Comes from the Latin root, “currere”, which means “to run”.In educational usage, the “course of the race”, with time came to stand for the “course of study”.
•Curriculum may be classified as macro or generic and micro or specific.
• Common to all schools in the country.• The general course of studies mandated for all Philippine schools.• Made up of subject areas required of students to complete and earn credentials corresponding to a school level.
• For a particular school.• All brands have the same basic ingredients but each has its brand name and its own distinguishing features.• Refers to what learning expectations schools include in the prescribed subject areas.
• The sum of all learning content, experiences and resources that are purposely selected, organized and implemented by the school in pursuit of its peculiar mandate as a distinct institution of learning and human development.
• A specific word that connotes “change”. Change means any alternation or modification in the existing order of things.
• Purposeful change is change that is intentional or directional. There must be clearly specified targets or objectives. This kind of change is something that one wills or causes to happen.
• Planning in this case has two things: First, there is a series of systematic and sequential steps leading to a target. Secondly, these are executed over a period of time.
•Positive change brings about improvement. It takes a person or a group to higher levels of perfection.
• Webster Collegiate Dictionary (1986 Ed) = an assemblage of objects in some form of regular interdependence or interaction; an organic organized whole, as, the solar system or a telephone system.• In Management = some form of structure or operation, concept or function, composed of united and integrated parts.
• BOUNDARY – a system has well-defined limits.• ENVIRONMENT – a system operates in a specific time and space context.• TENSION – by its nature, a system implies existence and activity.• EQUILIBRIUM – a system strives to maintain a steady state so it can continue to function.
• HIERARCHY – systems come in different sizes.• FEEDBACK – every system has a communication network• SYNERGY – this, simply put is “ the whole is greater that the sum of its parts.”• INTERDEPENDENCE – in the systems context, the word suggests that the element of a system cannot act on their on.
• SYSTEM is the integration of separate but interdependent and interacting parts into an organic whole which is meant to accomplish a certain purpose or perform a specific function.• THREE Important Features of a System: - Parts - Whole - Function
• To have a system, we need parts. But these parts must come together in a network of interaction and relationships.
• In a system, what counts more is the totality, not so much the separate parts. The parts do not exactly lose their identity and importance but are subsumed under the larger entity.
• What is really significant in a system is both how the individual parts work and how they all work together as one to bring about the intended function of the whole system. The key word is “interrelatedness.”
• Put together, CDS spells out Curriculum Development System which shall be defined as – a customized coherent and comprehensive program for continually updating and improving curriculum and instruction of a school so that it can better attain its purpose.
A CONCEPTUAL BASE: THE TYLER RATIONALE• The technique of inventorying, organizing and presenting the substance of a curriculum finds refinement in Ralph Tyler’s four-step analysis of formal education or schooling which has come to be known as the “Tyler Rationale.”
Three (3) Fundamental Elements of the School Curriculum• Purpose• Means• Assessment of Outcomes
THE CURRICULUM SYSTEM: A LINEAR MODELHilda Taba came up with an expanded version including seven (7) major steps in curriculum development.1. Diagnosis of learner needs and expectations of larger society2. Formulation of learning objectives
THE CURRICULUM SYSTEM: A LINEAR MODEL3. Selection of learning content4.Organization of learning content5. Selection of learning experiences6. Organization of learning experiences7. Determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it.
• Subsystem 1 indicates the direction and intention of the educational effort.• Subsystem 2 is the learning content.• Subsystem 3 is made up of learning experiences, activities and resources which constitutes the wherewithal for attaining the learning objectives.• Subsystem 4 has to do with measurement and evaluation of learning outcomes.