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Using Transitions

                       Transition




             Idea                   Idea




© 2001 by Ruth Luman
References
Transitions
Look at the two groups of sentences below.
Which sentences read more smoothly? Click on
an answer below.

   My friend, Marcos, loves to play sports and is very athletic.
   He has won a scholarship to play football at a university
   next year.

   My friend, Marcos, loves to play sports and is very athletic.
   In fact, he has won a scholarship to play football at a
   university next year.
Transitions
    What are
transition words?
Transitions
A transition word directly tells the reader the
logical relationship between one idea and
another idea.

                   Transition




        Idea                     Idea
 The most convincing ideas in the
  world, expressed in the most
  beautiful sentences, will move no
  one unless those ideas are properly
  connected.
 Unless readers can move easily from
  one thought to another, they will
  surely find something else to read or
  turn on the television.
 Providing transitions between ideas
  is largely a matter of communicating
  with your reader.
 You understand the organization of
  your essay, but your readers don’t.
 Your readers need some stepping
  stones, and be sure to place them in
  readily accessible and visible spots.
   There are essentially four kinds of
    transitional devices that show the
    reader the organization of your
    essay:
o   Transitional tags (conjunctions)
    between the paragraphs
o   Paragraph hooks
o   Pronoun references
o   Parallelism
Transitional Tags
    Transitional tags        to more complex
     run the gamut             signals that ideas are
     from the most             somehow connected
     simple — the little       — the conjunctive
     conjunctions:             adverbs and
 o   and,                      transitional
 o   but,                      expressions such as
 o   nor,                  o   however,
 o   yet,                  o   moreover,
 o   or,                   o   nevertheless,
 o   (and sometimes)       o   on the other hand .
     so —
 TIME: Carpenters hammered loudly
  on the roof. Meanwhile, Dr. Perez
  sleep soundly in the basement.
 SPATIAL: A crowd stood patiently on
  the sidewalk. Inside, the early show
  was about to finish.
 CONTRAST: Most flying mammals
  rest in trees or marshlands. Some,
  however, prefer more secure resting
  locations such as caves and the
  hollows of trees.
 RESULT:     An    unusual  cold
  temperatures below freezing more
  than two days. As a result, many
  oranges froze and spoiled.
 ADDITION: The counselor told us
  not to swim in the lake or hike by
  ourselves. Furthermore, we were
  told not to use the archery range
  without supervision.
 EMPHASIS:  We did not want
 to go to the crowded beach.
 Indeed, we hoped never to
 go there again.
Example
                         ;however,




  Marcos loves to go                 his parents won’t allow
swimming in the ocean.                    him to do that.

The transition, however, tells the reader that
the logical relationship between the two ideas is
contrast.
Transitions
Transitions are words that help make
your writing more coherent. They create
connections between:

     - one clause and another clause

     - one sentence and another sentence

     - one group of sentences and the next
       group of sentences
Joining Two Independent Clauses
One way of joining two independent
clauses is with a semicolon, a transition, and
a comma.
                   ; furthermore,



  Marcos is a                        he’s very good at
great swimmer                          scuba diving.


   Marcos is a great swimmer ;furthermore, he’s very
                  good at scuba diving.
Connecting Two Sentences
You can use a transition and comma to tell the
reader the logical relationship between two
sentences.

                      In fact,



Marcos is very athletic.             he plays three
                                    sports at school.

  Marcos is very athletic. In fact, he plays three sports
                        at school.
Placement of Transition
Rather than placing the transition at the
beginning of the second sentence, you may
place it in the middle of the second sentence
after the subject with two commas.

  Marcos is very athletic.                        transition


                              He, in fact, plays three sports
                             at school.
          subject
Transitions in Longer Writing

When writing a paragraph or a larger piece
of writing,you can use a transition to show
the reader the logical relationship between
one group of sentences and another group
of sentences.

This is useful when you want to let the
reader know that you are changing from
one idea to another idea.
Example- Longer Piece of Writing
  Transition
connects
                        Essay
ideas in
paragraph 2
               Introduction
to ideas in
paragraph 1.
               Body Paragraph 1
                                        Transition
                                      connects
               Body Paragraph 2: In   ideas in
               addition,              paragraph 3
                                      to ideas in
               Body Paragraph 3:      paragraph 2.
               Furthermore,


               Conclusion:
Types of Transitions
     Relationship                  Transition
Addition                   Moreover
                           Furthermore
                           In addition
                           besides



Marcos loves to ski                he likes to fish.

