Youth statue – represents idealized beauty – extremely popular in the 6 th century – the archaic period. Used as an offering in a sanctuary. There is no shift in weight from one leg to the other, he remains in one space. This is derived from Egyptian sculptures, until the Greeks become in contact with Egyptians towards the end of the 7 th century, they are not creating as many life size sculptures as this – they were of a much smaller scale. This sculpture comes fro Anayvsos, a site near Athens.
The base of the sculpture was also found and the inscription states: “Stay and Mourn at the Monument of Kroisos, cut down by violent Ares (the god of war) from fighting in the front ranks of the army.” This tells us that he is a soldier fulfilling his civic duty fighting battle, that this is presumably a grave marker, and that he is of importance that came from a family that could afford to have this statue commissioned. The inscription does not say that this is a depiction of Kroisos – but this is more of a representation of him in this ideal form – the nude was the ideal form of a human. His name, Kroisos, is not a Greek name – Croesus, who was the King of Lydia, who sent the question to the Oracle at Delphi.
From Athens itself – going back to the period when there was still a Tyranny in Athens (kicked out in 511, with new Democracy founded in 509 BC). At a time when any male adult free citizen could hold office. Around the year 514, before the Tranny – a series of events occurred that lead to the assassination of one of the Tyrants. The brothers Hippias and Hipparkhos take over after the assassination – they were the sons of Pesistratos. They managed key control of government – until it happened that Hippias has a crush on the man Harmodios and Aristogeiton. Harmodios did not reciprocate the feelings – so he was told by Hippias and Hipparkhos that his sister could not participate in the Panatheniac festival - a huge insult. Harmodios and Aristogetion plotted to kill H and H, but Hippias escapes, and eventually falls out of favor with the public, and leads to the Democracy. However, Harmodios and Aristogetion were executed, but seen as heroes due to the fact that their actions led to the Democracy.
Their sculptures are set in in the Agora near the place where they were attacked – right by the entrance. The previous sculptures were not the first to have been created of the brothers, first by a sculpture named Antenor. The originals were looted during the Persians’ sack on the city. The Persians knew that these were heroes of Athenian democracy, so to teach them a lesson, they were taken. But, when the Athenians come back to Athens, they set up new bronze statues. There is a great deal of movement in the statues.
They are striding forward, ready to make active movements.
His mouth is slightly open, suggesting that he is saying something.
One is old, one is young – bearded vs. unbearded. Tyrannicides means the Tyrant heroes. This is a monument to democracy.
Up until, we have not seen a scultpure made during the lifetime of the depicted person. This is the general Perikles – the only position that could have been elected at that time. This is a bust set up on the acropolis by his sons, attributed to a sculpture named Kresilas. He is shown ready for battle, but not fighting. There is nothing individualized by this sculpture – beard marks him as a mature male, neutral expression. No particular identifying characteristics.
Perikles, in addition to carrying out the building plan of the acropolis, initiated during the beginning of the Peloponnesian War – against the Spartans. This was a conflict that lasted for over 30 years, he died from a plague during the second year of campaigning for the war. The war was being waged by the Democracy, so a new system of dealing with the war dead was created – based on from what had happen during the battle of Marathon – the soldiers were buried on the war ground itself. This happened again during this time, and it was called the Demosion Sema – the public marker for the soldier’s graveyard – and there were no individual markers. This shows a youthful Athenian soldier from the Calvary, striking down his enemy. This image is trying to show the unity of the democracy.