 p.11). There were 60 million active blogs in 2007(Burrows 2007, 20). It is very difficult to find reliable updated information of active blogsfrom latest years because there are thousands of opportunities for writing blogs withblog tools and also writing blogs on organisation‟s Web pages. There are several toolsfor searching blogs from Web: Blogdigger, Bloglines, Feedster, Google Blog Search,PubSub, Technorati, and IceRocket. (Faigley and Selzer 2009.) Private persons arewriting blogs e.g. to expose their public opinions and for keeping their online journals.Blogs are also used as a learning method to improve and share reflection on e-learning(Ferriter 2009, Imperatore 2009, Yang 2009). Enterprises are writing blogs for improvingtheir business brand but also for internal communication as to implement theorganisation‟s strategy for personnel (Kilpi, 2006 p. 25-27.). Blogs can be useful inshowing the expertise of those within the organisation, but need to be carefullycontrolled to avoid releasing damaging information (Chaffey, 2009 p. 130). A typicalblog combines text, images, and links to other blogs or related web pages. The RSS(really simple syndication) feeds are simply “portable” versions of blogs or other mediasites that can be read via applications called newsreaders (Battelle, 2007 p. 266). RSSprovides the updated information for you (Li and Bernoff, 2009 p. 54). An importantfeature of blogging is that readers are able to leave their own personal comments in aninteractive format. (Burrows 2007.) An ever-growing number of online markets are usingblogs to replace more traditional e-commerce web sites (Meyerson 2008). Blogs have alot of interactive opportunities e.g. sending sequential posts from site´s owner or visitorsand creating a quick online presence, sharing ideas, offering RSS, showcasing audioand video clips.Strengths of BlogsIf the organisation‟s brand is well known locally, nationally and also internationally, the blogscould also be well known and supporting organisation‟s brand e.g. Finnair‟s (Finnair 2011) andThe White House‟s blogs (White House 2011). The organisation‟s web pages should becustomer based. The blogs should be focused on particular customers (potential and current) 14
  • and other enterprises. The distribution in this case means information distribution. Theorganisation‟s web pages information distribution should be high. A link to blogs should befound on organisation‟s front page, therefore the openness of the blogs should also be high andtherefore the opportunity to spread information is also high. The blog‟s linking and blogmarketing are promoting blog‟s distribution.Weakness of BlogsWeb blogs and also intranet blogs should be connected with organisation‟s strategy.The intermediaries could be used for organisation‟s blogs marketing. The bloggers‟,who are writing blogs should be skilful. The cross-channel support between blogs,bloggers, inside the organisation or between similar kinds of other organisations couldalso help blogs distribution. The writing of blogs is linkage with cultural matters (Scobleand Israel, 2006 p. 115-131). The openness of all people is not naturally high, thereforethere is no habit of public discussions. Because the openness of blogs is high, theopportunity to spread information is high and also false and bad information can spreadquickly and wildly.Opportunities of BlogsThe blogging could be an excellent way for cross-selling for different kinds oforganisations. This means that there should be more co-operation among organisationand its partners in the same business field. Blogging is an opportunity for new marketsand services for people, who are used to use the internet as a tool for communicationand for doing business. Blogs could also implement organisation‟s strategy in a publicformat for personnel using intranet blogs.Threats of BlogsThe blogging could lead to lost customers, if the blogs are written badly and if theydamage organisation‟s brand. Blogging as a social media and new entrants can frightenpersonnel. They can be afraid if the writing takes too much time (Financial Times 2010)and if there is no time for discussion with blogs on the web in this busy working life.People are worried with regard to the new competitive products especially, ifcompetitors get secret information about the organisation through its blogs. Blogs can 15
  • lead to conflicts, if there are misunderstandings between blogger and readers or e-customers. Also threats of e-business security (Ghosh 1998), work against using blogs.Social media networks: Facebook, Twitter and LinkedInFacebook, Twitter and LinkedIn are globally the most widely used social medianetworks for private and business purposes and therefore they are chosen to bepresented as examples of leadership social media tools. Social networking services(e.g. Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn) focus on building online communities of peoplewho share interests and/or activities, or who are interested in exploring the interests andactivities of others. (Bennet et al. 2010.) These social networking sites generally provideseveral ways for users to interact and communicate with each other including writing toeach other‟s profile, instant messaging, chat rooms, e-mail, webcams, file sharing,blogging and discussion groups. Social networking tools foster transparentcommunication visible to all, the collaborative input of any employee, could berecognised and potentially be rewarded. Status and prestige incentives are thus builtinto the collaborative process, which are the key factors to contribute to productivity andsatisfaction of employees. Transparency is the key issue of social networking. Thebenefits of social networking are the following: community, collaboration andcontribution. (Bennet 2010.) Eyrich et al. (2008) argues that social media has moved tothe status of strategic tool and more practitioners are developing skills related to onlinecommunication technology.FacebookFacebook has more than 500 million active users. As many as 50 % of the active userslog on to Facebook every day. The average user has 130 friends. People spend over700 billion minutes per month on Facebook. About 70% of Facebook users are outsidethe United States from 190 countries. (Facebook 2011.)Facebook is a social networking site that enables users to connect by creating personalinformation profiles, inviting friends and colleagues to have access to those profiles, andsending emails and instant messages between each other (Kaplan and Haenlein 2010.)Safko and Brake (2009 p. 452) continues that depending on the setup, users arenotified when someone in their network updates their page or status. Users create theirpages based on their personal preferences, add others to their network groups 16
  • andshare their experiences with pictures, links or videos. Finally Safko and Brake (2009p.453) states that Facebook suits for a quick and convenient way to update a multitudeof friends, family, co-workers, or acquaintances on what you are doing. Businesses useFacebook for advertising.On each social media tool there is a possibility for a user to set up his/her own privacysettings. E.g. Facebook has a very clear privacy policy, which all the users must accept.The privacy policy includes: 1) information Facebook receives, 2) information you sharewith third parties, 3) how Facebook use your information, 4) how Facebook sharesinformation, 5) how you can view, change, or remove information and 6) how Facebookprotects information. The user of Facebook decides with whom he/she wants to shareinformation: a) with friends, b) friends of friends or c) with everyone (Holzner, 2009 p.27-31).TwitterTwitter has 175 million registered users with 370, 000 new sign-ups every day. 95million tweets/messages have been sent daily. Twitter introduces the organization as aninformation network where millions of people, organizations, and businesses use it todiscover and share new information. (Twitter 2011.)Twitter is a micro blogging application that allows sending short, text-based posts of 140characters or less (Brown, 2009 p. 38, Jain Palvia and Pancaro 2010, Kaplan andHeanlein 2010, Phillips and Young, 2009 p. 17). In Twitter, the messages are calledtweets (Briggs and Burke, 2009 p. 286). Twitter‟s users can post original tweets undertheir Twitter accounts and they can “retweet”, which means posting another user‟stweet. Twitter users have a profile page, which describes them and indicates theirfollowers and whom they follow. When following somebody‟s tweets, you receive theirtweets. Twitter users are both consumers of tweets (followers) and producers of tweets(followed). (Fischer and Reuber 2011.)Berinato (2010): Six ways to find value in Twitter‟s noise: 1) learn about competitivelandscape, (Tweets about your product that include the names of rival brands canreveal a lot about market positioning), 2) look for unexpected themes (persistent words 17
  • point to persistent ideas), 3) dip deeper in to the stream (while stream graphs give anoverall impression of what people are tweeting about, it is important to know what otherwords are being used in relation to those in the stream), 4) look for user experiences(product testing and reviews can‟t replace user reactions), 5) learn why negative wordsare coming up (finding negative words is a good way to locate consumers‟ pain points)and 6) learn about conversation dominators (words that suddenly dominate the tweetstream mean something has happened that‟s worth learning about).LinkedInLinkedIn express that they are the world‟s largest professional network on the Internetwith more than 90 million members in over 200 countries and territories. More than halfof LinkedIn members are located outside of the United States. There were nearly twobillion people searches on LinkedIn in 2010. (LinkedIn 2011.)LinkedIn is a professional (business) social networking site (Jain Palvia and Pancaro2010, Mangold and Faulds 2009, Qualman, 2009 p. 225-226). Professional networkingsites are more of business nature than social. These promote events and activities inthe professional lives of people allowing them e.g. to share information related to a newjob, a job achievement, job promotion, recommendation of another colleague in generalor specifically for a job category and job availability in a company or in the marketplace(Jain Palvia and Pancaro 2010, Qualman, 2009 p. 225-226). There is also a possibilityfor professional group discussions and sending messages between colleagues andfriends.Collaborative Online Work: Shared Documents and Video ConferencesDocuments sharing by using e.g. Google Docs and WIKI- social media tools isproviding an opportunity to work online together anytime and anywhere. Shareddocuments also allow organizing data, controlling access, and working in real time, andinstantly publishing documents on Web pages, blogs, within groups or companies(Safko and Brake, 2009 p. 581). Shared documents value is as a tool for communitycollaboration (Jue et.al., 2010 p. 130). Blossom (2009 p. 33-34) continues thatcollaborative publishing and/or social network publishing are enabling groups of people 18
  • to collaborate on common documents and to build and use relationship with otherpeople using tools that let people share information about their personal andprofessional needs and interests. Online conferencing with videos, chat, or webinarswith two-way communication are available for free or at low cost (e.g. Skype, GoogleTalk) (Phillips and Young, 2009 p.19-20). Skype provides one-to-one, one-to-many,many-to-one and many-to-many real time calls with other Skypes and also inexpensivelocal, national and international calls to phones and mobiles (Safko and Brake, 2009 p.417- 419).2.1.3 Social Media’s Possibilities to Improve Business and Leadership Social Media as Part of Market Driven StrategyThe Perrot‟s matrix for external forces and internal capability is illuminates the problemwhere traditional business is nowadays struggling to use on not to use social media(e.g. blogs, Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn) as part of their business plan (Chaffey,2009 p. 275). Market Driving Market Driven Strategy: Customer Strategy: Keep HIGH education and pace with market Internal capability / Incentives motivation threats/ opportunities Status Quo: Capacity Building: Don‟t Bother Build for transition to Electronic LOW Commerce LOW HIGH External Forces / IncentivesFigure 1. A Matrix for evaluation of external forces against internal capability 19
  • Market driven strategy leads to the benefits for the first or early movers of using e.g.social media as part of leadership. The early movers benefits of online business are thefollowing: - the ability to amass a critical mass of customers, - developing distinct business models to exploit the advantages of the internet for trading, - gaining economies of scale through exploiting network externalities, - building customer loyalty through brand recognition, - building in switching costs to the website, - building relationship with customers electronically, - establishing partnership with key industry players ahead of competitors, - influencing the industry infrastructure, - refining the value proposition and adding value to customers through innovations, - managing both physical and virtual value chain for competitive advantage, - building an understanding of customers and their buying habits via the internet and - becoming a learning organisation. (Combe, 2006 p. 306.)Combe (2006 p. 302) argues that to compete effectively in the internet economyrequires managers to address the following criteria: 1) draw up a business plan, 2)determine what is to be sold or what service is to be delivered, 3) have a good qualitywebsite design, 4) ensure security, 5) set appropriate delivery times, 6) create a brand,ensure good customer service, 7) promote the website, 8) pricing, 9) define terms andconditions of sale and 10) ensure scalability of technology. Chen (2001) identifiesseven things that needed to be aligned in strategic changing to an online (virtual)organisation: 1) strategic, 2) systems, 3) structure, 4) style, 5) staff, 6) skills and 7)shared values.Social Media BenefitsMany business researchers have stated social media as marketing tools (Berinato2010, Dholakia and Durham 2010, Kozinets et al. 2010, Trusov et al. 2009). On the 20
  • other hand social media is full of marketing tools, which are changing the marketer-generated business to user-generated business (Evans, D. 2010, Evans, D. 2008 andEvans, L. 2010). Eva Fisher and Reuber (2011) have argued that social media is notjust as marketing tools, but also as a form of communication that can have muchbroader consequences at the individual and firm level. Social media have the potentialto be valuable tools that, if deployed well, can positively affect business outcomes suchas sales growth, brand image and company reputation (Fisher and Reuben 2011). Scott(2010 p. 3-13) argues that the old rules of marketing and PR are ineffective in an onlineworld. Jaokar et al. (2009 p. 83-104) argues that business should understand the databehind social networks and Spark (2010) continues from organization‟s personnel pointof view that “there is gold in your employees‟ personal networks. Curtis et al. (2010)have found in their research that social media tools are beneficial methods ofcommunication for public relations practitioners in the nonprofit sector.Mangold and Faulds (2009) have argued that social media is a hybrid element of thepromotion mix because it combines characteristics of traditional IMC tools (companiestalking to customers) with a highly magnified form of word-of-mouth (customers talkingto one another) whereby marketing managers cannot control the content and frequencyof such information. They also have stated social media enable instantaneous, real timecommunication and utilizes multi-media formats (audio and visual presentations) andnumerous delivery platforms (e.g. Facebook, YouTube and blogs), with global reachcapacities (Mangold and Faulds 2009).Even though a company cannot directly control customer-to-customer conversations orword of mouth marketing (WOMM) (Kozinets et al. 2010) in social media, it caninfluence and shape these discussions in a manner that is consistent with theorganization‟s mission and performance goals. Mangold and Faulds (2009) havesuggested nine shaping for social media‟s discussion: 1) provide networking platforms,2) use blogs and other social media tools to engage customers, 3) use both traditionaland Internet-based promotional tools to engage customers, 4) provide information, 5) beoutrageous, 6) provide exclusivity, 7) design products with talking points andconsumers‟ desired self images in mind, 8) support causes that are important toconsumers and 9) utilize the power of stories. 21
  • At point when fears and anxieties diminished against social media (Web 2.0), companyleaders may start to appreciate that social networking tools and technologies can beutilized to: - enable speedier location, access and sharing of information, - enable more efficient leverage of contacts and knowledge, - help retain key employees by improving satisfaction in the workplace, - break down time and geographical boundaries to improve communication between widely dispersed personnel, - reduce expenses and improve productivity and competitiveness. (Strategic Direction 2009.)Social Media DoubtsTaylor and Kent (2010) have argued that there is still so little evidence about socialmedia‟s effectiveness beyond anecdotes and self report studies. They have stated thatsocial media should be problematized by asking questions: 1) how can you build arelationship in 140 characters or less, 2) what demographics are likely to be effectivelyreached via social media, 3) what traditional media might be as useful or more useful,and when should you use them and 4) what happens to the public that are not online?(Taylor and Kent 2010.) One of the great threats of social networking is that Taylor andKent (2010) have stated, as a fear, if social media‟s outcomes are not asproductive/effective as the input to the social media e.g. human and technologicalresources have taken.Wyld (2008) suggests that in the Web 2.0 environment, senior managers need toexamine carefully and provide informed responses to of the following:1) time and energy required to commit to maintain effectively blogging,2) the Web 2.0 and blogging knowledge of the company,3) bloggers‟ best practices development in a company,4) monitoring of the blogosphere, what is being said of the company,5) legal issues arisen from blogging among employees and executives,6) dealing of blogs and Web 2.0 media with communication policy of the company,7) awareness of new Web 2.0 technologies and their benefit use and8) measuring the effectiveness of blogging activities. 22
  • Aula (2010) argues that social media generates, expands and boosts risks dynamics.That‟s because in social media, users mostly generate unverified information – both trueand false – put forth ideas about organizations that differ greatly from whatorganizations share with the public. Dholakia and Duerham (2010) continues thatcautious optimism seems wise, while using social media. Companies should see whatFacebook can do for them but use it as just one nice tool.2.2 Leadership Theories2.2.1 A Brief History of Leadership TheoriesA history and the first phase of leadership theories started from trait theories calledalso Taylorism which was based on industrial leadership that happened in 1900 – theearly decades (Friedman, 2010 p. 291-304). Traits theories were based on leading ofindustrial workers (machine operators) (Drucker, 2009 p. 183). Glynn and DeJordy(2010 p. 119-157) continues that the traits theories was launched from a psychologicalperspective and with the overriding assumption that leaders were somehow differentand in possession of special, unique, or extraordinary personality attributes, abilities,skills, or physical characteristics that others did not have. Mullins (2007 p. 367) addsthat traits leadership leaders are born and not made. After traits theories followedbehavioral leadership theories of leadership which focus on a leader‟s style of action,typically categorized with regard to a task orientation and people orientation. Thisleadership approach had its origins in the work of Lewin, Lippitt and White in 1939 whooutlined three basic leadership styles: autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire (Glynnand DeJordy, 2010 p. 119-157, Mullins, 2007 p. 371.) Both traits and behavioralleadership theories led to studies and assessment of leadership styles like Likert‟s“attitude toward men” and Blake and Mouton‟s “managerial grid” as a test of manager‟stask or people orientation (Gill, 2006 p. 42-43).In contrast to trait and behavioral theories followed contingency leadership theories(1960 – 1980) which assumed that leadership can vary across situations and that theremay not be a universally effective way to lead; different contexts may call for differentkinds of leadership. Contingency theories of leadership contextualized leadership andmodeled it as more supple, adaptive, and situationally flexible than trait or behavioral 23
