Figurative Language * is language that means more than what it says on the surface. *Poets use figurative language almost as frequently as literal language. Whenever you describe something by comparing it with something else, you are using figurative language.
Literal Language *is language that means exactly what is said.
Being stood up is like being the last fruit on the tree, Left to wither through the winter. Feeling angry is like carrying a volcano in the pit of your stomach that threatens to erupt at any moment. The leaves fell from the tree like a thousand paratroopers leaping into battle behind enemy lines.
* is a type of metaphor in which the part stands for the whole , the whole for a part , the genus for the species, the species for the genus , the material for the thing made , or in short, any portion, section, or main quality for the whole or the thing itself (or vice versa).
One of the easiest kinds of synecdoche to write is the substitution of genus for species. Here you choose the class to which the idea or thing to be expressed belongs, and use that rather than the idea or thing itself :
There sits my animal [instead of "dog"] guarding door the to the henhouse.
He hurled the barbed weapon [instead of "harpoon"] at the whale .
A possible problem can arise with the genus-for-species substitution because the movement is from more specific to more general; this can result in vagueness and loss of information. Note that in the example above some additional contextual information will be needed to clarify that "weapon" means "harpoon" in this case, rather than, say, "dagger" or something else. The same is true for the animal-for-dog substitution.
Perhaps a better substitution is the species for the genus--a single, specific, representative item symbolic of the whole. This form of synecdoche will usually be clearer and more effective than the other:
A major lesson Americans need to learn is that life consists of more than cars and television sets. [Two specific items substituted for the concept of material wealth]
Give us this day our daily bread. --Matt. 6:11
If you still do not feel well, you'd better call up a sawbones and have him examine you.
This program is for the little old lady in Cleveland who cannot afford to pay her heating bill.
Here, (sin nec duh kee) a part represents the whole:
All hands on deck!
Lend me your ears .
Let’s buy one hundred head of cattle!
is a figure of speech that combines contradictory terms. 11.
*is a paradox reduced to two words, usually in an adjective-noun ("eloquent silence") or adverb-adjective ("inertly strong") relationship, and is used for effect, complexity, emphasis, or wit:
Dark light Living dead New Classic Old News Open secret ( supposedly a secret but it has leaked ) Vintage Modern Some paradoxical oxymorons become clichés : Irregular pattern Bitter sweet Deafening silence Forward retreat Noisy silence Quiet riot Serious joke Silent Scream Sweet sorrow
Funny Oxymoron Examples Given below is a oxymoron list, some of which you might have used inadvertently and some as a pun or paradox. Accurate estimate Act naturally All alone Appear invisible Awfully nice Bad luck Big baby Born dead Brief speech
One case where many oxymorons are strung together can be found in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet , where Romeo declares: " O heavy lightness! Serious vanity! Mis-shapen chaos of well-seeming forms! Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health!"
In this figure (m’ tawn ni’mee) one thing is replaced by another thing associated with it:
The Crown is amused (“The Crown” is the Queen).
The White House is furious (“The White House” is the President).
*is another form of metaphor, very similar to synecdoche (and, in fact, some rhetoricians do not distinguish between the two), in which the thing chosen for the metaphorical image is closely associated with (but not an actual part of) the subject with which it is to be compared.
In this example we know that the writer means the President issued the orders, because "White House" is quite closely associated with "President," even though it is not physically a part of him. Consider these substitutions, and notice that some are more obvious than others, but that in context all are clear:
In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread . . . . --Genesis 3:19
Boy, I'm dying from the heat. Just look how the mercury is rising.
His blood be on us and on our children. --Matt. 27:25
The checkered flag waved and victory crossed the finish line.
Make a joyful noise unto the Lord, all ye lands.
Serve the Lord with gladness: come before his presence with singing. --Psalm 100:1-2 (KJV) The use of a particular metonymy makes a comment about the idea for which it has been substituted, and thereby helps to define that idea. Note how much more vivid "in the sweat of thy face" is in the third example above than "by labor" would have been. And in the fourth example , "mercury rising" has a more graphic, physical, and pictorial effect than would "temperature increasing." Attune yourself to such subtleties of language, and study the effects of connotation, suggestion, substitution, and metaphor.
A form of personification in which the absent or dead or the inanimate are spoken to as if present. These are all addressed directly. (i.e. Anothony adresses Ceasar's corpse after his assasination "O, pardon me, thou bleeding piece of earth")
You must borrow me Gargantua's mouth first. 'Tis a word too great for any mouth of this age's size. --Shakespeare
If you take his parking place, you can expect World War II all over again.
