GOVERNOR ANDRES PASCUAL COLLEGE 1045 M. Naval St., San Jose, Navotas City Leader: Jeffrey B. Villena Asst. Leader Rosana T. Soldevilla Secretary: Arlene F. Sanz Philosophical Perspective – Arlene F. Sanz and Rosana T. Soldevilla Curriculum Development System – Ma. Victoria Francisco What of Curriculum Development System – Shirley Mijares and Victor Desacula The Why of CDS – MaricelSumaway The How of CDS – Jeffrey B. Villena
PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVESomeone said the birth of a human being is God’s testimony that He has not given up on the human race.Educators belong to that breed of people who believe in a better tomorrow through the transformation of the young.Education is deemed a tedious and long-drawn process and one may not even be around should this dream materialize.Beginning nevertheless and an opportunity for other people to build on it in the future.
HUMAN BEINGS AND LEARNINGFrom the Christian perspective this world is the offshoot of the creative work of a Supreme Being. Human beings, being a part of this creative act came from God and are going back to Him.The Creator gave them the Law, a kind of a road map that governs the functioning of his universe.Man uses these two faculties in discerning what is true and using this understanding to accept and do what is good as required by this universal law of truth and goodness.
The Cosmic Hierarchy: Place ofHuman Beings in CreationHe is higher than non-living things and the highest among living creatures. He is only lower than the angels as Psalm 8 in the Holy Book states.As a rational-moral being, man is the only creature on earth equipped to interact and cope with his environment, in its physical aspect through the process of socialization.Through discernment he is able to retain what is good and useful and rectify his initial missteps along the way.Humankind has been able to progress all through the ages.
Education and SchoolingPractically all conscious human behavior is learned from others. The young person learns from his elders and other significant persons around him through imitation, instruction, advice and the observance of social mores.
Education is as old ashumankindThe primary duty and responsibility to educate the young inherently belongs to the parents.This is due to the fact that the period of dependency of the young human is rather long and the most natural person to provide the care and nurturance he needs are the parents who were responsible in bringing him into the world in the first place.The first function is personal development whereby the child learns to become competent in all aspects of his person so he can perform the common duties of life.We can define education as the full and integrated development of all the potentials of a human person for his/her personal and social ends through instruction of and formation by parents and other significant adults.
Schooling as a Mode ofEducationThe demands of living in a developed and complex society have put an added burden on parents in the tasks of educating their children.The school takes care of the specialized aspects of education which parents themselves cannot provide. It expose the young to the different branches of organized human knowledge found in the different disciplines.The school through its instrumentalities particularly teachers, are expected to support the parents in the goal of helping the young develop in all aspects-spiritual- moral, intellectual, socio-cultural, psychological, physiological and occupational-so he can be all that he can be and become an effective and productive person and a contributing member of society.
Modern-day SchoolIs patterned after the factory or mass-production system, with its compulsory attendance, grouping by age, a common curriculum, the granting of credentials and a hierarchical set-up.Modern version of school can be described as an institution where the young are sent by their parents for formal instruction.A short-cut to life although one should not discount the important role played by self-learning in the real world.A school comes with it accountability to its stakeholders and clientele. If distinct lines of accountability of home and school are clearly drawn, then we can avoid blaming each other.
Curriculum: The Core ofSchoolingThe foregoing definition of schooling, it should, it should obvious that the heart of the matter is curriculum or what the school offers and promise to deliver to its clientele. Parents choose a school precisely on the merits of its curriculum and track record of the school in making good its claims.This true of curriculum designers and developers. They go by a set of assumptions as well as their own conception of what a curriculumShould put emphasis on.
CDS: The What of it?Curriculum which means to run.Educational usage, the course of the race.List of Subject areas as in the Elementary and Secondary.The content or minimum requirements of each subject area taught in school since these may exist only on paper and may not necessarily become part of the lives of learners.The course study which is just a guide, an outline designed to help the teacher in planning and implementing the curriculum.