  • theories (Glynn and DeJordy, 2010 p. 119-157, Mullins, 2007 p. 374-381.) An exampleof contingency period is Henry Mintzberg‟s study of managers work. He concluded thatmanagerial work involves interpersonal roles, informational roles, and decisional roles.These roles require a number of skills: developing peer relationships, carrying outnegotiations, motivating subordinates, resolving conflicts, establishing informationnetworks and disseminating information, making decisions with little or ambiguousinformation, and allocating resources (Mintzberg 1975.)The recent transactional and transformational leadership theories have taken theirroots from trait, behavioral and contingency leadership theories. Transactionalleadership is more instrumental by using rewards or punishment to motivatesubordinate efforts (Glynn and DeJordy, 2010 p. 119-157.) Transactional leadersappear to be strongly directive and they tend not to use the consultative, participative ordelegative leadership styles. They set objectives and performance standards, but do soin a directive rather than participative manner and they also use closed and leadingquestions in their interactions with others (Gill, 2006 p. 51.) Mullins (2007 p. 381)continues that transactional leadership is based on a relationship of mutual dependenceand exchange process of “I will give you this, if you do that”. Transformationalleadership is more inspiring and exciting followers to high level of performance throughvisionary leadership (Glynn and DeJordy, 2010 p. 119-157.) Transformationalleadership features and its connection to social media is highlighted more in the nextchapter (2.2.2).2.2.2 Transformational Leadership TheoryDucker (2009 p. 177) dominates the last century as “a Century of SocialTransformation”. He continues: “No century in human history has experienced so manysocial transformations and such radical ones as the twentieth century”. He argues that achange from industrial workers to knowledge workers has made this great change ofworking culture during the last century (Ducker, 2009 p. 177-204.)According to Northouse (2004 p. 174) “the transformational leadership theory isconcerned with performance of followers and also with developing followers to theirfullest potential”. Yukl (2002 p. 241) adds that “transforming leadership appeals to the 24
  • moral values of followers in an attempt to raise their consciousness about ethical issuesand to mobilize their energy and resources to reform institution”. Ruggierri (2009)argues that tranformational leader increases their followers interests, respects group‟sobligations and mission, demonstrates qualities which induce respect and reachingpride, becomes role models, and examines new prospects for solving problems andreaching goals by encouraging followers to find new solutions and propose new ideas.Nissinen (2006) has emphasized that transformational leadership is also near deepleadership. He argues that both deep leadership and transformational leadership arestimulating, constructive and interactive relationships where objectives of followers andleaders come closer to each other and where leaders can become agents for the growthof others. Transformational leadership considers four factors: 1) idealizedinfluence/charisma, 2) inspirational motivation, 3) intellectual stimulation and 4)individualized consideration (Bass and Avolio, 1994 p. 1-9, Mullins, 2007 p. 382,Northouse, 2004 p. 174-178).Idealized influence (charisma)The transformational leaders have the charisma (the idealized influence) and they actas strong role models for followers (Bass and Avolio, 1994 p. 1-9, McManus, 2006 p.17, Northouse, 2004 p. 174). They have high standards of moral and they are deeplyrespected by followers.Inspirational motivationThe leaders with inspirational motivation communicate high expectations to followers,inspiring them through motivation to become committed to and a part of the sharedvision in the organization. (Bass and Avolio, 1994 p. 1-9, Northouse, 2004 p. 175-176)According to Northouse (2004 p. 176) this kind of manager motivates his personnel toexcel their work through encouraging words and pep talks that clearly communicate theintegral role play in the future growth of the company. This means that manager shouldbe good at giving speeches, which focus on essence. Manager should be assertive andget people to listen to him/her. His/her talking should be calming.Intellectual stimulationThe intellectual stimulation includes leadership that stimulates followers to be creativeand innovative, and to challenge their own beliefs and values as well as those of the 25
  • leader and the organization. This kind of leadership supports followers as they try newapproaches and develop innovative ways of dealing with organizational issues (Bassand Avolio, 1994 p. 1-9, Northouse, 2004 p. 177.)Individualized considerationThe individualized consideration represents leaders who provide a supportive climate inwhich they listen carefully to the individual needs of followers. Leaders act as coachesand advisers while trying to assist individuals in becoming fully actualized (Bass andAvolio, 1994 p. 1-9, Northouse, 2004 p. 177).Transformational Leadership and Manager’s Use of Social MediaAccording to Mullins‟s (2007, 382) and Northouse‟s (2004 p. 174-178) transformationalleadership theory there are four factors: 1) idealized influence/charisma, 2) inspirationalmotivation, 3) intellectual stimulation and 4) individualized consideration; these fourfactors explain also quite well the features needed in manager‟s social media leadershipskills. If a manager, who uses social media tools as part of his/her leadership, is alsocharismatic, he/she will get lots of followers on his/her blogs, Facebook, Twitter andLinkedIn profiles. A manager, who has skills for using social media tools withinspirational motivation way is assertive and gets people to listen, look at and alsoread his/her presentations on social networks. A manager with intellectual stimulationsupports followers by e.g. sharing documents online and participating online discussionwhile his/her followers are trying new approaches and develop innovative ways ofdealing with organizational issues. A manager with individualized consideration socialmedia skills acts as coach and adviser, who tries to assist individuals in becoming fullyactualized social media online-offline workers.2.2.3 Open Leadership TheoryCharlene Li (2010) has stated in her Open Leadership theory that while using socialtechnology, it “can transform the way you lead”. She argues that her research shows,“the biggest indicator of success has been an open mind set- the ability of leaders to letgo of control at the right time, in the right place and in the right amount” (Li, 2010 p. 8).She continues by defining open leadership as follows: “having the confidence and 26
  • humanity to give up the need to be in control while inspiring commitment from people toaccomplish goals”. Open leadership fosters new relationship with new rules like:1) respect that your customers and employees have power,‟2) share constantly to build trust,3) nurture curiosity and humility,4) hold openness accountable,5) forgive failure (Li, 2010 p. 14-15.)The Two Basics of the Open Leadership: Sharing and TransformingOrganization’s CultureThe key issue in open leadership is confidence. A leader has to have faith that thepeople he/she passes power to will act responsibly. This means that a leader mustunderstand that there are actually more capable people who can do the things that theleader does. This requires humility from a leader (Li, 2010 p. 18.)Ten elements of SharingLi (2010 p. 17-48) defines ten elements of the openness as following: A. OpenInformation Sharing: 1) Explaining, 2) Updating, 3) Conversing, 4) Open Mic, 5)Crowdsourcing, 6) Platforms, B. Decision-making: 7) Centralized, 8) Democratic, 9)Self-managing (Consensus) and 10) Distributed. Explaining and updating are the kind ofinformation that originates from within the organization. Conversing, Open Mic andcrowdsourcing mean the kind of information where information comes from outside theorganization back into it. Platforms are offering technological solutions for openness ininformation sharing. Decision-making four types 1) centralized, 2) democratic, 3) Self-managing (Consensus) and 4) Distributed are changing because of the openness of theorganizations. No one type of decision-making is best. They just differ in terms of thedegree of control, extent of information shared, and choice of people involved asappropriate for each situation. (Li, 2010 p. 17-48.)Organisation’s Culture and TransformationLi (2010 p. 245) emphasizes that company‟s cultural issues are following: 1) valuesdrive the vision, 2) leaders set the tone and example for others to follow, 3) extendingthe old culture into new and 4) systems and structure sustain the transformation. She 27
  • has developed an action plan to improve transformation towards to open leadership inorganization. The action plan contains seven recommendations: 1) create a sense ofinformation sharing, 2) identify the values that will carry you through the transformation,3) lead by example, 4) encourage risk taking; reward risks taken, 5) start small to winbig, 6) institutionalize systems and structures and 7) be patient. (Li, 2010 p. 267-268.)Mind-sets and TraitsA major theme through open leadership theory is that leadership is about relationships,and because social technologies are changing relationships, leadership also needs tochange. Li (2010 p. 174-187) defines four open leadership archetypes mind-sets 1)Cautious Tester, 2) Worried Skeptic, 3) Realist Optimist and 4) Transparent Evangelist,which are based on four mind-sets: optimistic, pessimistic, independent andcollaborative. The Cautious Testers are both pessimistic and collaborative. Theyunderstand the need to collaborate because they can see the benefits, to theorganization and to themselves, of involving a greater circle of people. Cautious Testersare willing to test options, plans and new ideas, and to do so with other people but theirenthusiasm for trying new things is tempered by their pessimism. The RealisticOptimists can see the benefits of being open but also understand the barriers. Theycan also work through the tough situations, have the collaborative mind-sets and skills,and most importantly, know how to overcome organizational obstructions by showingdoubters the genuine benefits of being open and winning their trust. Realistic Optimistsare both collaborative and optimistic. The Worried Skeptics are the opposite ofRealistic Optimists in that they are pessimistic and independent. These people bynature worry about all things that can go wrong and with an independent mind-set, theybelieve that success comes from the strengths and skills of individuals. TransparentEvangelists, they are “bitten by the technology bug” and they have personallyexperienced a transformation and derive tremendous personal satisfaction and joy fromengaging with people through social technologies. Transparent Evangelists are bothindependent and optimistic. (Li, 2010 p. 174-187.)Four Open Driven Objectives: learning, dialog, support and innovationIn her work with companies Li (2010 p. 53) has found that there are four underlyingobjectives integrated into almost every successful strategic plan. Li (2010 p. 53-56) 28
  • states that first and foremost, organizations must learn from employees, customers, andpartners before they can do anything else. Organizations and their leaders must beconstantly open for learning. She continues, communication (internal and external)transforms a relationship from of shouting out one-way messages to a dialog betweenequals. And along the way, people in the conversation become more and moreengaged, to the point where they have a dialog without having to be present. Peopleboth inside and outside the organization need help/support at different times.Creativity/innovation needs to be fostered, both inside the organization.While using dialog, open leadership also increases employees and customersengagement to the organization step by step. The first step is watching (e.g. read blogs,see videos or listen to podcasts). The next step is sharing (e.g. sites on Twitter andFacebook). The third step into deeper engagement is commenting (e.g. to organisationsblog or site). The fourth step is producing (e.g. writing a blog or create a podcast). Thelast and highest step of engagement is curating. Then people become highly andpersonally engaged in a community. (Li, 2010 p. 58-62.)Benefits, Monitoring and Risks in Open LeadershipBenefitsLi (2010 p. 77) has found in her studies that the open-driven objectives all create somecommon benefits like: 1) remove friction, 2) scale efforts, 3) enable fast response and 4)gain commitment. She continues also with the benefits of 1) open learning, 2) opendialog, 3) open support and 4) open innovations. The benefits of these open leadershipareas are difficult to measure but Li has done also calculations, how to get positivereturn of these too (Li, 2010 p. 75-103.) Li (2010 p. 76) adds that leadership shouldrigorously examine the benefits of openness but she also argues that an undueemphasis on hard ROI does no one any good.Monitoring (measuring the benefits being open)Li (2010 p. 54) suggests the use of basic monitoring tools (free and paid) to track thediscussions, what the customers are having of the organization. She also suggests thatorganisations should evaluate their decision-making processes:1) centralized, 2)democratic, 3) Self-managing (Consensus) and 4) Distributed, who is involved, whatkind of shared information is used to make the decision, and how effective the decision- 29
  • making process is. Also to improve effectiveness, one choice is to make the decision-making process more open. Another choices are to consider who is involved indecision-making or whether better information sharing could improve effectiveness aswell. (Li 2010 p. 47.)RisksLi (2010, 211) encourages to risk taking and speedy recovery from failure. She arguesthat an inherent behaviour of open leaders is to encourage responsible risk taking. Withrisk taking come the inevitable failures, and open leaders must prepare theirorganizations for those as well in particular, how to deal with and recover from failure.(Li, 2010 p. 211). In social media it is not possible to hide failures and therefore there isa need for a whole different attitude about failing than earlier (Li, 2010 p. 237).3 METHODOLOGYThis methodology chapter considers first epistemological assumptions of case studyand action research set-up. Then follow research aims and questions, data collectionand analysis. Finally is the evaluation of the research, which considers validity andethics.3.1 Research Set-up, Aims and QuestionsA Methodological Set-up; A Focus Group Case Study’s and an Action Research’sEpistemological AssumptionsThis qualitative research focuses on managers‟ experiences of use of social media aspart of his/her leadership. Therefore social media and leadership are presented astheoretical backgrounds of the research. Facebook was chosen a social media tool fordata collection for the focus group of six participants/managers. Focus group isstructured by the researcher, who has a list of topics/questions that make up the focusgroup‟s agenda (Cooper and Shindler, 2008 p. 178-184, Davis, 2007 p. 202-204, Jamesand Busher, 2009 p. 131). From the epistemological and philosophical assumptions,this is a case study (Dul and Hak, 2008 p. 4, Yin, 2003 p. 13-14) with action research(Cooper and Schindler, 2008 p. 185, Gray, 2009 p. 313-334) approach focus onparticipant managers‟ and researcher‟s experiences of the use of social media and havetherefore a connection to the constructivism (epistemology) and phenomenology 30
  • (philosophy) research approach. An epistemology means how you know, what youknow and the methods you choose to use in order to test validity of knowledge (Davies,2007 p. 236). Constructivism rejects the objectivist view of human knowledge. Truth ormeaning is constructed not discovered. People may construct meaning in differentways, even in relation to the same phenomena. In phenomenological approach humansare interpreting the world. The aim is to grasp and understand how individuals come tointerpret their and others‟ actions meaningfully. (James and Busher, 2009 p. 7-8.) Theresearcher has acted like an action researcher during this research project. She hasused more social media tools as part of her own leadership and her experiences hasbeen documented to social media leadership blogs (Luukka 2011a, Luukka 2011b).Therefore Loxman‟s (2006 p. 122) approach to action research managers have beenused as an approach in this research. The study‟s action research part was evaluatedthrough Loxman‟s suggestions for action research managers in results chapter (4.5).Research Aims and QuestionsThe main aim of the research project was to investigate managers‟ social medialeadership experiences, how open leadership theory (Li 2010) works in practicalleadership situations. The other aim was to research how negative experiences,feelings and face-to-face leading are part of social media leadership. The answers tothese research aims were searched with following four research questions:1. How do an international group of managers perceive their use of social media as partof their work now?2. Can their experiences be related to theory of open leadership (Li 2010)?3. How do the participants see negative experiences, feelings and face- to face leadinginvolved in social media leadership?4. How do the participants see their presence in social media communities developingin the future?The second aim for the research project was to expand researcher‟s knowledge andskills of social media and to find useful practical solutions for the use of social media as 31
  • part of her leadership in an adult education organization. The following fifth researchquestion was aimed at finding answers to that research aim.5. How has the researcher‟s experience and use of social media tools changed as aresult of research project?For the first four research questions primary data was collected by using a privateFacebook discussion group for six international managers; four from Finland, one fromItaly and one from Portugal. For the fifth research question, the secondary data wascollected by researcher‟s participation in discussions on Facebook discussion groupwith managers and by her social media blogs.3.2 Data collectionThe primary data of the research has been collected on Facebook‟s social medialeadership discussion group between 1 November – 12 December 2010. First the focusgroup was meant to be open for a month for four participants Harry, Tony, Mike andJames. James didn‟t take part in discussion and therefore two new participants Pamelaand Jane were asked to take part in for the two last weeks of group discussion. Theirparticipation in the group discussion brought a female perspective on social medialeadership to the data. All participants have been renamed with new names Harry,Tony, Mike, James, Pamela and Jane in this research report (Appendix. 1). This isbecause of the anonymity of the participants sought to retain and new names makeparticipants more human than just naming them from participant 1 to participant 6. Theparticipants of the research were found vithe researcher‟s online – offline networks.Harry was her prior colleague, James was her MBA‟s fellow student, Mike was herfriend‟s relative and Pamela was her colleague from National level organisation. Tonyand Jane, they took a contact to researcher after having noticed her announcement ofthe MBA‟s research issue on Finnish social media network (SOMETU 2011). Theresearcher has met participants Harry, James, Pamela and Jane face-to-face.The secondary data of the research considers the researcher‟s own participation inFacebook group discussions with the participants of the study. Researcher‟s blogs areanother part of the secondary data. The researcher has published 14 blogs consideringthe theme social media leadership from July 2010 to January 2011. The seven: 1) 15 32
