Chapter 4


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Chapter 4

  1. 1. Violence and Abuse
  2. 2. Violence in Society <ul><li>Every society tolerates certain controlled uses of force. For example, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanking misbehaving children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Playing contact sports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Violence refers to the interpersonal uses of force that are not socially sanctioned. </li></ul><ul><li>No gender or life stage is exempt. </li></ul><ul><li>Hate crimes target certain groups of people. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Terms Related to Violence <ul><li>Assault —intentional use of force to injure another person physically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, shoving, slapping, punching, kicking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abuse —taking advantage of a relationship to mistreat someone, often using frequent threats of force </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, spouse abuse, child abuse, elder abuse </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Violence and Health <ul><li>Physical injuries range from minor cuts or bruises and lost teeth to broken bones and firearm or knife injuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Rape victims may need immediate treatment to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections or unintended pregnancies. </li></ul><ul><li>Death is the most serious consequence of violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological damage (i.e., anxiety and depression) and strained family relationships are also consequences. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Violence and Abuse: Contributing Factors <ul><li>There is no single cause of violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Contributing factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substance abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to firearms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learned behavior—home and media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children witnessing acts of abuse or violence between parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual media often glamorize violent people (TV, movies, computer games) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Sexual Violence <ul><li>Sexual activity gained through force, threat of force, or coercion </li></ul><ul><li>Rape —sexual intercourse by force or with a person incapable of legal consent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the United States, 1 in 6 women and 1 in 33 men have been victims of an attempted or completed rape. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most female victims are raped by someone they know. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most male victims are raped by strangers and acquaintances. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Reporting Sexual Assault <ul><li>Sexual crimes are underreported. </li></ul><ul><li>Shame, embarrassment, and feeling partially to blame prevent victims from reporting sexual assaults. </li></ul><ul><li>Victims may fear further victimization and negative reactions from others. </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation of all evidence, obtaining medical attention, and notifying the police is crucial. </li></ul><ul><li>Rape crisis centers assist victims in this process. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Family (Domestic) Violence <ul><li>A pattern of behavior characterized by physical assaults, psychological abuse, or threats between family members, intimate partners, or unrelated people who live together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes spouse, child, and elder abuse </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Intimate Partner Violence <ul><li>This includes actual or threatened physical or sexual violence as well as emotional abuse by a current or former intimate partner. </li></ul><ul><li>Acts range from slapping, shoving, and punching to beating and murder. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal and emotional abuse usually accompany physical violence. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Factors That Contribute to Intimate Partner Violence <ul><li>Having a low income </li></ul><ul><li>Being unemployed or in a low-status occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Witnessing violence between parents as a child </li></ul><ul><li>Using alcohol and other drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Having low self-esteem and being highly dependent on intimate partner </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Intentional use of annoying and offensive sexually related comments or behaviors to intimidate or coerce others into sexual activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwelcome requests for dates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexually offensive jokes, lewd comments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touching and fondling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The person should be confronted and told to discontinue the behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Legal action can be taken. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Stalking <ul><li>Willful and repeated following and harassing another person. </li></ul><ul><li>Most stalkers are lonely, emotionally disturbed men who have been rejected by their partners. </li></ul><ul><li>Victims experience severe emotional distress and are at risk of being physically attacked by stalker. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Community Violence <ul><li>Occurs in public settings (i.e., street corners, bars). </li></ul><ul><li>Gangs attract adolescents whose safety, belonging, and self-identity needs are met by associating with the gang. </li></ul><ul><li>Gang association increases a member’s risk of being murdered. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Institutional Violence: Schools <ul><li>Most acts of institutional violence occur in schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Involve attacks on peers, teachers, and school administrators. </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts are underway to identify potential troublemakers in schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Youth prone to become violent tend to have difficulty controlling anger, are impulsive, bully others, and defy authority figures. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Institutional Violence: College Campuses <ul><li>Majority of rapes, robberies, and assaults occur to students living off campus. </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with use of drugs, especially alcohol, and the availability of guns. </li></ul><ul><li>Administrators of colleges and universities that receive federal funds must report numbers of specific campus crimes. </li></ul><ul><li>Security measures may include call boxes, escort services, improved lighting on campus, and limited visiting hours in residence halls. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Workplace Violence <ul><li>Acts of violence directed towards individuals who are performing their jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychiatric hospitals and prisons are the most dangerous workplaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Cab drivers, convenience store clerks, police, and security guards have a high risk of being murdered while working. </li></ul><ul><li>Work-related homicides are most likely to occur during armed robbery in grocery stores, restaurants, bars, and gas stations. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Workplace Violence (continued) <ul><li>People who have a high risk of becoming violent in workplaces include those who have been laid off, fired, or not promoted as well as men who: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are between 25 and 40 years of age </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are loners </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have marital and other family problems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appear angry and paranoid </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abuse alcohol and/or other drugs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blame others for their problems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Terrorism <ul><li>Terrorism is intentional violent acts against civilians to produce extreme fear, property damage, and numerous deaths. </li></ul><ul><li>Major purpose—to frighten people and make them feel vulnerable and helpless. </li></ul><ul><li>Arsenal includes bombs, poisonous chemicals, life-threatening infectious agents, and hijacked airplanes as missiles. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Risk Factors for Violence <ul><li>Family disruption (i.e., separation, divorce, desertion) </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of criminal or drug-addicted parents </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood conditions (i.e., high rates of unemployment) </li></ul><ul><li>Social isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Large number of children in family or presence of children with special needs </li></ul><ul><li>Schools with poor discipline and low expectations for student performance </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of alcohol, illegal drugs, and guns </li></ul>
  20. 20. Preventing Violence <ul><li>Improved street lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood watch organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Surveillance by closed-circuit cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of “risky” situations </li></ul><ul><li>Home security </li></ul><ul><li>Moving to a safer neighborhood </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding unsafe places </li></ul>
  21. 21. Preventing Violence (continued) <ul><li>Don’t go out alone at night </li></ul><ul><li>Lock car doors upon entering the car </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid dangerous people </li></ul><ul><li>Display friendly attitude, good manners, tact, and diplomacy </li></ul><ul><li>Consider taking self-defense lessons </li></ul>
  22. 22. If You Are Attacked… <ul><li>Report the situation to police. </li></ul><ul><li>Seek early treatment of emotional distress; services include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marital counseling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Couple therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial and legal aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family therapy </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Across the Life Span <ul><li>Child Physical Abuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This includes beating, squeezing, burning, cutting, suffocating, binding, or poisoning a child. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most acts of violence against children are committed by parents and other adults the victims know. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children under age 2 are most at risk of dying as a result of physical violence. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Across the Life Span (continued) <ul><li>Abusive parents often: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have unrealistic expectations and distorted notions about the causes of their child’s behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are under stress and isolated from others who could help </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Across the Life Span (continued) <ul><li>Childhood Sexual Abuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedophiles are sexually attracted to and fantasize about having physical contact with children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The child molester acts on sexual urges by having sexual activity with children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most molesters are heterosexual males who generally target 8- to 10-year-old girls. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The abuser is usually known and trusted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incest is sexual abuse by a family member. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventing child sexual abuse involves teaching children how to recognize and report sexual abuse. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Across the Life Span (continued) <ul><li>Elder Abuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elder abuse is physical, sexual, and/or psychological abuse that occurs in family settings, hospitals, and nursing homes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abusers are most likely to be spouses or adult children who care for victims. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report situations of elder abuse or neglect to a local adult protective services agency. </li></ul></ul>