                      ;moreover,
                  ;furthermore,
                  ;in addition,
                      ;besides,
Types of Transitions
       Relationship                        Transition
Reinforcement/Emphasis           Indeed
                                 In fact



                      Marcos plays basketball
 The transition and
second clause                ;in fact,
reemphasize the
first clause.                ;indeed,

                      he plays every Saturday.
Types of Transitions
       Relationship                     Transition
Exemplification                 For example
                                For instance
                                In particular


               Marcos enjoys outdoor sports

    The second
                         ;for example,
clause is more
specific than the        ;for instance,
first.
                         ;in particular,

             he likes hiking, skiing, and fishing.
Types of Transitions
    Relationship                        Transition
   Contrast               However          On the contrary
                          In contrast      On the other hand


Marcos enjoys scuba diving

    ;on the other hand,
                                    $$$
         ;however,
     ;on the contrary,
        ;in contrast,

I think it is an expensive sport.
Types of Transitions
    Relationship                      Transition
   Result or Effect     Consequently        Accordingly
                        Thus                Hence
                        Therefore           As a result


                          ;thus,
Marcos broke his leg ;consequently, he can’t play basketball.
                        ;therefore,
                         ;hence,
                       ;as a result,
                       ;accordingly,
Types of Transitions
    Relationship                    Transition
   Time                  Meanwhile (at the same time)
                         Subsequently (after)
                         Thereafter (after)



                       ;subsequently,
Marcos scored a goal                    his team won the game.
                        ;thereafter,




                           after
Practice Exercises
Correct!
Excellent! This sentence reads more smoothly
because it contains a transition. Transition
words connect ideas within and between
sentences.

 My friend, Marcos, loves to play sports and is very athletic.
 In fact, he has won a scholarship to play football at a
 university next year.
I’m Sorry!
These sentence do not read as smoothly.
These sentences contain no transitions to
connect the ideas to each other. Go back to
learn more about using transition words.

My friend, Marcos, loves to play sports and is very athletic.
He has won a scholarship to play football at a university
next year.


                                             No transition words
                                              to connect ideas.
References
   PowerPoint Presentation by Ruth Luman:
    Modesto Junior College.
   This project incorporates portions of copyrighted
    works. These items are included under the fair
    use exemption of the U.S. Copyright Law and
    have been prepared according to the educational
    fair use guidelines. They are restricted from
    further use.