  • September 2010, 2) 9 October 2010, 3) 9 November 2010, 4) 22 November 2010, 5) 19December 2010, 6) 25 January 2011 and 21 February 2011 are published in Finnish(Luukka 2011a) and seven: 1) 3 July 2010, 2) 15 September 2010, 3) 11 October 2010,4) 11 November 2010, 5) 8 December 2010, 6) 11 January 2011 and 7) 6 February2011 in English (Luukka 2011b).3.3 Data AnalysisThe research questions were divided into smaller sub-discussion themes for thediscussion group. The 15 sub-discussion themes were: the use of social media 1) in thevery beginning, 2) at work now and 3) a vision of social media at work in the future. Theopen leadership theory (Li 2010) was divided into eight sub-discussion themes thatwere: 1) Sharing/Openness, 2) Cultural Similarities and Differences, 3) Change ofwork/transforming, 4) Mind-sets and Traits, 5) Learning, 6) Monitoring, 7) Effectivenessand 8) Risks. The other issues of social media were: 1) Negative Experiences, 2)Feelings and 3) Face-to-Face leadership. The fifteenth theme was an opportunity togive feedback to researcher. Discussion matrix shows participants activity to take part ineach discussion themes (Appendix 2.). The data were analysed by theory basedcontent analysis (Latvala & Vanhanen-Nuutinen, 2001 p.30-36) also called Top-Downanalysis driven by theory (Chi, 1997). The primary (participants‟ discussions in groupand information got with a questionnaire Appendix 1.) present evidence, howparticipants‟ discussions agree or disagree with open leadership theory. The researcherred participants‟ discussions (original data) through “with a question in her mind”: doesthis participant‟s discussion topic‟s content agree or disagree with the theory of openleadership. The secondary data: 1) researcher‟s discussion in group and researcher‟sblogs were analyzed with the same method as primary data, but also doing self-reflection, how her own knowledge and experiences have been expanded during theresearch project. The conceptual mode of analysis (Strauss and Corbin,1998 p. 66) wasused as a method to doing line-by-line coding to search from the data properties andrelationships of the concepts. The result chapter includes parts of original data shownas samples of discussion of each research topic. These samples are quite large but itwas hard to cut them down because after cutting down the story line of discussion topicwould have been lost. Finally both primary and secondary data‟s outcomes wereconnected to Li‟s (2010) open leadership theory and also to the other social media 33
  • leadership literature. At the research report the original data samples as evidences arewritten in italics, with Arial font number 11 and with line space one.3.4 Evaluation of the ResearchResearch’s validityThe concept validity has traditionally been used in quantitative research but it has beenadopted in qualitative research including many others concepts, which refer to theaspects of validity (Gray, 2009 p. 190.) While doing an evaluation of the research, thetwo key terms validity and reliability of the research are often presented (Gray, 2009 p.190-197, Yin, 2003 p. 33-39). Reliability can also been defined as part of validity as inthis research. This research‟s validity has looked into four aspects of validity: 1)construct validity, 2) internal validity, 3) external validity and 4) reliability (Yin, 2003 p.34). Construct validity establishes correct operational measures for the conceptsbeing studied (Gray, 2009 p. 157, Yin, 2003 p. 34). This can also to be asked by thefollowing question: Does the research study key concepts which it was aimed to study?An answer to that question in this study is positive. This research focused on managers‟use social media as part of their leadership, the theoretical background of the study andthe empirical data were connected together through the research with the sameconcepts of social media and leadership. Results of the study are written in the followingway: first primary data results, then secondary data results and finally primary andsecondary data results (empirical data) have been connected to the literature review.This kind of results presentation increases also construct validity of the research, whileempirical data‟s concepts and theoretical backgrounds concepts are discussed and/orconnected together (Berg 2001, Ely et.al. 2001, Locke et. al., 1998 p. 24-27, Luukka2007). Internal validity refers to explanatory and causal studies relationships, wherebycertain conditions are shown to lead certain conditions (Gray, 2009 p. 156, Yin, 2003 p.34). In this descriptive case study with action research approach there was no aim tostudy causal relationships and therefore internal validity of the research in notevaluated. External validity establishes the domain to which a study‟s findings can begeneralized (Gray, 2009 p. 156, Yin, 2003 p. 34). The aim of the research was not togeneralize research outcomes. The aim of the research was to study, whethermanagers‟ experiences of the use of social media as part of their leadership can berelated to theory of open leadership (Li 2010) and this has been evaluated in this 34
  • research. Reliability demonstrating the operations of a study such as the datacollection procedures can be repeated with the same results (Gray, 2009 p. 158, Yin,2003 p. 34). The research data collection and analysis have been described detailedenough in previous chapters so that another researcher could follow and repeat theresearch. The same results outcomes could be expected if the new research will bedone to same research participants. It is possible that the participants have learnt fromthe first research and therefore the second research could conduct more deeper data ofthe research issues or it is of course possible that people change their thinking of theresearch issue as time goes by.Online research’s validity; constructing credibility and authenticityThe researcher acts as an instrument in qualitative research (Tuckett 2005) andtherefore researcher‟s reflexivity voice involves the realization that the researcher is nota neutral observer, and is implicated in the construction of knowledge (Gray, 2009 p.498).The previous validity criteria refers to the research which is done reality/offlinestudy designs. James and Buster (2009 p. 71- 82) suggest that constructing credibilityand authenticity need to look through online research, which has a different kind ofresearch design than offline studies. People can present different kind of identities whileacting online in social networks like blogs and Facebook (James and Buster, 2009 p.71). In this study the researcher has met four of the six participants face-to-face. Theresearcher has talked on the phone and on Skype with the two participants, whom shehas not met. There is no reason to doubt that the participants aren‟t presentingauthentically their discussion on Facebook group. Everyone wanted to use their realidentity with their own Facebook profile and they knew that their anonymity will besecured in the research report.After data collection on Facebook group the researcher has evaluated her skills to leadonline discussion group for data collection. She realized that she should have ensuredthat all participants can use Facebook’s group options. Therefore some participants lostthe first week’s discussion opportunity, because they had difficulties to find Facebook’sgroup discussion site. Facebook group discussion site gave an opportunity forparticipants to discuss asynchronously, non-real-time (James and Buster, 2009 p. 14),which means that the researcher must also be active, motivate and give feedback toparticipants. The researcher of this research noticed that in the middle of data 35
  • collection and she stated to participate more in discussions. During online datacollection discussions, the researcher is also a “participant researcher” (James andBuster, 2009 p. 79).While using focus groups, the researcher has a list of topics that make up the focusgroup‟s agenda (Davies, 2007 p. 202). In this research eight topics were based on Li‟s(2010) open leadership theory and rest were based on other theoretical background andresearcher‟s own experiences of the use of social media as part of leadership. Onereason why James didn‟t take part in Facebook‟s discussion group was because he wasexpecting more open discussion than structured topics of focus group. James: “Why it was like this, was due to the fact that I had expected an open discussion, with only the titles given. Instead of that, this had background for each of the titles, and despite of the stories being relatively short, I didnt find the time to read them thoroughly enough to participate to the discussions. Im not stating, that background information or guidelines for discussions would be bad, especially when trying to get answers to research topics, but that requires that the participants read the guidelines first and discuss after that only on those topics. Unfortunately, in the given time line, I couldnt fine the time to do this, so I dropped out of the discussions”. On the other hand timing was also bad for James. “I was a volunteer to join the discussion, but the timing was bad. Not in a sense, that it would have had anything to do with the organiser, but my workload exploded in my daily work and I had to try to push forward my own dissertation as well”.Research EthicsThe high research ethical issues have been followed during the whole research processfrom data collection to analyzing data and reporting the research. The researcher hasobserved the rights of the participants while doing research. The participant‟s rights likee.g. privacy and anonymity, voluntary, honest and confidential treatment while collectingdata (Fowler, 2009 p. 163, Saunders et. al., 2009 p. 185). Gaiser and Shneider (2009 p.26-27) argue that traditional research ethics are a useful starting point while doingonline research. The online environment represents new ethical aspects for researcherssuch as informed consent, confidentiality, anonymity, privacy (private and publicspaces), virtual personae and copyrights (Gaiser and Shneider, 2009 p. 26-27).Theresearcher has described her own thinking of the social media leadership researchissue by writing blogs during the research project. The research report was written indetailed way that the reader can follow and do the research in the same way, if she/hewould like to. In this research the data was collected in Facebook discussion group. Theparticipants took part in discussion group voluntarily with his/her real name and in 36
  • research report participants‟ were named with new created names, which ensured theprivacy of the participants. The participants didn‟t get any benefit of participation for theresearch. Researcher promised to send a copy of the final research report to theparticipants, which didn‟t undermine the principle that research participation was avoluntary act (Fowler, 2009 p. 167).Research data should be retained to serve future uses (National Academies, 2009 p.109). On the other hand, data should be used for the purposes for which it has beencollected and the purposes of the clearly explained to participants (James and Bushner,2009 p. 117). The data of this research has been shown to researcher‟s supervisor afterthe data collection ended. The data will be destroyed after the adoption of research,because participants have not been asked permission for the use of the material forlater research purposes.4 RESULTSThe results chapter gives answers to the research questions in the following order: 1)manager‟s use of social media as part of their work now, 2) managers‟ experiencesrelated to the open leadership theory, 3) managers‟ experiences of the negative issues,feelings and face-to-face leading in social media leadership, 4) social media as part ofmanagers‟ leadership in the future and 5) researcher‟s experiences and use of socialmedia as a result of research project. All results are written in the same format: firstprimary data results, then secondary data results and finally primary data andsecondary data results are linked to the literature review. At the end of the chapter thereis a discussion of findings.4.1 Managers’ Use of Social Media as Part of Their Work NowPrimary data resultsHarry can be described as a social media “middle active practical user”.I work at the University in Italy. It all began with using moodle at work, as a learning platform formy students. After having used communication platforms during project work and with partnersfrom all over Europe it became clear, that social media had its advantages and I was going touse it as a means for communication on a wider scale.Then there came myspace, which was the missing counterpart for virtual communication inprivate life. As it was very US-centered, after 1 year or so I quit and moved to FB. The feelingwas the same as it was for Katri (the researcher) in the beginning: what am I supposed to do 37
  • with it. So, a new learning process started and it becomes more and more important to havecertain skills in what I call social media literacy. This means, that you need to learn how to usethose tools and the potential danger they bring along. The internet never forgets, as theysay...And now, slowly but certainly, after having used Facebook for a couple of years, I askmyself the same question again: what am I supposed to do with it? It bores me more and more,although it is a very good tool for keeping in touch with friends. And probably - as I prefer tospend time with real people in the real world - for me it is going to be just that: a tool for keepingin touch...Social media plays a lesser part in my work. In countries like Italy (where I live) in Germanythere is actually an ongoing discussion about using for example facebook during working hours.The reason most likely is, that FB is being mostly used for private purposes and networking,although it is becoming more and more commercial. Everybody (or almost) at work has a profileon here, even my employer (as an institution). The administrators of that profile are allowed toaccess the platform and they use it mostly for communication. I have reasons to doubt that thecommunication (i.e. chat) happening on facebook during working hours is work related.A more or less official tool at work is Skype, especially its chat function, and a lot of people useit. Interesting: people who dont know each other so well use e-mails to communicate, peoplewho know each other better use Skype. Of course there are video conferences, e-learningenvironments and the like. The first I dont consider a social media, but technology basedcommunication tools. The second has most of the time functions like a profile, etc., which wouldmake it a social media, but is hardly ever used for that, as the alternatives (facebook, myspace,etc.) are better fitting.Tony can be described as a social media long time “high active expert user”.The first touch of social media came to me back in 1999, when I was involved in a mobilemarketing start-up. The concept back then was somethng that would clearly be called socialmedia nowadays, though the concept came much, much later. The company was dissolved in2000, and nothing much came out of it in the end.The real use of social media for me started early 2004 when I was invited to a network calledOpenBC, nowadays better known as Xing. Soon after I was invited to LinkedIn, and startedusing those two very actively the same year, and have been ever since.Facebook and MySpace came in much later, and in between I had been using (seldomly)several social networks such as Plaxo, Bebo, Ryze, Tagged, Hi5, WAYN, Viadeo, etc. So farIve identified roughly 2500 different social networks and have a personal profile in about 180-200. Semi-actively using a couple of dozen and almost daily c. 10 networks.Other social media tools, such as forums, blogs, wikis, chat rooms, VoIPs, etc. Ive used quite alot during years and still use many on a daily basis. My current company is more or less built onusing the best of social media in our daily work. And, of course, as management tools as well ;-)I guess Im more or less an oddity here, well, not just here. In general I use social media in verydifferent ways to 99% of other people. Since 1999 (it was not yet called social media, but still)Ive used social networks and social media tools in sales, marketing, document mngmt/filesharing, virtual workspaces, recruitment, general management, advertising, job hunting andwhat not. Ive even been hired based on online CV, online referrals (one vague real-life referral),Interviewed via Skype (not video call) and group chats and ending up working remotely usingsocial media tools and hosted online remote desktop. I never met anyone in the companybefore leaving them a 1,5 years later due to taxation issues. The company was in the UK, I wasin Finland. 38
  • In the daily work I use currently 5-20 social networks and social media tools, and 10-60specialist forums and specialist discussion groups. The numbers have actually quite recentlygone down, I used to use much more social media before. So social media has changed mywork (and life) quite significantly during years, but mostly already in the mid 2000s, it has beenquite stable for the past 3 or so years.As Ive been living abroad for a couple of years, the best means to keep in contact with friendsand family have been social media, and then again the people that I befriended in Denmark andin the UK are best reached online these days. I guess Katri (the researcher) has found keepingin touch with her family via Skype and Facebook very useful in the recent years as well, right?What comes to work as such, social media has since 2004 been the backbone of my workinglife success, couldnt have made it without it. It is been a source of business contacts, salesleads, marketing tool, a place to keep and share files and folders, to communicate via, and soon. So the impact has been huge. It is hard to imagine where I would be and what I would do(as work) if I had never got acquainted with social media like I did. A big thank you goes to afriend who came back to Finland from Silicon Valley after 6-7 years around 1998-1999. Heintroduced me to many of these ways of working back in the day.Pamela can be described as a social media “high active practical user”.I think the first social media tool for me was LinkedIn where I was invited I don‟t remember howmany years ago…it was unused for quite a while until I activated it again about year ago.But the real SOCIAL side of social media for me began during my two pregnancies andmaternity leaves 2004-2008. :) I started to follow and comment different discussion groupsdealing with pregnancy, giving birth, raising children, renovating the house etc. And they werereally active!!! How could I capture that activity into my professional communities today? It is thequestion of demand and necessity to share.Then on 2008 I started to work in a project dealing with entrepreneurship training for thecreative field. I signed in Facebook and started a group for people who are somehow involved increative entrepreneurship. In one week we had over 50 members and it started to grow andgrow (at the moment 405 members).Today I use Twitter, Facebook, Google-tools, Ning.com, LinkedIn, Doodle, YouTube,SlideShare…it is almost impossible to list them because they have become so solid part of mywork as a project manager and network coordinator during the past year. And this will be theproblem as well; there are people who don‟t see these tools as some “new future thing”anymore and then there are the people who don‟t want to sign in Facebook because theirchildren are in there. And the both groups are working in the same workinglife that is changingvery fast.This is the very question of leadership: how to make these people work together effectively, howto motivate, how to understand the both sides. In business the fast change is necessary but inpublic sector and in educational field it will probably be struggling in many ways.Jane can be described as a social media “high active practical user”. In herquestionnaire (Appendix 1.), she has stated her social media use as follows: Oh, yes! Ithas become a way of life, actually. It has taken the place of my morning paper: I start with yle.fi,then proceed to my media list in Twitter, HBR and from there to my networks in FB andLinkedIn. Can‟t live without it.. Should I worry..? Nope, not yet, I think.. For there are days, that Idon‟t have an opportunity to do the following “morning routine” and yet I live =). 39
  • “ I work in Tax Administration (TA), and am in charge of marketing our eServices. Officially TA isnot yet participating in SOME, however we do have media surveillance on a few maindiscussions sites (which, I guess, can be seen as SOME communities). My personal set ofSOME tools consists mainly of Blogger, LinkedIn, Twitter and Facebook; Delicious, Picasa andYouTube”.Mike can be described as a social media “high active expert user”.Mike works as a General Manager and Owner in ICT- company. Facebook for show off thehuman side to your customers, occasionally to advertise job openings to the companies I workwith. LinkedIn, it is very hot for people in IT industry and Marketing and Advertising, use it a lotto get in touch with people from this areas. Skype as a communication tool… IP Phone, I alsofollow some blogs where some Guru‟s share their opinions (Appendix 1.).Secondary data resultsThe researcher can be described as a “high active practical user”. It was 2007, when Istarted to use Skype to communicate with my daughter, who lives and study in San Francisco. Itwas a huge experience to discuss and see her face with also non-verbal signs, if everythingwas ok or not. 2008, I went to Facebook (FB). First I was very abashed. I didnt know, what todo there and why be there. I went to FB because both of my daughters were there and FB waseveryday communication tool for them. I kept very strict openness policy, who I invited oraccepted to my "friend" in FB until middle of September 2010. During this MBA dissertation, Ivechanged my SOME- openness policy more open. Ive also learnt to use FBs group discussiontool, where I can regulate my openness- policy as I want. I write/discuss in FB like on any web-pages. Now FB is part of my everyday life :). “I work as a vice principal in an adult eduction organisation. I decided to do my MBAdissertation of the theme "managers use of social media in leadership", because in ourorganisation managers dont use social media (SOME) in their work. The students are inFacebook and quite many teachers use online platforms and also blogs as part of theirteaching. Our organisations leadership culture is that we keep up face to face- meeting 80-90% of the time we work. Quite often wrong people are in meetings and I feel that meetings aremostly waist of time. I feel that Im bored to this kind of leadership culture...”Researcher has also written in her social media blog 8 December 2010 (Luukka 2011b):Three months ago in August 2010, I used Facebook and Skype for my private online socialnetworking. After that I‟ve taught myself to use over 15 social media tools. I‟ve learnt thatFacebook has much more opportunities than just being a connection tool with my friends andfamily. While I‟ve used these SOME- tools, I‟ve realised that the key question is not in the use ofSOME- tools. Instead, the question is, how to participate in the SOME- communities, that theseSOME- tools give me an opportunity. 40
