2011 survey egypt_1


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  • Death mask of Tutankhamun (“King Tut”), ca. 1323 BCThis tomb symbolizes all that is great in Ancient Egyptian Civilization (slide 2) Their civilization was long a mystery – associated with much treasure and grand architecture, a very profilic society, lasting a very long timeOther than the objects found, very little was known until the 19th century when the troops of Napoleon Bonaparte invaded EgyptHe took with him a group of scholars to investigate the civilization
  • They found the Rosetta Stone”: Inscription in 3 languages: Greek, demotic (Late Egyptian) and hieroglyphic (slide 4)Previously, many texts that were found on Egyptian artifacts could not be deciphered 
  • Slide 5 – Egypt was divided by the Nile :Upper and Lower EgyptLower contains the Delta in the northUpper Egypt is slighty upstream from that
  • Slide 8 – there was a political unification of the entire areaUnififed under King Narmor – he succeeding in unifying lower and upper EgyptHe produced the Palette of King Narmor, Egypt, ca. 3000 BC which takes the form of a holder for eye makeup Eye makeup was very important in Ancient Egypt for daily wear and Palace and Religious ritualSymbolic of rituals that took place, shows images that suggest political historyShows King Narmor through hierarchy of scaleUnclear the meaning of the images, was before it could be deciphersKing wearing the crown associated with rulers of Upper EgyptImage of boat with sprouting reeds – a plant of the NileStele with law code of Hammurabi, found at Susa (Mesopotamia). 1780 BC. (slide 9)Mesopotamia’s showed that their rulers were given power by the godsHowever, in Egypt, the rulers themselves were seen as godsCalled Pharaohs – concept of ruler in Egypt combines the idea of god and rulerNo need to show a transfer of power in artPharaohs were associated with their other god ancestors, they were also associated with animalsHorus – the primary god was a bird (eagle?/)
  • Animal figures – female faced bull figures, also female figures of fish: these symbols spoken in English make up the first two syllables of the word “Narmor”The sounds of that these images symbolize make up wordsIn between the fish, a symbol that shows the royal authority of the kingOn the back side, where the makeup would have been placed, intertwining creatures – symbolizing the unification of Upper and Lower EgyptHe is shown leading away captives that he later has murdered or decapitatedPolitical statement – subjugation of Upper and Lower Egypt Persepolis, Terrace of the royal audience hall (apadana), processional frieze, ca. 520 BC (slide 10)Later Mesopotamian art – a ruler is shown dominating over captured peoples, the captives pay homage to the rulerIn Egypt, the ruler is shown as violently subjugating his captives (murder and decapitation)
  • Most of what we know from Egypt comes from archaeological finds – primarily tombs – slide 11Mastaba has a grand front entrance, this was a false entrance to trick thieves into thinking the ruler was buried here, then an elevated standup chamber that contained a statue of the rulerThe actual burial was in the roof, conceal and to preserve the bodies of the deceased, especially the PharaohsIt was essential to ensure that the bodies were intactIt was believed that the spirit Kah would inhabit the deceased body in the afterlifeEgyptians became experts in mummifications and soaking the body in various types of lotions and oilsOnce the organs had been removed, the body was mummified and encased in an elaborate coffinA mask was placed on the body that primarily contained décor that suggested royalty (crowns, jewelry, etc.)It was strongly believed that only through preservation of the body would the deceased be able to enter life after death 
  • The concept of creating a space for life after death lead to the creation of pyramids – similar to the form of the ZigguratAt first were step like pyramids, however Ziggurats were built as temples for religious practices, while Egyptians built them as tombsImhotep (architect), stepped pyramid for the Pharoah (King) Djoser at Saqqara Egypt. Third Dynasty, ca. 2630 BCWhat is significant about this site is that we know the name of the architect – Imhotep: slide 13He was revered as someone that was god-likeAround this pyramid was a large funerary site, called an acropolis: a burial complex or cityhis entire court was buried with him
  • slide 14 – these extremely monumental buildings were primarily for the deceased: Stepped pyramid of King Djoser – schematic drawings of necropolis (burial complex) and pyramid.Consequently, we know very little about how the Egyptians actually lived
  • The designs usually imitate natural growthsThis is a reoccurring device in architecture
  • Represents the end of the high point in development of this architectureAs time went on, the guiding principle of Egyptian culture became to preserve oneself for the afterlife