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Using transitions

  • 1. Using Transitions Transition Idea Idea © 2001 by Ruth Luman References
  • 2. Transitions Look at the two groups of sentences below. Which sentences read more smoothly? Click on an answer below. My friend, Marcos, loves to play sports and is very athletic. He has won a scholarship to play football at a university next year. My friend, Marcos, loves to play sports and is very athletic. In fact, he has won a scholarship to play football at a university next year.
  • 3. Transitions What are transition words?
  • 4. Transitions A transition word directly tells the reader the logical relationship between one idea and another idea. Transition Idea Idea
  • 5.  The most convincing ideas in the world, expressed in the most beautiful sentences, will move no one unless those ideas are properly connected.  Unless readers can move easily from one thought to another, they will surely find something else to read or turn on the television.
  • 6.  Providing transitions between ideas is largely a matter of communicating with your reader.  You understand the organization of your essay, but your readers don’t.  Your readers need some stepping stones, and be sure to place them in readily accessible and visible spots.
  • 7. There are essentially four kinds of transitional devices that show the reader the organization of your essay: o Transitional tags (conjunctions) between the paragraphs o Paragraph hooks o Pronoun references o Parallelism
  • 8. Transitional Tags  Transitional tags  to more complex run the gamut signals that ideas are from the most somehow connected simple — the little — the conjunctive conjunctions: adverbs and o and, transitional o but, expressions such as o nor, o however, o yet, o moreover, o or, o nevertheless, o (and sometimes) o on the other hand . so —
  • 9.  TIME: Carpenters hammered loudly on the roof. Meanwhile, Dr. Perez sleep soundly in the basement.  SPATIAL: A crowd stood patiently on the sidewalk. Inside, the early show was about to finish.  CONTRAST: Most flying mammals rest in trees or marshlands. Some, however, prefer more secure resting locations such as caves and the hollows of trees.
  • 10.  RESULT: An unusual cold temperatures below freezing more than two days. As a result, many oranges froze and spoiled.  ADDITION: The counselor told us not to swim in the lake or hike by ourselves. Furthermore, we were told not to use the archery range without supervision.
  • 11.  EMPHASIS: We did not want to go to the crowded beach. Indeed, we hoped never to go there again.
  • 12. Example ;however, Marcos loves to go his parents won’t allow swimming in the ocean. him to do that. The transition, however, tells the reader that the logical relationship between the two ideas is contrast.
  • 13. Transitions Transitions are words that help make your writing more coherent. They create connections between: - one clause and another clause - one sentence and another sentence - one group of sentences and the next group of sentences
  • 14. Joining Two Independent Clauses One way of joining two independent clauses is with a semicolon, a transition, and a comma. ; furthermore, Marcos is a he’s very good at great swimmer scuba diving. Marcos is a great swimmer ;furthermore, he’s very good at scuba diving.
  • 15. Connecting Two Sentences You can use a transition and comma to tell the reader the logical relationship between two sentences. In fact, Marcos is very athletic. he plays three sports at school. Marcos is very athletic. In fact, he plays three sports at school.
  • 16. Placement of Transition Rather than placing the transition at the beginning of the second sentence, you may place it in the middle of the second sentence after the subject with two commas. Marcos is very athletic. transition He, in fact, plays three sports at school. subject
  • 17. Transitions in Longer Writing When writing a paragraph or a larger piece of writing,you can use a transition to show the reader the logical relationship between one group of sentences and another group of sentences. This is useful when you want to let the reader know that you are changing from one idea to another idea.
  • 18. Example- Longer Piece of Writing Transition connects Essay ideas in paragraph 2 Introduction to ideas in paragraph 1. Body Paragraph 1 Transition connects Body Paragraph 2: In ideas in addition, paragraph 3 to ideas in Body Paragraph 3: paragraph 2. Furthermore, Conclusion:
  • 19. Types of Transitions Relationship Transition Addition Moreover Furthermore In addition besides Marcos loves to ski he likes to fish. ;moreover, ;furthermore, ;in addition, ;besides,
  • 20. Types of Transitions Relationship Transition Reinforcement/Emphasis Indeed In fact Marcos plays basketball The transition and second clause ;in fact, reemphasize the first clause. ;indeed, he plays every Saturday.
  • 21. Types of Transitions Relationship Transition Exemplification For example For instance In particular Marcos enjoys outdoor sports The second ;for example, clause is more specific than the ;for instance, first. ;in particular, he likes hiking, skiing, and fishing.
  • 22. Types of Transitions Relationship Transition Contrast However On the contrary In contrast On the other hand Marcos enjoys scuba diving ;on the other hand, $$$ ;however, ;on the contrary, ;in contrast, I think it is an expensive sport.
  • 23. Types of Transitions Relationship Transition Result or Effect Consequently Accordingly Thus Hence Therefore As a result ;thus, Marcos broke his leg ;consequently, he can’t play basketball. ;therefore, ;hence, ;as a result, ;accordingly,
  • 24. Types of Transitions Relationship Transition Time Meanwhile (at the same time) Subsequently (after) Thereafter (after) ;subsequently, Marcos scored a goal his team won the game. ;thereafter, after
  • 26. Correct! Excellent! This sentence reads more smoothly because it contains a transition. Transition words connect ideas within and between sentences. My friend, Marcos, loves to play sports and is very athletic. In fact, he has won a scholarship to play football at a university next year.
  • 27. I’m Sorry! These sentence do not read as smoothly. These sentences contain no transitions to connect the ideas to each other. Go back to learn more about using transition words. My friend, Marcos, loves to play sports and is very athletic. He has won a scholarship to play football at a university next year. No transition words to connect ideas.
  • 28. References  PowerPoint Presentation by Ruth Luman: Modesto Junior College.  This project incorporates portions of copyrighted works. These items are included under the fair use exemption of the U.S. Copyright Law and have been prepared according to the educational fair use guidelines. They are restricted from further use.