  • Primary and secondary data results’ connections to literature reviewParticipants of the research and the researcher have been nominated with their activityof use of social media as middle activity like Harry, who does not use social mediaeveryday and Tony, Pamela, Jane, Mike and researcher were high activity users, whileusing social media tools everyday. Tony and Mike were nominated also as socialmedia expert users that because social media was a content of their work. The otherswere social media practical users who used social media as a part of their work forpractical reasons to improve their work. Li (2010 p. 174-187) has named four openleadership archetypes: 1) Cautious Tester, 2) Worried Skeptic, 3) Realist Optimistand 4) Transparent Evangelist, which are based on four mind-sets: optimistic,pessimistic, independent and collaborative. Tony and Mike instead of experts could alsobe nominated as Transparent Evangelists, while they are “bitten by the technology bug”and they have personally experienced a transformation and derive tremendous personalsatisfaction and joy from engaging with people through social technologies. (Li, 2010 p.178.) The rest of the participants and the researcher instead of practical usersnomination could also be nominated as Realistic Optimists because of their attitudestowards to social media were so realistic. The Realistic Optimists can see the benefitsof being open but also understand the barriers. They also can work through the toughsituations, have the collaborative mind-sets and skills, and most important, know how toovercome organizational obstructions by showing doubters the genuine benefits ofbeing open and winning their trust. (Li, 2010 p. 175.) Two archetypes Cautious Testerand Worried Skeptic are presented later in chapter 4.2.6.4.2 Managers’ Experiences Related to Theory of Open Leadership4.2.1 Sharing in Open LeadershipPrimary data resultsThree participants Jane, Tony and Pamela all from Finland took part in social media‟ssharing/openness discussion. Jane said “This is a tough one.. perhaps a few thoughtsbased on my personal experiments. The shade of tone can be explained with a lonely positionof marketing in public sector. When you are a lone ranger, not many colleagues share theenthusiasm of your field of expertise. Thus, it has been a great help for me to share thoughtsand experiences within my peer network. Benchmarking and developing ideas together acrossorganizational borders has proven to be easier than I thought”. Tony continued: “I see the 41
  • openness being a must if you decide to use social media in management. People must be giventhe chance to express their thought and speak their minds if they want to be included indecision-making or at least innovating. If social media is used just as a way of tracking peoplesactivities, then were heading to the wrong direction for sure. Crowdsourcing is one of the bestand most interesting ways of benefiting from social media, and people love sharing their ideasand participating these days.Pamela was worried about her organization‟s situation where they have decided to usenew some-tool for extra- and intranet co-operation and said: “neither of our executivedirectors has ever used social media tools as part of their work or free time! “ She continued:“I am proud and happy that they gave us permission and possibility and trusted us to stepahead to the new time of sharing and transparency. However, I am a little bit worried because Ithink them as directors should be far more interested of this "new" tool and understand itspossibilities as part of their leadership and cultural change of our whole organization”.Secondary data resultsThe researcher argued in the SOME FB-group that “Although, I think that knowledgesharing/openness might be the key issue, how social media will be or will not be succeed inleadership. I assume public and private organisations have different kind of sharing/opennesspolicy and/or organisation cultures”. She continued: “Therein lays the challenge for me as arepresentative of school organization. Teaching work culture has been based solely in aloneworking culture and then some of these teachers are chosen to work as managers, who carryout in their management this "alone working culture" again. A change from this alone workingculture to co-operative, sharing, open working culture by using social media is going to be the"tough one" like Jane said earlier”.Primary and secondary data results’ connections to literature reviewLi (2010 p. 17-48) defines ten elements of the openness as follows: A. OpenInformation Sharing: 1) Explaining, 2) Updating, 3) Conversing, 4) Open Mic, 5)Crowdsourcing, 6) Platforms, B. Decision-making: 7) Centralized, 8) Democratic, 9)Self-managing and 10) Distributed. Explaining and updating are the kind of informationthat originate from within the organization. Conversing, Open Mic and crowdsourcingmean the kind of information where information comes from outside the organizationback into it. Platforms offer technological solutions for openness in information sharing.Decision-making four types 1) centralized, 2) democratic, 3) Self-managing 42
  • (Consensus) and 4) Distributed are changing because of the openness of theorganizations. No one type of decision-making is best. They just differ in terms of thedegree of control, extent of information shared, and choice of people involved asappropriate for each situation. (Li, 2010 p. 17-48.) Even though the participants of theresearch didn‟t bring out all the aspects of sharing of Li‟s (2010) open leadership theory,while using social media as part of leadership, they agree that sharing is the key issueof using social media. Tony confirmed that sharing and openness is “a must” if peoplewant to use social media as part of management. He also highlighted “crowdsourcing “as a usefulness result of sharing. While sharing and openness are key issues of usingsocial media as part of leadership it continues to the next point of view: a need forchanging organization‟s culture as Pamela and Jane both stated out in their discussionsand the researcher was also concerned in her discussion.4.2.2 Cultural Issues in Open LeadershipPrimary data resultsTwo participants Harry and Tony took part in social media‟s cultural discussion. Harryargued that “we can not escape our culture, as we are creating it everyday and at the sametime are the result of it. As our culture expresses itself in our Habitus, Habitus expresses itself inhow we use social media”. Harry continues “people are social in different ways, depending ontheir culture”. Tony agreed to Harry statements that cultural background matters while usingsocial media but he took also another point of view to the issue. He argued that “Social Mediaitself has changed our way of communicating independent whether the discussions are donebetween people from same cultural heritage or not. Cultural differences of course will appear,but are rather obvious as the media itself is very forgiving and flexible (less official andtraditional) what comes to traditional ways of e.g. showing respect to the other party or ingreeting people”.Secondary data resultsThe researcher argues in the SOME FB-group that “The TNSs (2010) survey present anoverview, how digital life vary between countries and therefore it is quite understandable thatthe use of social media also vary between countries”. Researcher‟s view is that culturalissues have impact on how people are acting online in social media. In her blogs(Luukka 2011b, 11 January 2011), she has suggested that there is a need for a social 43
  • media leadership theory and the theory should consider elements of personnel‟s andorganisation‟s cultural issues as well. The researcher has also written in her socialmedia blog 8 December 2010 (Luukka 2011b) ” I‟ve started consciously changing my ownleadership action model to be more based online working culture and therefore mymanagement team also has to change their working culture. I‟m a lucky person because mymanagement team is so innovative and they want to try this new online working culture togetherwith me. I‟ve created many private and public discussion groups on Yammer for ourmanagement team and also for other personnel in our college. We‟ve also started using WIKIfor sharing documents, which is a huge change from our previous working culture”.Primary and secondary data results’ connections to literature reviewLi (2010 p. 245) emphasizes that company‟s cultural issues are the following: 1) valuesdrive the vision, 2) leaders set the tone and example for others to follow, 3) extendingthe old culture into new and 4) systems and structure sustain the transformation. Harry‟sand Tony‟s discussions in the primary data and researcher‟s secondary data makeevident that a person‟s cultural background matters while acting in social media. On theother hand online acting can also change or be free of people‟s cultural habits whilepeople are playing, exploring, learning, interacting, do business, meet, make friendswith new multicultural people from around the world e.g. using Avatar- identities invirtual worlds like in Second Life (Safko and Brake, 2009 p. 311-313). All people arecarrying their own culture backgrounds (e.g. religion, ethnicity, nationality) with them(Teräs 2007). Organizations employees and executives also present their own culturalbackgrounds while they are working. The personal cultures similarities and differencesare appearing while working and trying to find a balance with company‟s organizationculture. Therefore awareness of other cultures should develop and encourageemployees to share their knowledge and experiences by using e.g. social media tools(Cambié and Ooi, 2009 p. 83).4.2.3 Transformation in Open LeadershipPrimary data resultsFour participants Harry, Jane, Tony and Mike took part in discussion on if social media changedtheir work or not.Harry stated that social media has not changed the way he works or leads yet. 44
  • “Social media hasnt changed the way I work or lead (yet) in a substantial way. It merely hasopened new possibilities, for example in the way I communicate with colleagues. Example: lastweek I have given a lecture at the university and afterwards had several "friend requests" onFacebook. As I use FB merely for private matters, I declined all of them, pointing out the reasonwhy. A few years back this wouldnt have been possible. When you enjoyed working withsomebody, you could try to become a part of their real life. Nowadays, thru social media youcan do the same in a virtual and easier way. I have reason to doubt, though, that this makes usany closer to each other...” .Jane continued: “I agree with Harry with a lot you just said - pardon me, wrote =) about tryingto become a part of real life connections. For me personally, social media has contributedespecially to my "knowledge management": helped sharing information and experiences, alsobecoming richer in experiences: in networks you have access to a so much bigger "knowledgepool". Actually, it has changed the way I see myself as an expert, in networks Ive learned myvalue as an expert as I connect with others.Since I am the more or less sole marketer in Tax Administration, the support I find in thesesocial media networks of mine, is priceless.Truth be told, inside our office not so much has altered, yet. Our use of SOME-tools is,however, gradually growing. We got a new chief of communications in September, and I believehis consent will enable spreading the experimentations weve had under the title of marketing.Tony found many ways how social media has changed his work. “Some of the impacts togenerally our ways of working that I often lecture about are- sales; leads, contacts, new ways of contacting, referrals, mutual interests -> personableapproach, and news revenue logics- marketing; from traditional push into pull marketing, new channels, measurability, on targetadvertising/messaging, responses and interaction, possibility to follow impact basically real-timeand change approach when necessary, branding- recruitment; new channels, cheap/free advertising, clear targets, passive candidate finding,company branding, involving personnel into recruitment, referrals, remote workers- communication; internal vs. external communication in the same package, real-time, livestatuses, document sharing and general information sharing, blogging, everyone may carry thetorch, responsiveness, internal/external crowdsourcing, measurability, real-timeresponse/trackability of client response in projects, clients/suppliers/subcontractors/freelancershave real-time view to projects and documentation, changes on the go, etc.- social CRM & social Business Intelligence; new tools to gather all important informationavailable real-time for anyone (allowed) to see, external social media feeds to supportdecisions, etc. Huge impact in the future to all sides of business, also very much includingleadership and general decision-making processes!There are many more impacts, but I see these as the most important fields and aspects whatcomes to future possibilities of social media in our daily working lives.Comments?”Mike added to Tony‟s aspects how communication has changed his work after usingsocial media. “ In my personal experience it added tools to communicate with colleagues,partners and clients. Yet, though if in one way it has shorten the time to communicate in theother hand it gives a lot more information that you have to deal with and that ive to be awareof”. 45
  • Secondary data resultsThe researcher discussed as follows: “Harry, Jane and Tony, you are all nicely highlighted thesocial media changes in your work. I wrote in the begin: "I can feel, how the SOME- change iscoming" and now the change has come to my work. I have started to use Yammer (mixedTwitter & Facebook some tool) during November as part of my management team work.Fortunately, I have a management team that wants to try new things, but even though, it is notexactly very easy to work online instead of offline/face to face- work. I think Ill add a commentabout this to "social media and feelings" theme ;)”.Primary and secondary data results’ connections to literature reviewLi (2010 p. 267-268) has developed an action plan to improve transformation towardsopen leadership in organization. The action plan contains seven recommendations: 1)create a sense of information sharing, 2) identify the values that will carry you throughthe transformation, 3) lead by example, 4) encourage risk taking; reward risks taken, 5)start small to win big, 6) institutionalize systems and structures and 7) be patient. (Li,2010 p. 267-268). By verifying participants‟ discussion results and Li‟s (2010) openleadership recommendations, like Li also Jane, Mike and Tony adduced informationsharing/communication as key issue while using social media as part of leadership.Jane also believed Li‟s (2010) „lead by example‟ theme while expressing that herorganization‟s a new chief of communication consent will increase the use of socialmedia as part of work. In secondary data the researcher‟s experiences are similar to Li‟s(2010) recommendations for transforming 1) lead by example, 2) encourage risk taking,reward risks taken, 3) start small to win big and 4) be patient were shown up whilechanging management team‟s face-to-face meeting culture by using social media toolsas part of leadership.4.2.4 Mind-sets and Traits in Open LeadershipPrimary data resultsOnly Tony took part in social media leadership and mind-sets/traits discussion. “I like thearchetype categories (1) pessimistic, 2) optimistic, 3) collaborative and 4) independent) here,seem very fit. Not sure if you could actually categorize the types and relate social media to anyof these, as using SoMe in management as such is a brand new phenomen and most likely thekind of corporate leaders that could be described in these categories wouldnt be the ones usingSoMe. I would even say that the people who use social media in leadership and generallymanagement, need to have a certain entrepreneurial flare in them to be interested enough to trysomething totally”. 46
  • Secondary data resultsThe researcher added to Tony‟s discussion the following: “Likewise, I am not sure whetherthere are certain specific types of persons to whom the social media fits naturally. I think moreso that each person learns to use social media as long as you are studying a new workingmethod steps. I find it hard to believe that social media should be concerned about a personspersonal characteristics.”Primary and secondary data results’ connections to literature reviewTony agreed to Li‟s (2010, 174-187) four open leadership archetypes: 1) CautiousTester, 2) Worried Skeptic, 3) Realist Optimist and 4) Transparent Evangelist, which arebased on four mind-sets: optimistic, pessimistic, independent and collaborative. In thisstudy Tony and Mike were earlier (4.1) nominated as Transparent Evangelists, whilethey are “bitten by the technology bug” and they have personally experienced atransformation and derive tremendous personal satisfaction and joy from engaging withpeople through social technologies. Transparent Evangelists are both independent andoptimistic. The rest of the participants were earlier (4.1) nominated as RealisticOptimists. The Realistic Optimists can see the benefits of being open but alsounderstand the barriers. They can also work through the tough situations, have thecollaborative mind-sets and skills, and most importantly, know how to overcomeorganizational obstructions by showing doubters the genuine benefits of being open andwinning their trust. Realistic Optimists are both collaborative and optimistic. The WorriedSkeptics are the opposite of Realistic Optimists in that they are pessimistic andindependent. These people by nature worry about all things that can go wrong and withan independent mind-set, they believe that success comes from the strengths and skillsof individuals. The Cautious Testers are both pessimistic and collaborative. Theyunderstand the need to collaborate because they can see the benefits, to theorganization and to themselves, of involving a greater circle of people. Cautious Testersare willing to test options, plans and new ideas, and to do so with other people but theirenthusiasm for trying new things is tempered by their pessimism (Li, 2010 p. 174-187.)Correa et al. (2010) argues that Web user‟s personality traits may be crucial factorsleading them to engage in this media. Factors like extraversion, emotional stability andopenness to experience are related to the users of social media applications. Ross et al.(2010) were surprised of their research outcomes of Facebook users traits that 47
