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2011 survey islam_i

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2011 survey islam_i

  1. 1. Early Islamic art and architecture<br />
  2. 2. Islam <br />Religion founded by Muhammad (570-630), who is revered as Islam’s Final Prophet<br />Ca. 570: birth of Muhammad at Mecca<br />610: Muhammad begins preaching a religion of one God after receiving revelations from God (“Allah” in Arabic)<br />622: The Hijra = Flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina<br />630: Muhammad captures Mecca with an army of 10,000 believers, destroys pre-Islamic idols, preserves the Kaaba as the Islamic world’s symbolic center<br />632: Death of Muhammad at Medina<br />• Islam means “submission (to Allah’s will)”.<br />• Believers are called Muslims (“those who <br /> submit”).<br />• Sacred book of Islam is the Koran (“recitations”) <br /> – references the archangel Gabriel’s <br /> instructions to Muhammad in 610 to recite <br /> the verses in the name of Allah.<br />Kaaba at Mecca<br />
  3. 3. Islam <br />Religion founded by Muhammad (570-630), who is revered as Islam’s Final Prophet<br />Ca. 570: birth of Muhammad at Mecca<br />610: Muhammad begins preaching a religion of one God after receiving revelations from God (“Allah” in Arabic)<br />622: The Hijra = Flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina<br />630: Muhammad captures Mecca with an army of 10,000 believers, destroys pre-Islamic idols, preserves the Kaaba as the Islamic world’s symbolic center<br />632: Death of Muhammad at Medina<br />• Islam means “submission (to Allah’s will)”.<br />• Believers are called Muslims (“those who <br /> submit”).<br />• Sacred book of Islam is the Koran (“recitations”) <br /> – references the archangel Gabriel’s <br /> instructions to Muhammad in 610 to recite <br /> the verses in the name of Allah.<br />Five pillars of Islam:1. Profession of faith in one God, Allah, and that Muhammad was His final Prophet<br />2. Recitation of prayers five times a day while facing in the direction of Mecca<br />3. Fasting during the month of Ramadan<br />4. Charitable giving of alms to the poor<br />5. Making a pilgrimage (“hajj”) at least once in one’s lifetime to Mecca<br />
  4. 4. Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock, 687-692. Built by Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik<br />
  5. 5. Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock, 687-692<br />
  6. 6. Dome of the Rock, <br />view of interior, and plan of the building<br />
  7. 7. Ravenna, Italy, Church of San Vitale, 526-547<br />Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock, 687-692<br />
  8. 8. Rome, Santa Costanza, 337-351<br />Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock, 687-692<br />
  9. 9. Rome, Santa Costanza, 337-351. Detail of mosaic ceiling<br />Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock, 687-692. Detail of wall mosaics<br />
  10. 10. Ravenna, San Vitale, Detail of mosaics in the apse of the church, 6th century<br />Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock, 687-692. Detail of wall mosaics<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Damascus, Syria.<br />Great Mosque, 706-715<br />Built by Umayyad caliph al-Walid<br />
  13. 13. Damascus, Syria.<br />Great Mosque, 706-715<br />
  14. 14. Damascus, Syria.<br />Great Mosque, detail of mihrab and minbar. Both are placed along the qibla wall.<br />
  15. 15. Damascus, Syria.<br />Great Mosque, 706-715<br />Detail of mosaic<br />
  16. 16. Mshatta palace, Jordan, 740-750. <br />Now removed to a museum in Berlin, Germany<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Mausoleum of the Samanids, Bukhara, Uzbekistan, early 10th century<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. Great Mosque, Cordoba, Spain. <br />8th – 10th centuries<br />Built by the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Rahman I<br />
  21. 21. Cordoba, Spain, Great Mosque. Prayer hall begun 784.<br />
  22. 22. Cordoba, Spain. Maqsura of the Great Mosque, 961-965<br />
  23. 23. Cordoba, Spain. Dome in front of mihrab of the Great Mosque, 961-965.<br />
  24. 24. Koran page, beginning of surah (verse) 18, “Al-Kahf”, (The Cave), 9th cent.<br />Now in the Chester Beatty Library and <br />Oriental Art Gallery, Dublin, Ireland<br />

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