Criminology and Victimology

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  • 1.  a situation in which there is a visible lack of fit between the culture's norms about what it means to be successful in life (goals) and the culture's norms about the acceptable ways to reach those goals (means).  So basically, what it’s saying is that social structures within society may pressure citizens to commit a crime.
  • 2.  Nice car  Large, expensive house  Flashy clothes and jewelry  Well-paying job  Advanced education  Vacation homes, condos and cottages  Notoriety  “Toys” such as boats, jet skis, 4 wheelers, RV’s
  • 3.  By working as a legitimate, law-abiding, dedicated and hardworking citizen. There is no other way around it.  If you try and obtain the goals (large house, nice car, fancy clothes) by any other means than the acceptable way (working and being law-abiding) then you are seen as a deviant.
  • 4.  Adaptation means: a change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment.  The majority of us adapt our behavior in order to obtain the things our society deems as normal and successful.  These are the 5 Modes of Adaptation:  Conformity  Innovation  Ritualism  Retreatism  Rebellion
  • 5.  Behavior in accordance with socially accepted conventions or standards  It is the most common reaction: People accept cultural goals and institutionalized means.  *People who conform are least likely to become criminal.  *These are the people who want the conventional goals of success (large house) and agree to the means in which to obtain them (work and obey the law).
  • 6.  It is where individuals accept cultural goals but come up with their own means.  *Innovators are most likely to become criminal.  *The people want what society deems as successful and normal but does not want to do the things that society says is normal in order to obtain these things, therefore, they break the law in order to obtain the things that will make them look like they are normal and successful.
  • 7.  Believe that cultural goals are unattainable but still accept institutional means. They are unlikely to become criminal but are likely to be seen as unusual or deviant.  *These people may have blue hair, piercings, wear second-hand clothes or live off of the land. They do not conform to what society says is a normal successful person, however, they do not break the law to get what they want and still ive their lives as they see fit.
  • 8.  The rejection of both cultural goals and definition of success and the conventional accepted means of obtaining them.  They are likely to become deviant and retreat into the world of drugs/alcohol.  *These types of people see success as unobtainable and also reject the means of obtaining the symbols of success and therefore have no goals and will retreat into drug/alcohol abuse because they do not care about the conventional goal of being successful.
  • 9.  It is the rejection of both cultural goals and acceptable means of obtaining it. Rebels are likely to be viewed differently from other criminals, because they are committing acts for the greater good, rather than for personal. They try to replace cultural goals/means.  *These people reject what society defines as successful and creates their own definition and comes up with their own ways of obtaining, which often involves breaking the law.
  • 10.  If social bonds are strong, then conformity is more likely and deviance less likely; if bonds are weak then deviance is more likely.  Four Main Concepts or Elements of Social Bonding Theory :  1. Attachment 2. Commitment 3. Involvement 4. Beliefs
  • 11.  -close, affective ties to others; identification with others (the more insensitive we are with others the less we care about their values i.e. psychopaths etc.)  1. Attachment to parents 2. Attachment to peers 3. Attachment to school
  • 12.  staked in conformity; investment in social, conventional lines of action; careers, education, etc. Involvement  participation in conventional "lines of activity" 1. Time - amount taken up with conforming activities 2. Engrossment/importance
  • 13.  General beliefs in conventional values and roles of society 1. General conforming and law-abiding beliefs 2. Conventional morality, values 3. Religious beliefs
  • 14.  Often we look to see if one or more of the following systems is missing from a criminals social life:  -Family: produces children, teaches them fundamental values (ex. Belief in merits of hard work, regard for property, respect for others) - Schools: provide basic knowledge and work skills and re- enforce fundamental values - Religion: supports basic values, provides spiritual avenue to cope with social and personal problems - Economy: allows individuals to work, earn and spend  A lack of one or more of these will indicate a predisposition to criminal behavior.  Predisposition-a tendency to act in a particular way
  • 15.  Behavioral contagion is defined as the spread of a particular type of behavior through exposure to it.  Example: if a person lacks a conventional role model and they spend all of their time with their criminal uncle then they will begin to emulate their uncles actions and become criminal themselves.
  • 16.  Shared parental resources include: the parents' time, emotional and physical energy, attention, and ability to interact with children as individuals.  The parents' material resources include: the ability to provide shelter, food, clothing, personal living space, cultural advantages such as travel, specialized instruction such as music lessons, specialized medical or dental care, as well as continuous and advanced schooling.  *Children from small families can thus extract more individual attention, resources, and interactions from their parents.