Plan ahead: it wasn't raining when Noah built the ark. --Richard Cushing
Our examination of the relation of the historian to the facts of history finds us, therefore, in an apparently precarious situation, navigating delicately between the Scylla of an untenable theory of history as an objective compilation of facts . . . and the Charybdis of an equally untenable theory of history as the subjective product of the mind of the historian . . . . --Edward Hallett Carr
Bang! The starter’s gun— thin raindrops sprint. Dorthi Charles Knock at a Star 9. Which figure of speech is highlighted in the above poem?
“ The Wind” The wind stood up , and gave a shout ; He whistled on his fingers, and Kicked the withered leaves about, And thumped the branches with his hand, And said he’ll kill, and kill, and kill; And so he will! And so he will! James Stephens Knock at a Star 10.What figure of speech is highlighted in the above poem?
“ Dreams” Hold fast to dreams For if dreams die Life is a brokenwinged bird That cannot fly. Hold fast to dreams For when dreams go Life is a barren field Frozen with snow. Langston Hughes The Dream Keeper and Other Poems 11.What figure of speech is used in the above poem?
“ A Pizza the Size of the Sun” I’m making a pizza the size of the sun, a pizza that’s sure to weigh more than a ton, a pizza too massive to pick up and toss, a pizza resplendent with oceans of sauce. I’m topping my pizza with mountains of cheese, with acres of peppers, pimentos, and peas, with mushrooms, tomatoes, and sausage galore, with every last olive they had at the store. My pizza is sure to be one of a kind, my pizza will leave other pizzas behind, my pizza will be a delectable treat that all who love pizza are welcome to eat. The oven is hot, I believe it will take a year and a half for my pizza to bake. I hardly can wait till my pizza is done, my wonderful pizza is the size of the sun. Jack Pretulsky A Pizza the Size of the Sun 12.What figure of speech is used in the above poem?
13. “The US economy is improving. The country is becoming an industrial tiger.” What figure of speech was used? A. Personification B. Metaphor C. Hyperbole D. Onomatopoeia
14. “During sunrise, the sun kisses us with its warm rays." What figure of speech was used? A. Hyperbole B. Irony C. Simile D. Personification
15. "The story of Evita Peron caught the attention of moviegoers.” The figure of speech used was personification. What is personification? A. reference to a famous historical figure B. directly compared to something without “like” and “as” C. give life to inanimate object or non-living things D. a person being compared to a thing
16.“She sings beautifully. She has the voice of Celine Dion." What figure of speech was used? A. Metaphor B. Simile C. Metonymy D. Irony
17. “The Argentineans roared whenever they hear Evita speak.” The figure of speech used is onomatopoeia. What is onomatopoeia? A. to affirm the opposite B. imitation of the sound C. intentional exaggeration D. applying to similar situation
18. “Their farm has a beautiful atmosphere. Every morning you will be awakened by the mooing of the cow and the crowing of rooster.” What figure of speech was used? A. Hyperbole B. Personification C. Metaphor D. Onomatopoeia
19. Simile is a figure of speech. What is a simile? A. act of saying the opposite of the truth B. a person being compared to a thing C. to emphasize the word D. reference to a famous historical figure
20.“Romeo and Juliet is a story that speaks of a bitter sweet love.” What figure of speech was used? A. Oxymoron B. Synecdoche C. Hyperbole D. Allusion
21. Irony is a figure of speech. What do you mean by irony? A. the act of saying the opposite of the truth B. person being compared to a thing C. directly compared to something D. overstatement of the sentence
22. “The mother is the light of the family and the father is the post.” What figure of speech was used in the underlined word? A. Oxymoron B. Metaphor C. Allusion D. Metonymy
23. "The Filipinos need to be eagles in industry." What figure of speech was used? A. Personification B. Simile C. Hyperbole D. Metaphor
24. Oxymoron is a figure of speech. What is an oxymoron? A. used by writers to beautify their composition B. used by writers to beautify their composition C. using statement that seemed to be false at first reading but true on closer scrutiny D. using the name of a popular person or place in lieu of another
25. My rancher uncle bought 50 head of cattle last week.' A. Oxymoron B. Personification C. Synecdoche D. Allusion
27. She was a Scrooge when it comes to parting with her hard earned money. A. Irony B. Allusion C. Hyperbole D. Personification