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Ppt family violence and family policy


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Ppt family violence and family policy

  1. 1. Agenda <ul><li>Discuss observations </li></ul><ul><li>Review sheets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Race and Ethnic Variations Chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Themes from gender questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review outlines 7&8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family Socialization use the next two slides as your outline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Family Stress and Violence & Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Student opinion surveys </li></ul>
  2. 2. Observations <ul><li>What did you observe in relation to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>socialization patterns of families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex/ Gender role </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parent-child attachment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Closeness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Warmth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsiveness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demandingness </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Using your observations <ul><li>How would you describe parental socialization from the following perspectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning/Behaviorist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoanalytic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic Interaction </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter 13: Family Stress and Violence
  5. 5. Social Stresses on Families <ul><li>Stressor events are sources of stress and situations for which families have little or no preparation. </li></ul><ul><li>Hardships are complications in a crisis-precipitating event. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress is pressure in the family system, and is an outcome of an event that disturbs, which in turn, disrupts the family system. </li></ul>
  6. 6. ABCX Model of Stress <ul><li>This model is used to explain why different families respond so differently to particular events and circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>The model uses the formula </li></ul><ul><li>A + (B + C) =X to examine the concept of family adequacy . </li></ul>
  7. 7. ABCX Model of Stress <ul><li>Factor A is the stressor event. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The source of the event influences how it affects the family. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External events tend to solidify the group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal events may be more disruptive because they reflect on the family’s internal adequacy. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. ABCX Model of Stress <ul><li>Factor B refers to the resources the family has to meet the crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>Factor C refers to the extent to which the family defines the event as a crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>Factor X refers to the crisis-proneness or degree of stress. </li></ul><ul><li>The level of stress is caused by a deficiency in resources and a tendency to define hardships as crisis producing. </li></ul>
  9. 9. A + (B + C) =X + = Family Stress
  10. 10. A + (B + C) =X + = Family Stress
  11. 11. Variations in the ABCX Model <ul><li>McCubbin and others proposed a longitudinal model that distinguishes between pre- and post-crisis events. </li></ul><ul><li>They added the idea of “pile up” to the model. </li></ul><ul><li>The Double ABCX Model examines the concept of family adaptation . </li></ul><ul><li>Walker proposed expanding the model to incorporate macro level dimensions such as historical and socio-cultural context. </li></ul>
  12. 12. A + (B + C) =X
  13. 13. Violence in Families and Among Intimates <ul><li>any act that is carried out with the intention of causing physical harm to legally related individuals or those in close primary relationships </li></ul><ul><li>People in the U.S. are more likely to be physically assaulted, raped or killed by their loved ones than by strangers. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Myths of Family Violence <ul><li>The family is nonviolent. </li></ul><ul><li>Abusers are aliens and victims are innocents. </li></ul><ul><li>Abuse is confined to poor, minority families. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol and drugs are the real causes of intimate violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Children who are abused grow up to be abusers. </li></ul><ul><li>Battered women like being hit. </li></ul><ul><li>Violence and love are incompatible. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Causes of Family Violence <ul><li>Psychological and medical theories attribute violence to individual psychopathology or alcohol or drug use. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Antisocial personality disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social psychological theories attribute violence to social learning, exchange, and interaction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Parents model behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Socio-cultural theories locate the source of violence in cultural belief systems and the structure of social institutions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Culture that supports violence against women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video (min16) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interpret the video from one of the lenses </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Causes of Family Violence <ul><li>Straus and Smith identified five key social factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intra-family conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Male dominance in family and society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural norms permitting family violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family socialization in violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pervasiveness of violence </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Child Abuse and Violence <ul><li>Corporal Punishment is legal and defined as an acceptable method of discipline. </li></ul>
  18. 18. According to the Attorney General Child Abuse laws <ul><li>specifically exclude “reasonable” discipline by the child’s parent, guardian, or conservator; corporal punishment is not in itself abusive under the law. An act or omission is abusive only if “observable and material impairment” occurs as a result, or if it causes “substantial harm,” or exposes the child to risk of substantial harm. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Child Abuse and Violence <ul><li>Corporal Punishment is legal and defined as an acceptable method of discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>It induces children to conform in the immediate situation, but may increase the probability of delinquency in adolescence and crime in adulthood. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cultural Spillover Theory <ul><li>Violence in one life sphere tends to engender violence in other spheres by promoting the use of force to attain the desired ends. </li></ul><ul><li>The more a society uses force in one area, the greater the tendency for force to be used in other areas. </li></ul><ul><li>In what life spheres do we allow violence in the US? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Child Sexual Abuse <ul><li>Children are assumed to be incapable of consenting to sex with an adult because they lack the power to decline involvement, and often do not understand what they are consenting to. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Age of consent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>27% of women and 16% of men report having been sexually abused as a child. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average age: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Girls is 9/10 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boys it is 6/7 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Abusers are most likely to be male, and to be non-biologically related caretakers. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Other forms of Abuse in the Family <ul><li>Parent Abuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent attempts to conceal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wife and Female Partner Abuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twice as common in cohabitating couples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common couple violence vs Patriarchal terrorism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rape among Intimates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rape is forced sex without consent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marital rape is now illegal in every state. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Why Do Women Stay? <ul><li>Learned helplessness </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological entrapment </li></ul><ul><li>Investments </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoned action/planned behavior </li></ul>