  • personality factors (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, openness andconscientiousness) were not as influential as expected. Regarding to Li‟s (2010 p. 174-187) open leadership archetypes, Correa et al.‟s (2010) personality factors of socialmedia users and Ross et al.‟s (2010) Facebook users‟ not so influential traits andpersonality factors, it is impossible to make a conclusion that certain kind ofpersonalities use social media more than others. Nowadays it is more assumed that allkind of personalities are using social media and their mind-sets could bear alikeness toLi‟s (2010) archetypes.4.2.5 Learning in Open LeadershipPrimary data resultsHarry and Tony took part in learning and social media discussion: Harry starteddiscussion as follows. At first, as you (researcher) point out, the leader is the learner. Youhave to learn how to use social media as a tool in leadership and become aware of the risksand limitations. Once you managed this, you have to be able to put into practice what you havelearned in an effective way (you call it change of action models). When thinking about this, I cancome up with only one question: can we really learn FROM social media or are we learningTRHU social media? If the latter is true, we are still learning from people and social media is justanother tool... Tony continued: “Have to agree with Harry here, great points. I think it is both,from and thru. Even with. Then again social media can be many things. It can be a basicmarketing tool for one, just for the Push marketing. For another it can be Pull marketing. For thethird it could be a bit of both, depending on campaign or perhaps dividing it into two things;Push for campaigns, Pull for general non-campaign marketing. And for someone else it could atool to follow competitors marketing activities, or something else. So pretty much adjustable forour own purposes”.Secondary data resultsThe researcher took part in discussion as follows “Social media & learning & leadership... this isvery personal my view of the issue. After 16 years of experience in public organisationsleadership (principal 13 years & development director 3 years), I think that key issue is that aleader/manager has to have both ability and willingness to renew herself/himself and alsofacilitate personnel staffs renewing. Renewing means especially learning in my thinking. Theuse of social media in leadership means a lot of new things learning (e.g. SOME- tools &change of action models). What do you think or do you have experiences, how learning andsocial media leadership are involved together?Later she continued: “I agree with Harry and with Tony that that social media itself is theonly access to a variety of some tools. The essential, is how to use these tools as part ofleadership/management. Ive just written a blog on this topic”. “ I see huge potential in socialmedia, just because colleges customers / young students are born in social media. Thereforemy own age people, we have to learn to communicate with the some- tools that are used byyoung people. I think that otherwise the gap between young people and adults will be too high.As Harry said a change of action models... I think thats the key issue. First I have to understandwhat kind of is my own action model and after that renewing can start to towards the chosen 48
  • direction. My own learning / action model change has started in November 2010 this way: thatnowadays instead of email I start first Yammer (a new some-tool for organisation insidediscussions) to see what is going on ;)”.The researcher has developed a quick social media skills test for managers and shehas written a blog of the theme (Luukka 2011b, 6 February 2011). The idea of the testwas to show out how social media skills develop by learning step by step.Primary and secondary data results’ connections to literature reviewLi (2010, 53-56) states that first and foremost, organizations must learn fromemployees, customers, and partners before they can do anything else. Organizationsand their leaders must be constantly open for learning. She continues, communication(internal and external) transforms a relationship from of shouting out one-way messagesto a dialog between equals. And along the way, people in the conversation becomemore and more engaged, to the point where they have a dialog without having to bepresent. People both inside and outside the organization need help (support) at differenttimes. Creativity (innovation) needs to be fostered, both inside the organization. Whileusing dialog, open leadership also increases employees and customers engagement tothe organization step by step. The first step is watching (e.g. read blogs, see videos orlisten to podcasts). The next step is sharing (e.g. sites on Twitter and Facebook). Thethird step into deeper engagement is commenting (e.g. to organisations blog or site).The fourth step is producing (e.g. writing a blog or create a podcast). The last andhighest step of engagement is curating. Then people become highly and personallyengaged in a community. (Li, 2010 p. 58-62.) According to primary and secondary dataresults, learning was seen a key issue while using social media as part of leadership. Li(2010) emphasized equal dialog communication, which leads step by step toengagement to the communities. This kind of engagement to social media was foundfrom secondary data where the researcher has developed a quick social media skillstest for managers. 49
  • 4.2.6 Benefits in Open LeadershipPrimary data resultsHarry and Tony took part in discussion. Harry argued that if social media is a wellfunctioning part of leadership strategy, “it can work well”. He added it is “also for buildingyour image” an excellent tool. To a certain extent it also increases effectiveness and iseconomic: if you can have a video conference instead of a meeting on the other side of yourcountry you save time and money”.Tony emphasized that social media has been “a major savings tool” for him because hecan do distance work in his office instead of travelling around the country. He alsoadded following to effectiveness: “does also decrease number of calls and reporting wheneverything can be handled on the go online”. Much more straight forward processes as well,direct channel to the person in charge, no need to check with middle management or generalany non-relevant person if theres an issue and a decision is needed. Also, I love the crowd-sourcing aspect in social media, even related to leadership; I could throw out a question aboutjust about anything and get everyones input very fast and accurately, and those who do notcomment give their silent blessing to the subject. Everyone is allowed to disagree, but if youdont say anything, you more or less agree with the majority or the one making the suggestion. Italso builds trust when you could ask anything from your boss openly, and that the boss is thereto answer it, and you all the time see when the boss is in the office even if far away in distance.The see-through effect is great, makes everyone try harder, the coffee table discussions areuseless and thus dont create groups inside the group, and therefore build effectiveness and thefeeling of everyone working for a mutual purpose, together and equally”.Secondary data resultsThe researcher agreed to participant‟s statements considering effectiveness of socialmedia. She added to discussion social media‟s “positive side of sustainable developmentand green business generally, which is particularly important when we think about the future ofour "mother planet". 50
  • Primary and secondary data results’ connections to literature reviewLi (2010 p. 77) has found in her studies that the open-driven objectives all create somecommon benefits like: 1) remove friction, 2) scale efforts, 3) enable fast response and 4)gain commitment. She continues also with the benefits of 1) open learning, 2) opendialog, 3) open support and 4) open innovations. The benefits of these open leadershipareas are difficult to measure but Li has done also calculations, how to get positivereturn of these too (Li 2010 p. 75-103.) The primary data results support Li‟s (2010)open leadership theory aspects as well. The secondary data highlights also sustainabledevelopment issue, which is passed in Li‟s (2010) open leadership theory.Li (2010) relates effectiveness also to the decision-making process of the organisation.She continues, the organisation should evaluate their decision-making processes:1)centralized, 2) democratic, 3) self-managing (Consensus) and 4) distributed, who isinvolved, what kind of shared information is used to make the decision, and howeffective the decision-making process is. To improve effectiveness, one choice is tomake the decision-making process more open. Other choices are to consider who isinvolved in decision-making or whether better information sharing could improveeffectiveness as well. (Li, 2010 p. 47.) In primary data Tony‟s response also supportedthe benefits of social media as part of decision-making process. Li (2010 p. 206) arguesthat a reward of open behavior in sharing and openness is e.g. that problems can besolved twice as fast as each could working alone. Tony also argued that the seethrough effect makes everyone try harder in social media.4.2.7 Monitoring in Open LeadershipPrimary data resultsOnly Tony took part in social media and monitoring discussion as follows: “The normalmonitoring through Google Analysis and other statistical tools, but also the Likes, Fans andReTweets are an important part of understanding how a certain message has been received.For internal management the monitoring is more or less related to activity levels and generallyevaluating how much time someone has spent online, which activities have been performed,etc. Occasionally monitoring how/if newsletters and other messages have been opened or not”. 51
  • Secondary data resultsThe researcher‟s experiences of the social media monitoring were writing of her blogsand taking part in LinkeIn‟s social media groups. “My experiences of the social mediamonitoring is the statistics of my own blogs writing. Ive also taken part in LinkedIns Socialmedia monitoring groups, which have given me the idea how much there are possibilities tomonitor social media in leadership”. The researcher‟s blog 22 November 2010 (Luukka 2011a)contained monitoring as part of social media.Primary and secondary data results’ connections to literature reviewLi (2010 p. 54) suggests the use of basic monitoring tools (free and paid) to track thediscussions that the customers are having of the organization. She also suggests thatorganisations should evaluate their decision-making processes:1) centralized, 2)democratic, 3) Self-managing (Consensus) and 4) Distributed, who is involved, whatkind of shared information is used to make the decision, and how effective the decision-making process is. Also to improve effectiveness, one choice is to make the decision-making process more open. Other choices are to consider who is involved in decision-making or whether better information sharing could improve effectiveness as well. (Li,2010 p. 47.) Both primary and secondary data results emphasised the importance ofusing monitoring while using social media as part of leadership.Brown (2009 p. 133-155) presents the following online tools for measuring onlinemarketing activity: Google Alerts, Google Trends, Google Analytics, Technorati,Icerocket, BlogPulsu, News readers, Twitter Search, Twit(url)ly, Alexa, Delicious, Digg,Socialmeter, Quancast, Compete, BuzzMonitor and Socialmedian. Also Wyld (2008)suggests that in the Web 2.0 environment, senior managers need to examine carefullyand provide informed responses to the following:1) time and energy required to commit to maintain effectively blogging,2) the Web 2.0 and blogging knowledge of the company,3) bloggers‟ best practices development in a company,4) monitoring of the blogosphere, what is being said of the company,5) legal issues arisen from blogging among employees and executives,6) dealing of blogs and Web 2.0 media with communication policy of the company,7) awareness of new Web 2.0 technologies and their benefit use and8) measuring the effectiveness of blogging activities. 52
  • 4.2.8 Risks in Open LeadershipPrimary data resultsHarry and Tony took part in discussion. Harry started discussion as follows: “I can see afew risks when using social media in leadership, which are of different nature. On one handthere is the technology related risk. First of all the internet never forgets, so what you publishtoday might backfire in 5 years. Second of all you can never be as open as you could be in apesonal encounter, as someone may be "listening". In international cooperations it can bedifficult because not all countries (even within Europe) have access to high speed internet,which is the basis for social media to run without problems. On the other hand there can behuman factors as risks when you use social media as part of your leadership strategies. First ofall people need personal contact in order to feel taken seriously and appreciated. Leading thrutechnology is impersonal in many countries and therefore a "no-go". I think that also thedifferent culture plays an important role in this. While for northern countries the use oftechnology for communicating with each other is already standard, in other countries peoplemay still not feel at ease when having to use the technology”.Tony continued: “Very much same thinking with Harry. The long memory of Internet, non-personal environment of discussions, privacy issues, etc. should be considered as risks, but ingeneral one should anyway think of the long-term consequences of messages sent, the privacyand so on. It is not only a social media issue. All messages sent and received when not face-to-face have similar risks. On the other hand this long memory is also a good point to turn to whena person is not 100% sure what was agreed in an earlier discussion. And personal andconfidential matters should be discussed face-to-face anyway, so not a big issue here.Openness should always be considered as a positive impact rather than a negative one, thatshow I want to see it”.Secondary data resultsThe researcher discussed as follows: “Because my experiences of social media leadershipare so limited, I can only assume some risks of the use of social media. I assume the biggestrisk is the "fear of open business" and how "co-operate with competitors" in this open socialmedia working culture”.Primary and secondary data results’ connections to literature reviewLi (2010, 211) encourages to risk taking and speedy recovery from failure. She arguesthat an inherent behaviour of open leaders is to encourage responsible risk taking. Withrisk taking come the inevitable failures, and open leaders must prepare theirorganizations for those as well, in particular, how to deal with and recover from failure.(Li, 2010 p. 211). In social media it is not possible to hide failures and therefore there isa need for the whole different attitude about failing than earlier (Li, 2010 p. 237). Bothprimary and secondary data support Li‟s (2010) open leadership theory‟s risks point ofview. Tony especially highlights the need for positive impact while being open in socialmedia. 53
  • 4.3 Managers’ Experiences of the Negative Issues, Feelings and Face-to-faceLeading in Social Media Leadership4.3.1 Negative Experiences in Social Media LeadershipPrimary data resultsThree of the participants Harry, Tony and Pamela took part in discussion. Harry starteddiscussion: “As everything else, also social media have an upside and a downside. When itcomes to social media and leadership, I think you have to be more careful of how you use thetool. As I stated before, there is a lot of information lost, when communicating in a virtual way:we can not read body language, because we dont see it. We can not hear a different intonationin the speakers voice when we chat, etc. On the other hand social media gives us the possibilityto plan and control the way we lead thru it, without any unplanned emotions coming thru. In mypersonal experience I found out, that people dont take social media as a tool in leadershipstrategies as seriously as they do with personal contact. Tasks distributed in internationalprojects were being postponed by the participants, because social media / technology gives youthe opportunity of doing things later or whenever you feel like doing them. I also found out thatmy students were motivated less in doing their homework when I had not given it personally, butover an e-learning platform. ERGO: work with social media needs precise planning: give thetask, have a video conference or chat over it at a certain point, make an evaluation when youare half way and remind the participants of the final term (more than once) for delivery of theresults”.Tony continued: “Just recently I ran into a bit of a problematic situation what comes to usingsocial media in leadership, a day-to-day management issue more or less. Weve been usingsocial media very heavily in management, as most of my employees are sitting in another town,and I have hard time flying over often. There was a situation where I started getting these short(compared to previous experience) and edgy comments to everything from one of myemployees. No certain event or case was clear why this happened and what it was all about.Even after phone conversations and one-on-one chats could I find out what was wrong. Sofinally I had to fly over to talk to this person face-to-face. First when sitting in the office nothingseemed to trouble this person, he acted quite normally, just like nothing had happened and likethere was no edginess in the messages at all. Only when I took this person to a local coffeeshop and totally out of the working environment did he start opening up. Apparently the distancebetween the 2 of us was too hard to handle for him. He expected more hands on management,someone to talk to, more on the spot support to daily work and situations on the go. “Before thisIve never had any problems or significant negative situations where I could have blamed socialmedia for it, but for this one case and one person it has become slightly problematic. It is beenalmost a year with him with no problems and the same working environment, the distance andsocial media management in place, and I believe part of the situation change has been due to achange in this persons personal life. Hard to say for sure, but could be affected by this change.Perhaps he expected to talk about his personal life more face-to-face and couldnt expresshimself similarly in a remote situation. Comments anyone”?Pamela ended up discussion as follows: “For some people it is easier to express negativityby writing it, for some by saying it on the phone, for some of us it is easier to tell it face to face. Idont know if it is the cause of social media if someone is feeling negative but it is a greatleadership to notice that something is wrong and to go and discuss about it. I think that Harrydescribed very practical and even very pedagogical aspects of leadership of the future. Whenwe have different virtual platforms where different groups or teams work together it is ademanding task for a leader (as well as for a teacher) to guide, encourage, inspire and advanceactivities”. 54
  • Secondary data resultsThe researcher took part in discussion as follows: “Both (Harry and Tony) have aninteresting perspective on social media and negative experiences of the subject seen. Now,maybe I go too deep into the whole social media theme, because my knowledge is still very lowof the issue. Still, maybe the key issue is, how to find a balance between my sociability and myprivacy. I am thinking so that I need to be social and belong to different communities, but on theother hand, I also a great need to be alone. Nor do I believe myself that if I had a difficult thingin my life, which affects the carrying out of work, so I do not think I would like to talk about thatin some (social media), … at least in the beginning, but later on yes, sure also on some (socialmedia) with people whom I trust. Im thinking, so that precious thing a man can give anotherhuman being has its own presence, time and a real listening in face to face- situations, andtherefore the most valuable feature of this human communication action should not be abusedso that the wrong people are sitting at meetings from dawn to dusk”.Primary and secondary data results’ connections to literature reviewAll discussions in primary and secondary data considering negative experiences ofusing social media were connected to online communication disadvantages like: 1)body language not seen, while using just writing and not videos, 2) people don‟t takeonline working as seriously as face-to-face communication, 3) in some situations onlinecommunication is not enough for some people and there is a need for face-to-facecommunication, 4) all people have different kind of communication habits and skills, 5)trust as part of online communication and 6) a great need to lead online discussions orworking. Li (2010, 210) states that there will be situations in which there is adisconnection between a person‟s ability to an open leader and the organization‟s needfor openness. This referees also to online communication that it is not easy to act openfor all people. Boswijk, Thijssen and Peelen( 2006) and Luukka (2007) argue thatemotions are highly involved in meaningful experiences and therefore if writing is theonly online communication method used in social media then also nonverbal signs likevoice tones and facial expressions are lost as part of communication and feelings aren‟tcommunicated as properly as face-to-face situations.4.3.2 Feelings in Social Media LeadershipPrimary data resultsTwo participants Harry and Tony took part in discussion. Harry started discussion: “Overhere in Italy there is no discussion about social media in journals, tv, etc. Companies do thinkabout the use of social media, but merely as a marketing tool. Most of them have a facebookprofile, some of them allow employees to use Skype to communicate with each other during 55