The textbook series in as much as the curriculum should come before textbooks and not the other way around and textbooks are but one of the means of implementing the curriculum.Macro Curriculum has a broad scope, in this case, nationwide. It can be termed generic since it is common to all schools in the country. General course of studies mandated for all Philippine schools. Students to complete and earn credentials corresponding to a school level the BASIC EDUCATION.
Micro Curriculum on the other hand, is for a particular school, is for a particular school.- refers to what learning expectations schools include in the prescribed subject areas.CDS purposes,-sum of all learning content, experiences and resources that are purposely selected, organized and implemented by in pursuit of its peculiar mandate as a distinct institution of learning and human development.
Such a definition skirts the issue of whether curriculum should be concerned with learning content or learning experiences, the WHAT or the HOW of human formation.The other point to note in this definition is that it gives a narrower perspective and limits curriculum to selected and structured learning content and experiences for which the school cannot and should not be held responsible for all aspects of the student’s life.
School accountability defines clearly the scope and parameters of programs and operations of the institution qua special learning and formation.It also brings to the fore the question of how well the school is in control of its direction.
DEVELOPMENTIs a specific word that connotes change. Change means any alternation or modification in the existing order of things.CHANGE MUST BE PURPOSEFUL- Is change that is intentional or directional.- CHANGE MUST BE PLANNED- Planning in this case means two things.- Series of systematic and sequential steps leading to a target- Executed over a period time.-
CHANGE MUST BE PROGRESSIVE- Positive change brings about improvement. It takes a person or a group to higher levels of perfection. - Curriculum development then should be concerned with the drawing up of plans for teaching and learning activities in classroom situations that will bring about positive changes in the lives of the learners.
SYSTEMIs an assemblage of objects in some form of regular interdependence or interaction; an organic organized whole as the solar system or a telephone system.BOUNDARY- A system has well-defined limits.ENVIRONMENT-A system operates in a specific time-and-space context.TENSION-By its nature, a system implies existence and activity.
EQUILIBRIUM – A system strives to maintain a steady state so it can continue to function.HIERARCHY – Systems come in different sizes.FEEDBACK- Every system has a communication network whereby it is able to maintain coordination among its constituent parts, monitor its operation, and make improvements or corrections of any dysfunction in the system.SYNERGY –This, simply put is the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
INTERDEPENDENCE – In the systems context, theWorld suggests that the elements of a system cannot act on their own.SYSTEM simply as the integration of separate but interdependent and interacting parts into an organic whole which is meant to accomplish a certain purpose or perform a specific function.A customized coherent and comprehensive program for continually updating and improving curriculum and instruction of a school so that it can better attain its purpose.
A CONCEPTUAL BASE: THETYLER RATIONALEThe technique of inventorying, organizing and presenting the substance of a curriculum finds refinement in RALPH TYLER’S four-step analysis of formal education or schooling which has come to be known as the TYLER RATIONALE.3 fundamental elements1.Purpose-which indicates the goals and directions the school should take2. Means which suggests the learning experiences and resources that are to be selected, organized, and implemented in pursuit of the purpose.
3. Assessment of Outcomes- which measures the degree to which purposes have been met.Finally, the all-important process of curriculum development has one and only one function, and that is, the formation of the IDEAL GRADUATE.
CURRICULUM SYSTEM: ALINEAR MODELSEVEN MAJOR STEPS IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT. THESE ARE:1. Diagnosis of learner needs and expectations of larger society.2. Formulation of learning objectives.3. Selection of learning content.4. Organization of learning content.5. Selection of learning experiences.6. Organization of learning experiences7. Determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it.
Curriculum model above suggests an end-means integration.Curriculum component represents the end-plan aspect of curriculum development which includes the selection and organization phases while the instruction component is the means-action part consisting of the implementation and evaluation phases.
CDS: THE WHY OF ITEvery school worthy of the name needs to keep on improving.ACCOUNTABILITY – this is a management concept.UNITY- Some schools have little if any control over what goes on in the classrooms.CONTINUITY- Again in many schools, curriculum is the exclusive domain of the principal or academic coordinator or in some instances, a chosen few.QUALITY- Finally, if were are in the business of education for quality, we cannot afford to do our work in a disorganized, cavalier manner.