  • Slide 17 – pyramids are so large that they can be seen from satellite imagesThis image also shows that the Nile divides the land so that it is fertile up until the area where it is arid and dry – the area where pharaohs chose to build their tombs
  • There was a great fear that the tombs would not be preserved – they had to remain undisturbed so as to ensure safe entrance to the afterlife (slide 18)Secret shafts were created and builders came up with several methods to fool potential thievesBodies themselves were no longer buried within the ground, they were buried in the upper portion of the pyramids – accessible through internal galleries (filled with grand art)Vents were created for these chambers, too narrow for anyone to fit in – could have been how the spirit would enter and exit
  • Sun god Ra (Ré) another primary god – thought that the large pyramids could be so that the deceased god could step up the large buildings and ascend into the skyModel of Fourth Dynasty pyramid complex at Gizeh built for the Pharaohs Menkaure, Khafre and Khuf: slide 19 
  • Building of the pyramids was a huge technological achievementMany tons of stone and man power were required for the buildings of these tombsLifestyles revolved around ensuring the preservation of their Pharaoh for their afterlifePyramids would have been covered with white limestone to reflect the sun – a symbol of the sun godGuarding the acropolis was an image of the Sphinx – represents the pharaoh themselvesModel of Fourth Dynasty pyramid complex at Gizeh Built for the Pharaohs Menkaure, Khafre and Khufu Originally they were images that would combine features of each ruler themselves with the mythological creatureSlide 21 – recreation of what it would’ve looked like painted with white limestone and gold and blue paint – to symbolize lapis lazuli
  • The ruler would have been dressed in comfortable luxurious clothing to ensure comfort in the afterlifeLots of sculpture was also found: The pharaoh Khafre enthroned. From Gizeh. Fourth Dynasty 2520-2494 BC. Diorite. (slide 22)This was found in Khafre’s acropolis – carved from one monumental piece of stone (this type of stone was seen before in depicting Mesopotamian rulers)Same mentality of using an extremely heavy stone as to make it permanentShown at the height of his youth (although he died as an old man)He is depicted in the height of his strength and youth – so this was how he would exist in the afterlifeA stylized image of him when he was at his highest point in lifeThis type of sculpture differs from those that do not depict rulersSeated scribe. From Saqqara, Egypt. Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2500 BC. Painted limestone.Not a ruler, but a worker in the Pharaoh’s courtThis image is made of limestone (different than others) and is painted to suggest a life like quality (moreso than the pharaoh figure)The form of the body is not idealized – this figure shows an old man with wrinkles, flabby bodyA more realistic portrait of a personDifference of representing royal authority for the afterlife and someone not of royal authorityDoes not have the right to enter the afterlife
  • 2011 survey egypt_1

    1. 1. Egypt: Old Kingdom<br />Death mask of Tutankhamun (“King Tut”), ca. 1323 BC<br />
    2. 2. “Rosetta Stone”: Inscription in 3 languages: Greek, demotic (Late Egyptian) and heiroglyphic<br />
    3. 3.
    4. 4. Palette of King Narmor, Egypt, ca. 3000 BC<br />Stele with law code of Hammurabi, found at Susa (Mesopotamia). 1780 BC.<br />
    5. 5. Persepolis, Terrace of the royal audience hall (apadana), processional frieze, ca. 520 BC<br />Palette of King Narmor, Egypt, ca. 3000 BC<br />
    6. 6. Typical EgyptionMastaba tombs:<br />1. Chapel, 2. False door, 3. Shaft into burial chamber<br />4. Serdab chamber (for statue of the deceased), 5. Burial chamber<br />
    7. 7. Imhotep (architect), stepped pyramid for the Pharoah (King) Djoser at Saqqara Egypt. Third Dynasty, ca. 2630 BC<br />
    8. 8. Stepped pyramid of King Djoser – schematic drawings of <br />necropolis (burial complex) and pyramid.<br />
    9. 9. Detail of columns in the necropolis of Djoser<br /><ul><li>These are engagedcolumns – they are attached to the wall, not freestanding.
    10. 10. The column shafts resemble papyrus stalks.
    11. 11. They end in capitals at the top. The capitals resemble papyrus blossoms.</li></li></ul><li>Great Pyramids at Gizeh, Egypt. Fourth Dynasty, 2550-2470 BC<br />
    12. 12.
    13. 13.
    14. 14. Model of Fourth Dynasty pyramid complex at Gizeh<br />Built for the Pharaohs Menkaure, Khafre and Khufu<br />
    15. 15.
    16. 16. Seated scribe. From Saqqara, Egypt. Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2500 BC. Painted limestone.<br />The pharaoh Khafre enthroned. From Gizeh, Egypt. Fourth Dynasty 2520-2494 BC. Diorite.<br />