  • 17.  Being abused or neglected as a child increases the likelihood of arrest as a juvenile by 59 percent, as an adult by 28 percent, and for a violent crime by 30 percent according to one study that looked at more than 1,500 cases over time .
  • 18.  Example: a mother who was manic depressive and abused alcohol and drugs while pregnant.  The early years of a child’s life is crucial for development and negative experiences during this period, such as prolonged maltreatment, physical abuse or neglect, can over activate the stress response system, causing neurological deficits that predispose an individual to criminal behavior.
  • 19.  Media such as violent books, TV shows, video games, movies, news stories etc.  Home life: may be in foster care, adopted, live with a single parent, or have a high number of siblings that contribute to resource dilution  Having a low socioeconomic status
  • 20.  Premeditated: or first degree murder is when somebody will make a plan to kill somebody and carry out that plan all the while knowing that it is against the law  Crime of Passion: or second degree murder is when somebody loses their temper and kills somebody in the heat of the moment  Which one do you think is more dangerous?
  • 21.  Although manslaughter and third degree murder has different definitions in different states, it is often defined as murder occurring without the intent to murder.  An example of that would be reckless driving.
  • 22.  Aggravating factors: factors that increases the severity or fault of a criminal act.  EXAMPLES:  Heinousness of the crime  Lack of remorse  Prior conviction of another crime.
  • 23.  Mitigating Factors: any information or evidence presented to the court regarding the defendant or the circumstances of the crime that might result in reduced charges or a lesser sentence  EXAMPLES:  The defendant’s age  The defendant’s mental capacity  The crime was an accident  Self defense  Provocation or "heat of passion"  The defendant repented from his actions
  • 24.  Latin for: Method of operation  the actions used by the individual(s) to execute the crime, prevent its detection and/or facilitate escape, and the weapons used  When determining the M.O. ask yourself:  What did they do to plan ahead? What procedures did they follow to make sure they didn’t get caught? How did they plan to escape? What weapons were used?
  • 25.  Accessory: a person who helps out in the commission of a crime but didn’t actually partake physically.  Example: a person mentioning to the criminal that so- and-so carries around a lot of money  Accomplice: a person who is present and participates in some way.  Examples: helped hide the body, helped break into the house or was the get-away driver.
  • 26. The Victim  Who are they?  How do they become a victim?
  • 27.  A primary victim is a person who is injured as a direct result of an act of violence being committed against them  A secondary victim of an act of violence can be a parent secondary victim or a witness secondary victim
  • 28.  The Precipitation Theory  The Lifestyle Theory  The Deviant Place Theory  The Routine Activities Theory
  • 29.  suggests that some people cause or initiate a particular confrontation that may eventually lead to that person becoming victimized by injury or death.  Active precipitation exists when the victim knowingly acts in a provocative manner, uses fighting words or threats, or simply attacks first.  Passive precipitation however, occurs when the victim contains characteristics that unknowingly motivates or threatens the attacker. (female, elderly, young, mentally ill, physically disabled etc.)
  • 30.  those whose lifestyle increases criminal exposure are more likely to become victims of crime. Behaviors such as going out late at night, associating with younger men, and residing in cities increases the chances of falling victim to crime. Therefore, one can reduce their chance of becoming a victim by staying home at night, living in a suburban area, avoiding public areas, getting married, and making more money. Therefore, the lifestyle theory holds that crime is not random but instead is a function of an individual's chosen lifestyle
  • 31.  Those who choose high-risk lifestyles which include taking drugs, drinking, and participating in criminal activities run a much higher risk of becoming victims. Also, the more time someone is exposed to street life, the greater their chance of becoming victims. Young men in particular have a very high risk of victimization. College students who tend to spend several nights partying each week are also more likely to be at risk than those who avoid such unstable lifestyles. Those who commit crimes increase their chances of becoming victim of crimes as well.
  • 32.  This theory holds that victims do not motivate crime but rather are prone to becoming victims simply because they live in social areas that are disorganized and contain high-crime rates and therefore have the highest risk of coming into contact with criminals regardless of their lifestyle or behavior. The more someone visits a high-crime area, the more chances they will have at becoming a victim. Such places are poor and highly populated.
  • 33.  This theory is closely linked to three variable interactions that present the typical 'routine activities' executed in an American traditional lifestyle: (1) available and suitable targets such as unlocked homes that contain salable goods, (2) the lack of proper guardians such as police, homeowners, and neighbors, and (3) the existence of encouraged offenders such as addicts, teenage boys, and those who are unemployed.  The presence of such components increases the probability that predatory crime will occur. Therefore, targets are more likely to become victim to crime if they are engaging in dangerous behaviors, lack guidance, and are frequently exposed to a large population of motivated offenders