  • work. Leading thru social media would be impossible here. You can lead with the help oftechnology in Italy, but things are always done best when they are done in a personal way. Inthis culture the best working social media is your personal network: and that one exists only inyour real life and not on the internet. Perhaps in the end it will turn out as it did with Second Life:at first it is a revolution and everybody wants to be a part of this virtual world, but after a littleeverybody loses interest and comes back to the real life, enjoying excellent food, good wine andcharming company... and leading will happen again as it always has happened: over lunch ordinner or during a coffee break at the Caffè on the "Piazza". Thats where bigger decisions aretaken, while smaller ones may be transmitted via social networks :-)”Tony continued: “The emotional discussions around the subject also happen online in socialmedia, e.g. in Twitter. The early adopters who have been there for quite a while have beentalking a long time how everyone should start using these tools, but now that the masses arefinally arriving and the topic in media is hot, they suddenly want to change things. Whether it isthe way of talking about social media, naming it differently or starting to use it differently, butthey want to change things again. I believe it is related to having a sort of early adopter statusthat makes them want to change things, they dont want to be one with the masses. Then again,it is becoming harder for them to sell services on social media as theres a lot more competition,the companies dont necessarily need external service providers anymore, and so on.Eventually social media will be considered just media, nothing fancy or new, just a tool or wayof working, but right now it is still a hot topic and everyone has an opinion whether they knowanything about it or not. It is a normal thing to happen when something new comes around, buteventually it will be melted into normal usage and something new will come again as the hotnew thing “.Secondary data resultsThe researcher took part in discussion as follows: “Thank you Hannes and Tom on twodifferent perspective to this theme. I will now continue even more grassroots level, and feelingsof social media theme. Ive noticed that my colleagues are afraid of social media use. The veryword of social media seems very strange. That is why Im starting to actually use in my speechmore online work than working in social media, and this seems somehow to receive a betterunderstanding. People are afraid that they do not have time for online discussions. This iscertainly a legitimate fear that if the current work culture (80% time face to face meetings) doesnot change. On the other hand fears may be due to the fact that online work will bedocumentaries afterward. Speech /meetings at work, there is only afterwards in differentpeoples different interpretations of the debates. Social media is a demanding kind of work tool,so perhaps it is therefore to be avoided at least in public organizations and maybe therefore wehave this "emotional discussion" around it”.Primary and secondary data results’ connections to literature reviewPrimary and secondary data highlight two aspects for discussion of feelings while usingsocial media as part of leadership. The first aspect is cultural issues. Harry argues thatin Italy social media is not taken seriously and therefore real decisions are still made inface-to-face situations. Another Finnish aspect was that social media is “a hot newthing“ and therefore there are so many feelings involved in public discussionsconsidering the use of social media. Li (2010) also states that there might be fearsagainst open organization culture because people are worried about e.g. risks thatmight happen while being open. Increasing substitution of real human interaction by 56
  • virtual interaction poses a treat (Jain Palvia and Pancaro 2010) that was also seen aspart of secondary data of this study while researcher‟s colleagues were afraid of usingsocial media as part of their work (Luukka 2011a, 19.12.2010). Jain Palvia and Pancaro(2010) are problematizing more Internet based networking as following promises andperils: online-offline social capital, meeting of real and virtual, humans turning intohermits, generation gap among users, legal and privacy issues, fraud and misuse andcyber bullying (Jain Palvia and Pancaro 2010.) Jain Palvia and Pancaro‟s (2010)aspects are quite heavy against the use of social media and therefore these kind ofarguments are increasing “feelings discussion” around social media.4.3.3 Face-to-Face- leading in Social Media LeadershipPrimary data resultsThree participants Harry, Tony and Mike took part in discussion. Harry started: “As inItaly face-to-face is where it all starts (and people know it), everybody is quite aware, that socialmedia can be a good tool for a certain kind of leadership situations. In my experience it worksquite well to guide students within a social media network or pass simple, easy tasks tocolleagues. For everything else I rather avoid social media in situations that require leadershipstrategies.” Tony continued: “I think social media can be good in everyday fast feedback, butall serious and deep feedback and response to any problems must be given face-to-face. Thebody language and facial expressions are very important when you give feedback that isserious one way or the other, you need to see the response and not just hear it on the phone orsee text coming up your screen. Social media is good in fast responding and quick notes.”Mike closed discussion as follows: “I think Bad News, and disagreements should always betaken face to face. I totally agree with Tony, about the high importance of the body languageand this far more important when things are out of track... And Ive also learned that if adisagreement is put in writing is never forgotten on future endorsements. Social media worksperfectly for fast responding and quick notes, and to set the recognition of the team players whoperformed better. Everyone likes to be recognized by it is efforts social media might help theleaders to give that recognition so others would follow the example to be on that „wall of fame‟ ”Secondary data resultsThe researcher discussed as follows: “I think social media dont suite for demanding ordifficult personnel management situations. I mean situations, where e.g. I have to give negativefeedback to somebody.”Primary and secondary data results’ connections to literature reviewAs a result of primary and secondary data social media is suggested to be used foreasy and fast working situations but not in difficult and demanding leadership situations.As a conclusion of these results managers should have better skills to evaluate whensocial media is useful tool and when not. For this social media use evaluation managers 57
  • could apply the following Pauker Kteizberg‟s and Fernando‟s strategies to improvesocial media culture in their organizations. Pauker Kreizberg (2009) states fourstrategies for the managers to improve friendly social media culture: 1) help yourleadership figure it out in terms of your business, 2) focus on relationships anddemonstrate that value through user experiences, 3) cover your assets with practicesthat protect the company but do not stifle creativity and 4) provide training that closesthe gap in communication - whether it is across generations, functions, language,culture or physical proximity. (Pauker Kreizberg 2009.) Fernando (2010) has alsocreated eight notions as best practice steering points for managers to improve socialmedia. His steps to social media are following: 1) understand the end goals, 2)formulate strategy, 3) calibrate appropriate social media tools to match strategy, 4) buildan open extensible platform, 5) embody strong taxonomy and structure, 6) assemblestaff for involvement and knowledge contribution, 7) anticipate and embrace varying usecases and 8) develop a company maturity model.4.4 Social Media as Part of Managers’ Leadership in the FuturePrimary data resultsHarry and Tony took part in discussion. Harry started discussion as follows: “Right now itis hard for me to engage in this topic, as my work contract ends in April 2011. What I am mostsure about, is that we have reached saturation regarding the multitude of social media. If thereare new social media coming up, they will only survive if they serve a purpose that doesnt existyet. A lot of people choose their social media and stick to more or less 3 of them. Skype forcheap video phone calls, Facebook OR MySpace for private networking, LinkedIn or Xing forwork or business life. Perhaps cloud computing will bring new ways of relating to each other;right now everybody is very excited about it. On the other hand we were also very excited aboutWAP technology, and how that ended everybody knows”.“I think, that people are still trying out things. And here I see a big difference based oneducation. Societys lower class is drowning in social media like they were drowning in tv-shopping (what was it called?) in the 80s. Higher educated people are thinking moreconsciously about the role of social media in their life. How many and where do I need (or evenwant) my profiles to appear? What is the purpose and what are the dangers of it? So, perhapsfor the future we will need social media literacy just as much as we need information literacy inorder to not drown in the daily flood of information hitting us”.“[Philosophy mode "on"]So, while Katri (the researcher) is wishing for a future technological development in order tomelt the social media she is using into just one solution/tool, I wish for more consciousness:social media are useful tools and deserve their place in our world. But whenever possible, makeit face-to-face. It is in our nature to take the easier way, but it is also in our nature to learn fromeach other the most when we are physically interacting. Even science says, that it was the keyto our survival as a species... [philosophy mode "off"] :-)” 58
  • Tony continued: “I would have to both agree and disagree with Harrys points of view.“I disagree that people will only settle with a couple of tools dedicated to certain aspects of life. Ibelieve social media is still very immature, and that we will see a multitude of tools, aspects andways of use for social media. I also believe that it will merge with real-life offline ways ofworking and that many of the tools will become hybrids, tools that have (as Katri (theresearcher) meant I believe) several solutions and features now only found separately. Thebusiness models related to social media are very immature, and thus I believe that though thesedays people try to figure out new ways to do business with and in social media, so far the bestpractices still relate to driving traffic to your webshop or company home page, or relate toarranging face-to-face meetings after initial contact online. There has already been signs thatsocial media can also create totally new types of business models. And, were also seeingtotally new combination business models combining online and offline models into a new kind ofset. Netcycler (Finnish company) is one of those combining the 2 in a new and innovative way”.“And I agree with Harry that there are signs of WAP-type of hype in social media, and thatpeople are getting more and more concerned where their profiles may be found and by whom.On the other hand theres been a lot of discussion about portable profiles. One could useOpenID or similar to log in to any network or tool and have theyre single-instance profileavailable in the new network/tool by allowing access to the profile from this new instance.I wonder if Katri ( the researcher) (or anyone else here) has tried Flock yet? Flock is a version ofFirefox browser that has a add-on that allows you to access several networks from this onesingle instance. You can bring in any of a number of activity feeds to a side bar and commentback and forth between networks. Perhaps a kind of merger-tool Katri ( the researcher)described...? There are also chat aggregators available that merge Messenger, Skype, AOL, G-Talk, etc. chats into one window view”.“One thing that I really love about social media is that I can forget my laptop home, forget mymobile, and still when going to the office have access to all my important files and my phonebook via SaaS tools. And this is by using Skype and Huddle or WeTell. Skype keeps all myphone numbers and contacts accessible anywhere where I have access to Internet, and I cando Skype Out calls with a headset wherever I can find a PC. And Huddle and WeTell I can useto store all my important files and presentations online, so when I forget my laptop home, I canstill go to clients and showcase my presentations when needed - they always have laptops andInternet connection available in meeting rooms. Especially the Finnish WeTell is really apromising new communication and file sharing tool, I know the founders personally and theresplenty of new interesting features being planned that can even bring in the social media activityfeeds in to support internal discussions. Huddle Ive used for quite some time, WeTell Ive juststarted using a while back.”“Also in my current line of work I use social media instances for advertising, marketing, sales,PR, file sharing, presentations, phone/video calls, tracking company and employee activities,etc.”“Im very much expecting to use less social media tools in the future, but with much morefeatures than in the ones Im using now. Im a sort of social media super-user using a couple ofdozen tools almost daily now, so it is sort of understandable that the number couldnt go upmuch in the future. In general, I expect to see people using social media much, much more inthe future. Lot of potential there...” 59
  • Secondary data resultsThe researcher took part in discussion as follows: “My vision is that in the future... when Iopen my laptop, I have all SOME- tools in one screen view. I dont have to open over tenSOME- tools, with different kind of identifications. We (our managers) use 20 % of the work timefor face to face- meetings and 80 % of the time we work by using SOME- tools. I hope thisfuture come as soon as possible...”Primary and secondary data results’ connections to literature reviewAs a conclusion of the future visions of primary data one participant sees that thesaturation of social media tools has been achieved, and another sees that we are in thebeginning with huge future possibilities of social media. The secondary data show out avision of easy used social media tools and a working model which has also changedinto online social networking culture. Armano (2010) forecasts six point of views of thefuture: 1) “It is the Integration Economy, Stupid, 2) Tablet & Mobile Wars CreateUbiquitous Social Computing, 3) Facebook Interrupts Location-Based Networking, 4)Average Participants Experience Social Media Schizophrenia, 5) Google Doesnt BeatThem, They Join Them and 6) Social Functionality Makes Websites FashionableAgain”. It is hard to agree or disagree which of these six alternatives will come true, butKaplan and Haenlein‟s suggestion that social media applications are moving from PCsand laptops towards mobile devices is more than likely (Kaplan and Haenlein 2010).Also Ahlqvist et al.‟s (2010) five future trajectories are quite understandableconsequences of using more social media. Their road-mapping research of the socialmedia‟s future five trajectories are: 1) transparency, 2) rise of ubiquitous participatorycommunication model, 3) reflexive empowerment, 4) personalization/fragmentationversus masseffects/intergration and 5) new relations between physical and virtualworlds.4.5 The researcher’s Experiences and Use of Social Media as a Result ofResearch projectThe researcher has written fourteen social media leadership blogs during this researchproject from July 2010 to February 2011 (Luukka 2011a, Luukka 2011b). In her first blog(Luukka 2011b, 3 July 2011) she has described her thinking of meaningful learningexperiences as follows. 60
  • A meaningful learning experience is an occasion or an event which an adult remembersafterwards and in which the adult has felt learning (Luukka 2007). Meaningful learningexperiences are guiding adults to make choices in their lives. In new situations thelearning experiences are meaningful or meaningless for us. It is a continuous process,where adults evaluate themselves in previous and current situations and in futurepossibilities. The adults can feel themselves incomplete, lacking in knowhow. Theawareness of this lack of knowhow gets adults to renew themselves through studies inadult education. If someone knows that she/he does not have enough knowhow and stilldoes not go to adult education studies, it is because they do not have the willpower tochange or renew themselves. The willpower or a lack of willpower can be explained byadults‟ “safety belt”, which covers adults thinking (Malinen 2000). A newA NEW experience,EXPERIENCE which doesn‟tWHICH LEADS lead toTHROUGH ”Experiential transformingCRITICAL Knowledge” learningREFLECTION TOTRANSFORMING HARD CORELEARNINGFigure 2. A feeling mirror; critical reflection as a tool for learning from experiences(Luukka, 2007 p. 127)The ”safety belt”, which covers adults thinking is an opportunity and also a barrier tolearning. The safety belt includes assumptions, attitudes and fears against new things.Through the safety belt, the adult interprets and gives meaning to e.g. things, texts andevents in everyday life. The safety belt gives a feeling of security in new situations. Inmeaningful learning experiences, the safety belt is punctured. Through that processstrong feelings appear which change experiences, which the adult remembers 61
  • afterwards. With these feelings the learning will be part of the hard core in the”knowledge warehouse” as a part of thinking. (Figure 2.). The critical reflection whichleads to renewing and transforming learning is suggested as a tool of experientiallearning. (Mezirow 1996). Adults‟ identity and action and thinking models are developedby using critical reflection. Critical reflection opportunities for adults are in everyday lifesituations in schools, work and also in free time. The opportunity for learning from workand everyday life makes the work and life itself meaningful for adults.As a conclusion of this research project the researcher has developed the following“quick social media skills test” for managers to evaluate their own social media skillsand/or their organization‟s personnel social media skills (Luukka 2011b, 6 February2011). ”SoMe- 2 YEAR 3 YEAR crowdsourcer” 1 YEAR ”SoMe- ”SoMe- ”SoMe- 3- LEVEL preventer” suspector” tester” Security and safety active participation, MANAGER’S SOCIAL MEDIA SKILLS DEVELOPMENT production and renewing online communities 2- LEVEL To be or not to be ? Testing, Online commenting, sharing online- 1- LEVEL communities Unsafe, passive, watching and following online communitiesOffline- no TIME FOR ORGANIZATION’S TRANSFORMATIONuse of SoMe-tools0-LEVELSoMe- fearFigure 3. A Quick Test for Manager‟s and Organization‟s Social Media SkillsThis test got its roots from the researcher‟s own experiences and also from herobservations how colleagues are acting and struggling while trying to use social mediaas part of their leadership. As test results there are four levels for social media (SoMe)users: 62
  • - the 0- level person is SoMe- Preventer, who has never been in online social medianetworks (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn). He or she is afraid of social media anddefends himself/herself against social media which is nonsense and waste of time.He/she feels fear against social media.- the 1- level person is SoMe- Suspector, who has created profiles or accounts tosocial media networks. He/she is a passive watcher, who follows what others are doing,but he/she is not participating e.g. online discussions. He/she feels insecure while beingon social networks.- the 2- level person is SoMe- Tester, who is both active and passive social mediauser, while sharing and participating in online communities. He/she is wondering is orisn‟t social media "my cup of tea". He/she feels insecurity/security while acting on socialnetworks.- the 3- level person is SoMe- Crowdsourcer, who is an active social media user inseveral social media networks. He/she gets positive feedback from others participantsand therefore he/she is also engaged in social networks development work. He/shefeels security and success while acting on social networks.These four levels arent really as linear step by step as the Figure 3. describes. Allhumans have better and worse days. Sometimes we have time and energy toparticipate online groups and sometimes not. Therefore, time from O- level SoMe-Preventer to 3- level SoMe- Crowdsourcer may vary from some months to some years.The following Loxman‟s (2006 p. 122) approach contains eleven statements toevaluate, how action research managers are working. These statements used as aframework to evaluate how the researcher and her management team have actedduring the last year‟s research project while using more social media networks/tools aspart of leadership. 63