  24. 24. Husband and Male Partner Abuse <ul><li>Little is known about this phenomenon because men are reluctant to admit that they have been beaten. </li></ul><ul><li>Feminists fear that attention to male abuse will detract from efforts to end abuse of females. </li></ul><ul><li>Women are more likely to be injured by family violence, thus making male victims less visible. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Mutual Abuse and Violence in Couples <ul><li>Mutual abuse is the use of physical violence and verbal aggression by both partners in an intimate relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Women express greater fear and suffer more from intimate violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Children who witness parental violence are vulnerable to behavioral and emotional difficulties. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Sibling Abuse and Violence <ul><li>The most frequent and accepted form of family violence is sibling violence . </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive acts are explained away as sibling rivalry or jealousy. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Elderly Abuse and Violence <ul><li>Five types of elder abuse: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive neglect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active neglect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal or emotional abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elderly women who are frail, disabled, and living with the perpetrator are most at risk for mistreatment. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Violence Among Other Intimates <ul><li>Violence during dating and courtship is common. </li></ul><ul><li>Low parental support and involvement is associated with teen dating violence. </li></ul><ul><li>One-fourth of females have experienced forced sexual contact. </li></ul><ul><li>Men who are traditional in sex role beliefs tend to be more sexually aggressive. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Treating and Preventing Family Violence <ul><li>The ABCX model suggests that persons react to family violence by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enduring it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fighting back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escaping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This depends on the meaning attached to the violence (C), as well as the resources the person has available (B). </li></ul>
  30. 30. Treating and Preventing Family Violence <ul><li>Violence prevention must be directed at two factors that make it possible for people to abuse those they love: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elimination of cultural norms and values that accept violence as a legitimate means of resolving conflict; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of the internal and external stresses and inequalities that strain families. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Chapter 15: Family Social Policy
  32. 32. Meaning and Use of Family Policy <ul><li>Family policy refers to a set of goals or objectives for families that governmental bodies or social organizations try to achieve through structured activities or programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Programs are practical applications used to achieve or fulfill the intended goals. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Explicit versus Implicit Family Policy <ul><li>Explicit family policy is directed specifically at families with the intent to achieve precise family outcomes or objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit family policy has unstated goals, but may affect families tremendously. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Goals of Family Policy Research <ul><li>Establish family policy </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate existing family policy </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the impact of family policy </li></ul>
  35. 35. Issues Surrounding Family Policy <ul><li>Goals and objectives of family policy </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of policy control </li></ul><ul><li>Public versus private positions </li></ul><ul><li>Preventative or ameliorative policy </li></ul><ul><li>Biological or relationship policy </li></ul><ul><li>Macro- versus micro-level policy </li></ul>
  36. 36. Goals and Objectives of Family Policy <ul><li>Conventionals want social policy to maintain the status quo. </li></ul><ul><li>Progressives support policies that recognize multiple family forms and facilitate social change. </li></ul>
  37. 37. For example <ul><li>“ Children are entitled to care, security, and a good upbringing. Children are to be treated with respect for their person and individuality and may not be subjected to physical punishment or other injurious or humiliating treatment.&quot; </li></ul>
  38. 38. Levels of Policy Control <ul><li>The U.S. has no federal family policy. </li></ul><ul><li>States control marriage, divorce, and child welfare. </li></ul><ul><li>States are subject to decisions made by the U.S. Supreme Court (such as those on abortion rights). </li></ul>
  39. 39. Public versus Private Positions <ul><li>The privacy position suggests that the family is a matter of personal concern and behaviors within intimate relationships are off-limits to others. </li></ul><ul><li>The public position suggests that the state has a right and obligation to establish boundaries regarding what happens in private. </li></ul>
  40. 40. For example <ul><li>“ Children are entitled to care, security, and a good upbringing. Children are to be treated with respect for their person and individuality and may not be subjected to physical punishment or other injurious or humiliating treatment.&quot; </li></ul>
  41. 41. Preventative or Ameliorative Policy <ul><li>A preventative family policy would be directed toward all families in an attempt to prevent problems in intimate relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>An ameliorative family policy would be directed towards groups in need of assistance because of problems. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Biological or Relationship Policy <ul><li>Policies with a biological focus emphasize heterosexual marriage, conception, and birth ties. </li></ul><ul><li>Policies with a social relationship focus emphasize intimate attachments. </li></ul>
  43. 43. For example <ul><li>“ Children are entitled to care, security, and a good upbringing. Children are to be treated with respect for their person and individuality and may not be subjected to physical punishment or other injurious or humiliating treatment.&quot; </li></ul>
  44. 44. Micro- versus Macro- Level Policy <ul><li>Micro-level policy focuses on persons and patterns of interaction in daily life. </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling is an appropriate strategy for dealing with a micro-level problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Macro-level policy focuses on social systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the structure of institutions is appropriate for dealing with macro-level problems. </li></ul>