CDS: THE HOW OF ITAt this point, the question can be asked: How can accountability, unity, continuity, and quality be achieved through the school curriculum.Stages involved in the process are the following:1. CONCEPTUALIZING – to underscore the2. CONCEPTUALIZING COUNTABILITY- thrusts of quality and accountability3. OPERATIONALIZING- to address the thrust of unity.4. INSTITUTIONALIZING – to ensure the thrust of continuity.
Conceptualizing PhaseOne useful way of looking at a school is to view it as a production system. One of the characteristics of all systems activity is the transformation of the input through the system’s processes and structure into an output.Input represent the raw materials, appropriated from the environment and introduced into the system according to specifications called for by the intended product.
The outcome of system action is invariably evaluated by the consumers of the product. The system has to provide for a continuous assessment of its output through feedback so that needed adjustments can be made at any point in the process.In the production system, we usually begin with a conception of the output, defining its specifications or identifying characteristics.
In like manner, in the school production system, we must first envision our product the Ideal Graduate at the end of the process or upon graduation.Once we have a clear conception of the output the school can now procure the inputs or students recruits.This is precisely what schooling is all about, to help in the formation of the young human being.The thru-put of the school system is much more complex and involved than the ordinary system thru- put.
The second feature of this thru-put is the horizontal divisions designating the different subject areas in school such as Communication Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, Cultural Arts, Physical Education and others.At this point, it is apropos to point out some basic differences between the mechanical production system and the school production system.Secondly, in the mechanical system, there are but a relatively few stages and the whole process usually requires a shorter time span.
Every teacher has to do it right at first try since there is no second chance and the output cannot be recalled.Contextualizing PhaseThe next phase involves fitting the conceptual framework that is the production model in the context of the school.
1. Planning – this stage involves the formulation or clarification of the school purpose.2. Implementing- The selection of learning content based on school purpose and organizing it for systematic delivery in a Scope and Sequence Grid for each subject area. The preparation for immediate implementing of the SMB through the unit and session ( lesson) plan or Plantillas for use in classroom instruction.
3. Evaluating-the results of instruction are measured and evaluated vis-à-vis specified learning objectives through a teacher made mastery test at the end of every unit of instruction.
Operationalizing PhaseAssuming that a school is sold on the idea of launching CDS, how does it go about initiating and carrying it out.1. 1. Preparation of School Staff- adoption of CDS represents a major shift in the management of the academic program of the school.2. 2. Clarifying/ Defining school Vision and Mission. This calls for the school staff going over the school purpose philosophy, vision, mission, and goals, in groups.
3. Setting up of Subject Area Task Forces. The teachers are grouped into the Subject Area Task Force one per subject area.4. Allocating Subject Matter for Instruction – The purpose of the scope and sequence grid is to provide an orderly progression of learning content and to allocate this content to the different levels of instruction.5. Preparing the Unit/Session Plans. From the SATF, the work shifts to the Grade Level Team GLT or Year Level Team as the case may be.
6. Piloting or Field Testing suggested that when the first draft of the SSG, the SMB and the Plantillas are ready, they should undergo a try-out period of at least one school year involving some selected or volunteer classes on each level.7. Evaluating and Revising Draft Documents. After the pilot run the SSG and SMB go back to the SATFs and the Plantillas to the GLTs or YLTs for review.8. Going into the 3-Year Development Cycle. The try-out may take a year or two.
INSTITUTIONALIZING PHASEIt is one thing to initiate a new curriculum, another to make it take root and flourish in a school.To do this , we need to ingrain the scheme in the culture of the school.After the pilot-testing stage, the school can go into the 3 year development cycle.In the first year of a cycle, attention is concentrated on reviewing and updating school purpose formulations and the corresponding learning objectives and content as delineated in the Scope and Sequence Grid and Subject Matter Budget.
The development effort comes full cycle after three years but the work of improvement continues with series of 3 year development cycles ad infinitum in the never-ending process of curriculum development.