  • 1. Action research managers are thoughtful and they enquiry intentionalLast year, at the beginning of this MBA dissertation, the researcher made a cleardecision that this research should also be useful and develop the use of social media aspart of her work rather than just be a part of her studies. This decision was discussedalso in her management team with five adult education managers, adult educationdirector and sales director whose superior she is. It was a common understanding in themanagement team that they were trying together new social media solutions as part oftheir leadership during the last year. This can be called that the researcher has“thoughtfully and intentionally enquired” her management team to take part in this actionresearch to improve social media solutions as part of leadership.2. Action research managers are willing to have their ideas challengedThe idea to try more social media networks/tools as part of leadership came from theresearcher which means that she has been self-critical and willed openly to challengethe previous working culture with her management team.3. Action research managers will challenge existing knowledge and practiceIn this case it was a starting point to the management team that they criticallychallenged management team‟s existing knowledge and practices of leading andworking culture.4. Action research managers start with open minds and not with prior knowledgeof the resultsThe researcher was very proud of her management team that they had a great attitudeto try new social media solutions to improve leadership culture even though there wasno knowledge of the future results.5. Action research managers see themselves as educational professionalsIt is pretty likely to be assumed that adult education managers, director and salesdirector see themselves as educational professionals in any case, even without thisaction research approach. 64
  • 6. Action research managers seek to change practice in line with identifiedvalues to improveIt is very difficult to evaluate how many values were really involved in this leadershipchanging culture project for using more social media as part of management team‟swork. The management team was ready to renew themselves, which is ourorganization‟s one value and therefore it is obvious that values were involved thisworking culture change process. On the other hand, the project has lasted under a yearand final results are still open, so the very final conclusions of value as part of thisaction change model are also open.7. Action research managers are committed to effective practiceOne reason why the management team wanted to try new working culture with usingmore social media as part of leadership was to look if social media makes managementteam‟s work more effective. That is probably the reason why they‟ve been so committedto trying new social media solutions during the project.8. Action research managers are committed to fairer practice and justiceLike in previous statement adult education management team is committed to workeffectively but also with fair and just practice. Therefore more use of social media aspart of leadership has gone so well in this research project. The researcher has givenpositive feedback for the team for their commitment and their positive attitude to try newsolutions as part of leadership many times.9. Action research managers are willing to change their current working practiceif necessaryAdult education management team‟s working culture has already been proactive andtherefore willing to change current working practice “if necessary” describes rather badlytheir willingness as managers generally. 65
  • 10. Action research managers are willing to reframe their current knowledge ifnecessaryThe adult education management team has written a new team contract which includesnew solutions how to use social media tools as part of leading. This new team contractreframes new practices and gives an opportunity to expand current knowledge ofleadership opportunities while using more social media possibilities as part of work.11. Action research managers are willing to attempt to influence other managers,institutional practices and policiesThe adult education management team works as an example for the other managementteams at the college and also whole organisation. The researcher has personally triedto tell and also influence other peer co-workers (vice principals, directors andmanagers) to try more social media as part of leadership but the outcomes have beenvery limited. People say that they are “too busy” to try new options and they want to seeall results beforehand before trying to renew themselves and/or their practices of socialmedia as part of leadership. People are afraid of using social media as part ofleadership. On the other hand, they are also curious to know, what possibilities socialmedia has as part of leadership and therefore it could be a good moment to spreadsocial media leadership knowledge inside the organization.Densten and Gray (2001) argues that “leaders need to practice critical reflectivethinking. Only a reflective process can encourage future leaders to gain greaterunderstanding of their environment. In conclusion, to meet emerging challenges,reflective learning can assist leaders to acquire the knowledge and skills to make betterjudgments in ambiguous situations. Critical reflection is at the core of leadershipdevelopment”. As the researcher and as a leader I totally agree with Densten andGray‟s (2001) points of view of critical reflection for improving leadership. During thisaction research project the researcher has used critical reflection many times e.g.during writing blogs considering social media leadership. From the first blog ofmeaningful learning experiences (Luukka 2011b, 3 July 2010) to the two latest blogs ofa quick social media skills test for managers (Luukka 2011b, 6 February 2011) and adefinition of social media (Luukka 2011a, 21 February 2011) her personal growth as aleader and expanded knowledge of social media as part of leadership has been 66
  • significant. There is no way back to a situation were the researcher and hermanagement team were at the begin of this action research. They all have learnt a lot ofthe possibilities of using social media as part of leadership during this action researchproject. The best practices of the use of social media as part of leadership are going tobe part of their leading also in the future.4.6 Discussion of FindingsThe discussion of the findings considers connection of the results to five researchquestions of this study.1. The use of social media as part of work of an international group of managersIn this study the participants of the research and the researcher have been nominated(chapter 4.1) with their activity of use of social media as middle activity (Harry) and highactivity (other participants and the researcher) users. Tony and Mike were nominatedalso as social media expert users that because social media was a content of theirwork. The others were social media practical users who used social media as a part oftheir work for practical reasons to improve their work. Referring to Li‟s (2010 p. 174-187) four open leadership archetypes 1) Cautious Tester, 2) Worried Skeptic, 3) RealistOptimist and 4) Transparent Evangelist), Tony and Mike instead of experts werenominated also as Transparent Evangelists. The rest of the participants and theresearcher instead of practical users‟ nomination were also nominated as RealisticOptimists. The researcher has also developed a social media skills test (chapter 4.5and Figure 3.) which describes social media users to four levels as following: 1) SoMe-Preventer, 2) SoMe- Suspector, 3) SoMe- Tester and 4) SoMe- Crowdsourcer. Thesekind of nominations are as examples of the current situation, how the older generation istrying to make sense, what social media is and how it is as part of our work and lives.These kind of nominations are quite irrelevant for the new young generation, whomTapscott (2010) calls “grown up digital generation”, because they are used to usingsocial media as their lives from the beginning. The kind of classifications of social mediausers can be useful to help organizations to evaluate their personnel‟s skills andattitudes against social media and it can be an opening for a discussion, how socialmedia is going to be part of the organization‟s strategy and/or business plan. 67
  • 2. Managers experiences of the use of social media related to theory of openleadership (Li 2010)Charlene Li‟s (2010) open leadership theory was used as a theoretical framework for adiscussion of social media as part of work of international group of managers. TheFacebook discussion themes; sharing, organization culture, transformation, mind-setsand traits, learning, benefits, monitoring and risks followed Li‟s (2010) theory. Thesethemes adapted to social media leadership discussion very well and supported that Li‟s(2010) open leadership theory has got the basic key elements, while using social mediaas part of leadership. Monitoring and mind-set and traits were two themes, which got adiscussion (Appendix 2.) only from Tony, who was an expert social media user. Onereason that monitoring was a difficult theme for discussion might be that there are bothlimit evidences of the use of social media and also doubts of the benefits of socialmedia as part of business (chapter 2.1.3) and therefore discussion of monitoring mighthave been so minor in this study. Another reason can also be that the participants didnot have enough knowledge of monitoring in social media and therefore did not takepart in discussion. Mind-sets and traits might have been also a difficult discussion issue,if social media is still so limited used as part of leadership and therefore participants didnot have their own experiences of the issue. Li (2010) argues that the key issue in openleadership is confidence. A leader has to have faith in that the people he/she passespower to will act responsibly. This means that a leader must understand that there areactually more capable people who can do the things that the leader does. This requireshumility from a leader (Li, 2010 p. 18.) As a result of this research, it is very easy toagree with Li (2010) that managers need both confidence and humility skills while usingsocial media as part of leadership. Charlene Li (2010) has also stated in her OpenLeadership- theory that while using social technology, it “can transform the way youlead”. She argues that her research shows, “the biggest indicator of success has beenan open mind set- the ability of leaders to let go of control at the right time, in the rightplace and in the right amount” (Li, 2010 p. 8). The discussion of this study agrees withboth of these Li‟s (2010) statements. It is quite obvious that after using more socialmedia as part of leadership also the leadership style of managers has to change.Managers are going to have difficulties, if they do not understand how the use of social 68
  • media with sharing approach is going to change organization culture to a more openone.One disadvantage of open leadership theory is that it does not emphasize as a keyissue the benefits of ecological issues like sustainable and green business while usingmore social media as part of leadership. The second disadvantage is that the openleadership theory does not highlight how negative experiences of the use of socialmedia should be handled. The third disadvantage is that there was a little comparing ofsocial media to face-to-face leadership and what it really means to work and leadpeople online in social networks. The fourth disadvantage was a the lack of discussionon how emotions are part of leadership and how managers should also understand theemotional part of leadership while changing working from offline to online workingculture.3. Negative experiences, feelings and face- to face leading involved in socialmedia leadershipThemes negative experiences, feelings and face-to-face leading were not involved inLi‟s (2010) open leadership theory and therefore they were added as a separateresearch question into this study. The three issues: negative experiences, feelings andface-to-face leading are all very much linked together. Negative experiences mightappear while using social media as part of leadership, if communication betweenworkers has happened only online and that affect bad feelings and also it make to missface-to-face leading. The issue of using social media as part of leadership is not to useonly social media rather than combining social media together with face-to-face leading.While using social media as part of leadership, the managers must ensure that allparticipants have skills and will to work collaboratively online. Managers have to leadand follow online work to make sure that objectives of the common online work projectwill be achieved. Managers also have to be patient and encourage people to workonline with using social media as part of work. Managers have to work as role modelsfor their followers to show how social media can be used as part of leadership. Finally,managers need a social media action plan as part of their leadership, which includes: 1)a list social media tools, which are used for internal and external communication, 2) aplan, how social media is going to be linked together with face-to-face leading as part of 69
  • leadership (an online-offline leadership plan) and 3) an evaluation plan, how socialmedia helps or hinders organization‟s current business (monitoring of socialnetworking‟s benefits and risks).4. The future of social media as part of managers’ workAs a result of this study, one participant saw that social media has saturated itspossibilities and another saw that social media is at the begin of its possibilities.Future‟s prediction is difficult, while natural disasters like volcanic eruption April 2010can always happen and affect the use of social media as part of leadership like whilebusiness flying decreased then online business co-operation increased. Otherunscheduled events like political issues in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya have happened inJanuary and February 2011 and they can also increase or decrease the use of socialmedia depending on, how online connections are working. It is always possible thatpeople are going to be tired for online working and social networking, but on the otherhand the next generation is born to use social media and also virtual worlds as part oftheir life and therefore the increasing use of social media as part or work and leadershipis more than possible.5. Researcher’s experiences of social media as a result of research projectAn action research approach in this study was a good solution to improve researcher‟suse of social media as part of her leadership, but on the other hand to improve also heradult education organization‟s use of social media as part of work. It has taken threeyears from the researcher to become active on social networks. The two first years wereas private social media user with Skype and Facebook and work-related blog writing.During the last year Facebook has changed from private use to also work-related socialmedia tool for her. Nowadays the researcher blogs as part of work twice a year and aspart of private life every other week (Luukka 2011a, Luukka 2011b). At end of researchproject she uses over 15 social media tools like Facebook, WIKIs, NING, Google‟sapplications, Yammer, Twitter, LinkedIn, SlideShare, Netvibs, Moodle- platforms, Skypeand AACP (adobe acrobat connect pro) as part of her work. As a result of this researchproject her skills to use social media tools have improved and her knowledge of socialnetworking as part of leadership has also expanded to see both benefits and risks of it.As a conclusion and a result of this research project, instead of concept “social media” 70
  • she uses “collaborative online working”, which describes the issue on what people aredoing with social media tools as part of their work, leadership and/or leisure time better.5 CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSThis last chapter considers conclusions, limitations and recommendations. Thisresearch had three aims: 1) to investigate managers‟ social media leadershipexperiences, how open leadership theory (Li 2010) works in practical leadershipsituations, 2) to research how negative experiences, feelings and face to face leadingare part of social media leadership and 3) to expand researcher‟s knowledge and skillsof social media and to find useful practical solutions for the use of social media as partof her leadership in an adult education organization. Conclusions of this study arelooking through these three points of view. Limitations and recommendations arehighlighting the usefulness of this study and gives also recommendations for the furtherresearch themes.ConclusionsA review of the literature highlighted both how social media solutions are used as part ofwork and leadership and how leadership theories have developed from early 1900traits theories to the latest open leadership theory (Li 2010). Li (2010) argues that use ofsocial technology can transform the way of leading. The empirical data of this researchagrees with open leadership theory that sharing is a key issue while using social mediatools and it is going to change organization‟s culture transparent and therefore there is aneed to transform organization‟s culture as well. Li‟s (2010) open leadership theoryconsiders the basics, how the use of social media is going to impact to how people areworking in the future. Even though Li‟s (2010) open leadership theory is a good startingpoint to understand leadership‟s transformation situation, however, there is a need todevelop more detailed social media leadership theory, based on the transformation ofcommunication from face-to-face leadership, offline working culture to the new online-offline working culture. The more detailed social media leadership theory should focuson renewing manager‟s leadership skills to see the perspectives from employee‟sprivacy - publicity issues to different openness levels (intra-, extra- and internet) of theorganisation. The social media leadership theory should also contain cultural issues 71
  • broader from social media users (e.g. age, gender, religious and nation) to alsoorganisation, society and global issues because the Internet based social medianetworks are both a person‟s private and global working tools.The more detailed social media leadership theory should demonstrate manager‟s socialmedia communication skills such as: online writing/drawing, using of images/videos,online chats, talking online, video conferences, document sharing, micro-blogging, theuse of work related social media networking tools (e.g blogs, Skype, Facebook, Twitter,Yammer and LinkedIn), leading of online discussions and projects, legal issues (e.g.who owns the online materials and privacy-publicity of the organisation), monitoring andevaluating the risks of using social media. The list is not the final because new socialmedia solutions are created all the time and therefore there is a need to renewmanager‟s social media leadership skills continuously and to keep up open mind fornew solutions in this changing world (Luukka 2011b).Li‟s (2010) disadvantage of open leadership theory was that it does not emphasize as akey issue the benefits of ecological issues such as sustainable and green businesswhile using more social media as part of leadership. The second disadvantage is thatthe open leadership theory does not highlight how negative experiences of the use ofsocial media should be handled. The third disadvantage is that there was littlecomparing social media to face-to-face leadership and what does it really mean to workand lead people online in social networks. The fourth disadvantage was the lack ofdiscussion on how emotions are part of leadership and how managers should alsounderstand the emotional part of leadership while changing work from offline to onlineworking culture. These four perspectives should also be more highlighted as part of anew social media leadership theory which was mentioned in the preceding paragraph.The researcher‟s knowledge and skills have expanded how to use social media as partof her leadership as a vice principal in an adult education organization during thisresearch project. The researcher has worked as an online-offline peer coacher for heradult education managers, adult education director and sales director while using socialmedia tools more as part of her leadership. In a model of the well-rounded managerMartin (2006 p. 29-65) argues that a coach/manager she/he should conceive emotionalintelligence, wisdom and self-development, while she/he is managing action, people 72
  • and information. Carter (2006, 196) determines coaching as a supportive relationship,which creates understanding, direction and action. It is both facilitative and challenging.Isaksen and Tidd (2006 p. 248) determine coaching as a change method. They arguethat coaching is the development of an ongoing partnership designed to help individualsproduce fulfilling results in their personal and professional lives. Coaching methods helppeople improve their performance and enhance the quality of their lives (Isaksen andTidd 2006 p. 248). During this action research project all three peer coachingperspectives (Carter 2006, Isaksen and Tidd 2006 and Martin 2006) with mentionedfeatures have appeared while using more social media tools as part of leadership in thisstudy. The researcher has acted as an action researcher but also as a coach whileintroducing new social media solutions to her management group. To be a coachingaction researcher meant also in this study that the researcher led by her own exampleby using more social media tools as part of her leadership and therefore it was obviousthat she acted as a role model to her management group. To add action research aspart of work is challenging because you never know what the outcomes of the projectare going to be, but on the other hand, if you do not take risks you might lose also anopportunity to develop. In this study action research approach increased themanagement team‟s knowledge and skills to use social media as part of theirleadership.Limitations and recommendationsA limitation of this research is that research outcomes don‟t have generalization; that isbecause of the descriptive case study with action research approach. The aim of theresearch set-up is to understand and get knowledge of the research topic; managers‟use of social media as part of their leadership. Therefore the first recommendation isthat the further research could use quantitative research approach and study what is thegeneralization of these research outcomes with large group of managers.This research looked at social media as part of leadership from managers‟ points ofview and ignored workers and/or employees points of view, how social media affectstheir working culture. Therefore the second recommendation is that the further researchcould focus on workers‟ and employees‟ points of view and study howworkers/employees see social media changing their working culture. 73
  • One conclusion of this research was that there is a need to develop new social medialeadership theory which demonstrates manager‟s social media communication skills.The new social media leadership theory should be also more detailed to point outdifferences and similarities between offline and online leadership and mixed offline-online- leadership cultures. That kind of leadership theory is going to need knowledgefrom many science fields (e.g. psychology, sociology, education, business andinformation technology) and therefore the third recommendation is that e.g. WIKI- socialnetwork could be a functional social media tool to create and develop new social medialeadership theory with voluntary participants/professionals from all over the world.As an outcome of this study the researcher has developed a quick social media skillstest (Figure 3.) to evaluate manager‟s social media skills. This test have four level: 0-level SoMe- Preventer, 1- level SoMe- Suspector, 2- level SoMe- Tester and 3- levelSoMe- Crowdsourcer. This test need more evidence and development to make afunctional test- tool to evaluate organization‟s social media skills. The fourthrecommendation is that this test needs a measurement scale, if an organization wantsto set the goal and assess their achievement with this test. Before that, this test can useas a personal test to evaluate worker‟s personal level of the social media skills and workas a general discussion framework in which level an organization‟s personnel are nowwith their social media skills and want to be in the future.Social media is based on social networks, where people‟s connections to each other arethe key issue. While people are having online discussions, they often makerecommendation to others and therefore all organizations are hoping to get goodrecommendations from their customers also online. This means that while using moresocial media a communication tool an opportunity for a recommendation economy isincreasing all the time faster with high speed social media tools. Therefore the fifth andfinal recommendation for personnel and organization is to study more the use of socialmedia as part of work, to make clear rules how to act while working as organization‟srepresentative role and be relaxed in social media, they are just other people with whomwe are communicating online. 74
  • 6 BIBLIOGRAPHYAhlqvist, T., Bäck, A. Heinonen, S. and Halonen, M. (2010) Road-mapping the societaltransformation potential of social media. Foresight vol. 12, No. 5 pp. 3-26.Armano, D. (2010) Six Social Media Trends for 2011. Harvard Business Review.6.12.2010. http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2010/12/six_social_media_trends_for_20_1.html#[Accessed 27th December 2010].Aula, P. (2010) Social media, reputation risk and ambient publicity management.Strategy & Leadership vol.38, No. 6 pp. 43-49.Baloun, K. M. (2007) Inside Facebook. Life, Work and Visions of Greatness. TraffordPublishing. UK: Lightning Source UK Ltd.Bass, B.M. and Avolio, B.J. (1994) Introduction. Bass, B.M. and Avolio, B.J. (eds.)Improving Organizational Effectiveness; Through Transformational Leadership. SagePublications, USA.Battelle, J. (2007) The Search How Google an Its Rivals rewrote the Rules of Businessand Transformed Our Culture. Nicholas Brealey Publishing. Finland: WS Bookwell.Belsky, S. (2010) Making Ideas Happen. Overcoming the obstacles between vision andreality. Porfolio, USA.Bennet, J., Owers, M., Pitt, M. and Tucker, M. (2010) Workplace Impact of SocialNetworking. Property Management. vol. 28. No. 3 pp. 138-148.Berg, B.L. (2001) Qualitative Research Methods for Social Sciences, A PersonEducation Company. Allyn & Bacon. USA.Berniato, S. (2010) Six ways to find value in Twitter‟s noise. Harvard Business Reviewvol. 88, No. 6 pp. 34-35. 75
  • Blossom, J. (2009) Content Nation. Surviving and Thrivings as Social Media ChangesOur Work, Our Lives and Our Future. Wiley Publishing, Inc. Indianpolis, Indiana.Boswijk , A., Thijssen, T. and Peelen, E. (2006) A New Perspective on the ExperienceEconomy: Meaningful Experiences. The European Centre for the Experience Economy,University of Amsterdam. The Netherlands. http://www.experience-economy.com/2006/01/22/a-new-perspective-on-the-experience-economy/ [Accessed27th December 2010].Briggs, A. and Burke, P. (2009) Social History of The Media. From Gutenberg to theInternet. 3rd Edit. MPG Books Limited, Bodmin. Cornwall.Brown, R. (2009) Public Relations and the Social Media Web: How to Use Social Mediaand Web 2.0 in Communications. Kogan Page. Replika Press Ptv Ltd. India.Burrows, T. (2007) Blogs, Wikis, MySpace and More. Everything You Want to KnowAbout Using Web 2.0 But Are Afraid to Ask. Singapore: Chicago Review Press.Cambié, S. and Ooi, Y-M. (2009) International Communications Strategy.Developments in cross-cultural communications, PR and Social Media. Kogan Page.Replika Press Pvt Ltd. India.Carr, N. (2010) The Shallows. How the Internet is changing the way we think, read andremember. Atlantic Books. MPG Books Group. Great Britain.Carter, L. (2007) The Nature of Learning. Mullins. L.J. Edit. Management andOrganisational Behavior. Prentice Hall. Milan: Rotolito Lombarda.Cesar, J. (2008) Building WEB 2.0 Business Websites. Business Process Innovationwith Web 2.0 Tools, and Joomla! USA: Verticalbit.Chaffey, D. (2009) E-Business and E-commerce Management. 4th edit. FT PrenticeHall. Italy: Rotolito Lombarda. 76
  • Chen, S. (2001) Strategic Management of e-Business. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. GB,Guilfford and King‟s Lynn: Biddles Ltd.Chi, M.T.H. (1997) Quantifying Qualitative Analyses of Verbal Data: a Practical Guide.The Journal of Learning Sciences. vol. 6. No. 3 pp. 271-315.Combe, C. (2006) Introduction to E-business Management and Strategy. Elsevier.Netherlands: Butterworth-Heinemann.Cooper, D.R. and Schindler, P.S. (2008) Business Research Methods. MacGraw-Hill.Singapore.Correa, T. Hinsley, A. W. and deZúñiga, H. G. (2010) Who Interacts on the Web?: TheInteraction of Users‟ Personality and Social Media Use. Computers in Human Behavior,vol. 26, No. 2 pp. 247-253.Curtis, L., Edwards, C., Fraser, K.L., Gudelsky, S., Holmquist, J., Thornton K. andSweetser, K.D. (2010) Adoption of social media for public relations by nonprofitorganizations. Public Relations Review vol. 36, No. 1 pp.90-92.Davies, M.B. (2007) Doing a Successful Research Project; Using Qualitative orQuantitative Methods. Palgrave MacMillan. China.DeMesa, A. (2009) Brand Avatar. Translating Virtual World Branding into Real WorldSuccess. Palgrave MacMillan. GB: CPI Antony Rowe.Densten, I. L. and Grey, J. H. (2001) Leadership development and reflection: what is theconnection? International Journal of Educational Management vol 15, No. 3 pp. 119-124.Dholakia, U.M. and Duerham, E.(2010) One café chain‟s Facebook experiment.Harvard Business Review vol. 88, No. 3 pp. 26.Drucker, P. F. (2009) Managing in a Time of Great Change. Harvard Business Press.USA. 77
  • Dul, J. and Hak, T. (2008) Case Study Methodology in Business Research. Butterworth-Heinemann. Great Britain.Ely, M., Vinz, R., Downing, M. and Anzul, M. (2001) On Writing Qualitative ResearchLiving by Words. Routledge Falmers. Guildford and King‟s Lynn, Biddles Ltd. GreatBritain.Evans, D. (2008) Social Media Marketing: an Hour a Day. Sybex. Wiley Publishing, Inc.Canada.Evans, D. (2010) Social Media Marketing, The Next Generation of BusinessEngagement. Wiley Publishing, Inc. Canada.Evans, L. (2010) Social Media Marketing. Strategies for Engaging in Facebook, Twitter& Other Social Media. Que Publishing. USA.Eyrich, N., Padman, M. L. and Sweetser, K. D. (2008) PR Practioners‟ Use of SocialMedia Tools and Communication Technology. Public Relations Review, vol. 34, pp.412-414.Faigley, L. and Selzer, J. (2009) Good Reasons with Contemporary Arguments.Pearson Longman.Facebook (2011) Press room.http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics#!/press/info.php?statistics[Accessed 30th January 2011].Fernardo, I. (2010) Community creation by means of a social media paradigm. TheLearning Organization. Vol. 17, No. 6 pp. 500-514.Ferriter, B. (2009) Learning with Blogs and Wikis. Educational Leadership, vol. 66 No. 5pp. 34-38. 78
  • Finair (2011) Finair Runway. http://blogs.finnair.com/ [Accessed 1st February 2011].Financial Times (2010) Must I sacrifice my free time to write a blog for work? Dear Lucy;Work problems answered. October, Wednesday 13.Fischer, E. and Reuber, A. R. (2011) Social Interaction via New Social Media: (How)can interactions on Twitter affect effectual thinking and behavior? Journal of BusinessVenturing, vol. 26, pp. 1-18.Fowler, Floyd J., Jr. (2009) Survey Research Methods. 4th edition. SAGE publications.U.S.A.Freedman, R. (2008) How to Make Real Money in Second Life. Boost Your Business,Market Your Services, and Sell Your Products in the World‟s Hottest Virtual Community.McGraw-Hill Companies. USA.Friedman, W. A. (2010) Leadership and History. Nohria, N. and Khurana, R. (eds.)Handbook of Leadership Theory and Practice. Harvard Business Press. USA. 291-304.Fowler, F. J. Jr. (2009) Survey Research Methods. Sage Publications. USA.Funk, T. (2009) Web 2.0 and Beyond. Understanding the New Online business Models,Trends, and Technologies. Praeger. USA: Praeger Publishers.Gaiser, T. J. and Schreiner, A. E. (2009) A Guide to Conducting Online Research.SAGE, India: C & M Digitals Ltd.George, B. (2010) How Social Networking Has Changed Business. Harvard BusinessReview. December 23, 2010. http://blogs.hbr.org/hbsfaculty/2010/12/how-social-networking-has-chan.html# [Accessed 27th December 2010].Gill, R. (2006) Theory and Practice of Leadership. Sage Publications. The CromwellPress Ltd, Trowbridge, Wiltshire. 79
  • Glynn, M.A. and DeJordy, R. (2010) Leadership Through an Organization BehaviorLens. Nohria, N. and Khurana, R. (eds.) Handbook of Leadership Theory and Practice.Harvard Business Press. USA. 119- 157.Ghosh, A. K. (1998) E-commerce Securitry. Weak Links, Best Defenses. John Wiley &Sons, Inc. USA.Gray, D.E. (2009) Doing Research in the Real World. Sage Publications. TJInternational Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall.Holzner, S. (2009) Facebook Marketing. Leverage Social Media to Grow Your Business.Que Publishing. USA.Howard, T. (2011) Are you taken these 5 social media mistakes.http://sproutsocial.com/insights/2010/12/are-you-making-these-5-social-media-mistakes# [Accessed 4th January 2011].Imperatore, C. (2009) Wikis and Blogs: Your Keys to Student Collaboration &Engagement. Techniques: Connecting Education & Careers. vol. 84, No. 3 pp. 30-31.Isaksen, S. & Tidd, J. (2006) Meeting the Innovation Challenge. Leadership forTransformation and Growth. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Chippenham, Wiltshire: AntonyRowe Ltd.Jain Palvia, S. C. and Pancaro, R. (2010) Promises and Perils of Internet basedNetworking. vol. 13, No. 3 pp. 1-9.James, N. and Busher, H. (2009) Online Interviewing. Sage Publications. MPG BooksGroup. UK.Jaokar, A., Jacobs, B., Moore, A. and Ahvenainen J. (2009) Social Media Marketing:How data analytics helps to monetize the user base in telecoms, social networks, mediaand advertising in a converged ecosystem. Futuretext Ltd. London. 80
  • Jue, A. L., Marr, J.A. and Kassotakis, M. E. (2010) Social Media at Work: Hownetworking tools propel organizational performance. HB Printing. USA.Kaplan, A. M. and Haenlein, M. (2010) Users of the World, Unite! The Challenge AndOpportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons. vol. 53, pp. 59-68.KiIpi, T. (2006) Blogit ja bloggaaminen [Blogs and blogging]. Jyväskylä: Gummerus.Kozinets, R., Valck, C., Wojnicki, A. and Wilner, S. (2010) Networked narratives:understanding word-of-mouth marketing in online communities. Journal of Marketingvol. 74, No. 2 pp. 71-89.Lanier, J. (2010) Et ole koje, manifesti. (You Are Not a Gadget, A Manifesto) TerraGognita. Hakapaino Oy, Helsinki.Latvala, E. and Vanhanen-Nuutinen, L. (2001) Laadullisen hoitotieteellisen tutkimuksenperusprosessi: sisällönanalyysi [ Qualitative Nuring Science‟s basic process: contentanalysis] IN Janhonen, S. and Nikkonn, M. (eds.) Laadulliset tutkimusmenetelmäthoitotieteessä [Qualitative Research Methods in Nursing Science] WSOY, Ws BookwellOy, Juva.Li, C. (2010) Open Leadership. How Social Technology Can Transform The Way YouLead. Jossey-Bass. HB Printing. U.S.A.Li, C. and Bern, J. (2009) Verkkovalta. Voittaminen sosiaalisten teknologioidenmaailmassa. (Original: Groundswell: Winning in a World Transformed by SocialTechnologies). Tallinna: Raamatutrukikoda.Lincoln, S. R. (2009) Mastering Web 2.0: Transform your business using key websiteand social media tools. Kogan Page. Replika Press Ptv Ltd. India.LinkedIn (2011) About us. http://press.linkedin.com/about/ [Accessed 30th January2011]. 81
  • Locke, L. F., Silverman, S.J. and Spiduso, W. W. (1998) Reading and UnderstandingResearch. Thousands Oaks. SAGE Publications. California. USA.Lomax, P. (2007) Action Research. Coleman, M. & Briggs, A. R. J. Edit. ResearchMethods in Educational Leadership and Management. Paul Chapman Publishing.Trowbridge, Wiltshire: Cromwell Press.Luukka, K. (2011a) Katin merkitykselliset kokemukset. (Katri Luukka‟s social medialeadership blog in Finnish) http://katri-luukka.blogspot.com/ [Accessed 12th February2011].Luukka, K. (2011b) Katri‟s Meaningful Experiences. (Katri Luukka‟s social medialeadership blog in English) http://katrismeaningfulexperiences.blogspot.com/ [Accessed12th February 2011].Luukka, K. (2007) Meaningful Learning Experiences of the Newly Graduated PracticalNurses in the Elderly Care: Feeling Mirror as a Reflector of Meaningful LearningExperiences. Doctoral Dissertation. Kuopio University Publications E. Social Sciences142. Finland. http://www.uku.fi/vaitokset/2007/isbn978-951-27-0801-7.pdf [Accessed27th December 2010].Malinen, A. (2000) Towards the Essence of Experiential Learning. SoPhi. University ofJyväskylä. Laukaa: ER-Paino.Mangold, W. G. and Faulds, D. J. (2009) Social Media: The New Hybrid Element of thePromotion Mix. Business Horizons. vol. 52, pp.357-365.Martin, C. 2006. Managing People and Organizations in Changing Contexts. TheNetherlands: Elsevier Ltd.McManus, J. (2006) Leadership: Project and human capital management. Elsevier. UK.Meyerson, M. (2008) Mastering Online Marketing. Entrepreneur Press. Canada. 82
  • Mezirow, J. (1996) toim. Uudistava oppiminen. Kriittinen reflektio aikuiskoulutuksessa.(Renewing Learning. Critical Reflection in Adult Education). 2. painos. Helsinki:Painotalo Miktor.Ministry of Finance (2010) Social Media Information Security Guidelines. (Sosiaalisenmedian tietoturvaohje)http://www.vm.fi/vm/fi/04_julkaisut_ja_asiakirjat/01_julkaisut/05_valtionhallinnon_tietoturvallisuus/20101222Sosiaa/Sosiaalinen_media.pdf [Accessed 28th December 2010].Mintzberg, H. (1975) The Manager‟s Job: Folklore and Fact. Harvard Business Reviewon Leadership (1998). Harvard Business School Press. USA. (1-36).Mullins, L. J. (2007) Management and Organisational Behaviour. FT Prentice Hall.Rotolito Lombarda. Italy.Mustonen, P. (2009) Social Media: a New Way to Success? Turku School ofEconomics. Series KR-1:2009. Uniprint. Turku. Finland.National Academies (2009) Ensuring the Integrity, Accessibility and Stewardship ofResearch Data in the Digital Age. National Academy of Sciences, National Academy ofEngineering and Institute of Medicine. The National Academics Press, Washington D.C.Nissinen, V. (2006) Deep leadership. Talentum. Helsinki. Karisto Oy, Hämeenlinna.Northouse, P. G. (2004) Leadership: Theory and Practice. 3rd edit. Sage Publications.U.S.A.Pauker Kreizberg, A. (2009) Building a Web 2.0- Friendly Culture: Success on the Webis About People, not Technology. People & Strategy vol. 32, No. 2 pp.40-45.Phillips, D. and Young, P. (2009) Online Public Relations: A practical guide todeveloping an online strategy in the world of social media. 2nd Edit. Kogan Page.Replika Press Ptv Ltd. India. 83
  • Qualman E. (2009) Socialnomics: How social media transforms the way we live and dobusiness. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.USA.Ross, C., Orr, E.S., Sisic, M., Arseneault, J.M., Simmering, M.G. and Orr, R.R. (2009)Personality and motivations associated with Facebook use. Computers in HumanBehavior. vol. 25 No. 2 pp.578-586.Ruggieri, S. (2009) Leadership in Virtual Teams: A Comparison of Transformational andTransactional Leaders. Social Behavior and Personality. vol. 37, No. 8 pp. 1017-1022.Safko, L. and Brake, D. K. (2009) The Social Media Bible. Tactics, Tools & Strategiesfor Business Success. John Wiley & Sons. U.S.A.Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2009) Research Methods for BusinessStudents. 5th edition. Prentice Hall. Italy: Rotolito Lombarda.Scoble, R. and Israel, S. (2006) Naked Coversations. How Blogs Are Changing the WayBusinesses Talk with Customers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. USA.Scott, S. M. (2010) The New Rules of Marketing & PR. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. USA.Shuen, A. (2008) Web 2.0: A Strategy Guide. Business Thinking and Strategies BehindSuccessful Web 2.0 Implementations. O‟Reilly. California: O‟Reilly Media.Spark, D. (2010) There is gold in your employees‟ personal social networks. Enterprise2.0 Conference in Santa Clara, California. http://www.socialmedia.biz/2010/11/10/how-social-tools-are-improving-human-resources-in-the-enterprise-e2conf/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+typepad%2Fsocial_media+%28Social+Media%29&utm_content=Google+International[Accessed 1st February 2011].Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. (1998) Basics of Qualitative Research. Techniques andProcedures for Developing Grounded Theory. SAGE Publications. USA. 84
  • Tapscott, D. 2010. Syntynyt digiaikaan. (Original Tapscott 2009. Grown up Digital),WSOYpro Oy, WS BookWell, Porvoo.Twitter (2011) What is Twitter? http://business.twitter.com/basics/what-is-twitter.[Accessed 30th January 2011].SADe (2009) EServices and democracy contribute programme. (Sähköisen asioinnin jademokratian vauhdittamisohjelma).http://www.vm.fi/vm/fi/05_hankkeet/023_sade/index.jsp [Accessed 28th December2010].SOMETU 2011. Social Media Supporting Learning (Sosiaalinen Media Oppimisentukena).http://www.sometu.fi/ [Accessed 4th January 2010].Strategic Direction (2009) Social networking and the workplace: Making the most of web2.0 technologies. Strategic Direction vol. 25, No. 8 pp. 20-23.Taylor, M. and Kent, M.L. (2010) Anticipatory socialization in the use of social media inpublic relations: A content analysis of PRSA‟s Public Relations Tactics. Public RelationsReview vol. 36, pp. 207-214.Terdiman, D. (2008) The Entrepreneur‟s Guide to Second Life. Wiley Publishing Inc.Canada.Teräs, M. (2007) Intercultural Learning and Hybridity in the Culture Laboratory.Doctoral Dissertation. Center for Activity Theory and Developmental Work Research.Department of Education. University of Helsinki. Helsinki University Press.Time (2010) Person of the Year 2010.http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/0,28757,2036683,00.html [Accessed 2tthDecember 2010].TNS (2010) Digital Life. Discover How the World lives Online.http://discoverdigitallife.com/ [Accessed 12th December 2010]. 85
  • Trusov, M., Bucklin, R. and Pauwels, K. (2009) Effects of world-of-mouth versustraditional marketing: findings from an internet social networking site. Journal ofMarketing vol. 73, No. 5, pp.90-102.Tuckett, A.G. (2005) Rigour in Qualitative Reserch: complexities and solutions.Researcher vol. 13, No 1, pp. 29-42.White House (2011) The White House Blog. http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog [Accessed1st February 2011].Wyld, D.C. (2008) Management 2.0: a primer on blogging for executives. ManagementResearch News vol. 31, No. 6 pp.448-483.Yang, S.-H. (2009). Using Blogs to Enhance Critical Reflection and Community ofPractice. Educational Technology & Society, vol.12, No. 2 pp.11–21.Yin, R.K. (2003) Case Study Research; Design and Methods. Sage Publications. USA. 86