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Figures of speech
Simile
A simile is a figure of speech that directly compares two things
through some connective, usually "like," "as," "than," or a
verb such as "resembles." A simile differs from a metaphor in
that the latter compares two unlike things by saying that the
one thing is the other thing.
Examples:
1. “For hope grew round me, like the twining vine,”
2. She walks as gracefully as a cat.
Sometimes similes are submerged,
comparative words ('Like' or 'As').

used

without

using

3. "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? / Thou art more
lovely and more temperate:“
4. "I'm happier than a tornado in a trailer park!“
5. "How this Herculean Roman does become / The carriage of his
chafe.“ .
metaphor
A metaphor is a figure of speech that describes a subject by
asserting that it is, on some point of comparison, the same as
another otherwise unrelated object. In simpler terms, a
metaphor compares two objects or things without using the
words "like" or "as".
Examples:
One of the most prominent examples of a metaphor in English
literature is the All the world’s a stage monologue from As
You Like It:
All the world's a stage,
And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances; —
This quote is a metaphor because the world is not literally a
stage. By figuratively asserting that the world is a stage,
Shakespeare uses the points of comparison between the world
and a stage to convey an understanding about the mechanics
of the world and the lives of the people within it.
Personification
Anthropomorphism, or personification, is attribution
of human form or other characteristics to anything other than
a human being.
Examples:

[1] The rock flew down the cliff like a maniac.
[2] The sun kissed the flowers.
[3] The breakers at the North Shore hissed evilly.
Apostrophe
Apostrophe is an exclamatory rhetorical figure of speech, when a
speaker or writer breaks off and directs speech to an
imaginary person or abstract quality or idea. In dramatic
works and poetry written in or translated into English, such a
figure of speech is often introduced by the exclamation "O".
Examples:
1. "To what green altar, O mysterious priest, / Lead'st thou that
heifer lowing at the skies, / And all her silken flanks with
garlands direst?"
2. "Then come, sweet death, and rid me of this grief."
"Is this a dagger which I see before me, The handle toward my
hand? Come, let me clutch thee! I have thee not, and yet I see
thee still."
Hyperbole
Hyperbole is the use of exaggerations as a rhetorical
device or figure of speech. It may be used to evoke strong
feelings or to create a strong impression, but is not meant to be
taken literally.
Hyperboles are exaggerations to create emphasis or effect. As a
literary device , hyperbole is often used in poetry, and is
frequently encountered in casual speech.
Examples:
1. "The bag weighed a ton.“
Hyperbole makes the point that the bag was very heavy, though it
probably doesn't actually weigh a ton.
Euphemism
A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or expression used
in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest
something unpleasant.
Examples:
Euphemisms are used for dissimulation, to refer to taboo
topics (such as disability, death) in a polite way, and to mask
profanity.
Some euphemisms are so commonly used as to be standard
usage:
1. "pass away" for "die".
Antithesis
Antithesis is used when two opposites are introduced in the same
sentence, for contrasting effect.
Examples:
1. Many are called, but few are chosen.
2. Rude words bring about sadness, but kind words inspire joy.
3. Man proposes, God disposes.
4. Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice.
Epigram
An epigram is a brief, interesting, memorable, and sometimes
surprising or satirical statement.
Examples:
1. Some can gaze and not be sick
But I could never learn the trick.
There's this to say for blood and breath;
They give a man a taste for death.
— A.E. Housman

2. Little strokes
Fell great oaks.
— Benjamin Franklin
Oxymoron
An oxymoron (plural oxymora or oxymorons) is a figure of
speech that combines contradictory terms.
Examples:
1. “And faith unfaithful kept him falsely true.“
2. “The silence whistles”.
Irony
The expression of one's meaning by using language that normally
signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic
effect.
Examples:
1. THE RIME OF THE ANCIENT MARINER
Water, water, every where,
And all the boards did shrink ;
Water, water, every where,
Nor any drop to drink
2. JULIUS CAESAR, WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE
Yet Brutus says he was ambitious; And Brutus is an honorable
man.
Pun
The pun, also called paronomasia, is a form of word play which
suggests two or more meanings, by exploiting multiple
meanings of words, or of similar-sounding words, for an
intended humorous or rhetorical effect.
Examples:
Puns in Romeo and Juliet
1. “it is the unkindest tied that ever any man tied.”
2. “winter of our discontent” was “made glorious summer by this
Son [son] of York.” (Richard III)
Metonymy
Metonymy is a figure of speech used in rhetorical in which a
thing or concept is not called by its own name, but by the name
of something intimately associated with that thing or concept.
Examples:
1. “Hollywood" is used as a metonym (an instance of metonymy)
for the U.S. film Industry, because of the fame and cultural
identity of Hollywood, a district of the city of Los Angeles ,
California , as the historical center of film studios and film
stars.
Synecdoche
Synecdoche is a figure of speech in which a term for a part of
something is used to refer to the whole of something, or viceversa.
Examples:
1. By William Shakespeare
“Friends, Romans, countrymen: lend me your ears"
2. From "Ozymandias" by Shelley
Tell that its sculptor well those passions read
Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things,
The
hand
that
mocked
them.
Onomatopoeia
Onomatopoeia is word that phonetically imitates or
suggests the source of the sound that it describes.
Examples:
1. water plops into pond

2. splish-splash downhill
3. warbling magpies in tree
4. trilling, melodic thrill
THE END
MADE BY :- RICHA AGRAWAL
CLASS
:- XII-B
SUBJECT :- ENGLISH PPT

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Figures of speech

  • 2. Simile A simile is a figure of speech that directly compares two things through some connective, usually "like," "as," "than," or a verb such as "resembles." A simile differs from a metaphor in that the latter compares two unlike things by saying that the one thing is the other thing.
  • 3. Examples: 1. “For hope grew round me, like the twining vine,” 2. She walks as gracefully as a cat. Sometimes similes are submerged, comparative words ('Like' or 'As'). used without using 3. "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? / Thou art more lovely and more temperate:“ 4. "I'm happier than a tornado in a trailer park!“ 5. "How this Herculean Roman does become / The carriage of his chafe.“ .
  • 4. metaphor A metaphor is a figure of speech that describes a subject by asserting that it is, on some point of comparison, the same as another otherwise unrelated object. In simpler terms, a metaphor compares two objects or things without using the words "like" or "as".
  • 5. Examples: One of the most prominent examples of a metaphor in English literature is the All the world’s a stage monologue from As You Like It: All the world's a stage, And all the men and women merely players; They have their exits and their entrances; — This quote is a metaphor because the world is not literally a stage. By figuratively asserting that the world is a stage, Shakespeare uses the points of comparison between the world and a stage to convey an understanding about the mechanics of the world and the lives of the people within it.
  • 6. Personification Anthropomorphism, or personification, is attribution of human form or other characteristics to anything other than a human being.
  • 7. Examples: [1] The rock flew down the cliff like a maniac. [2] The sun kissed the flowers. [3] The breakers at the North Shore hissed evilly.
  • 8. Apostrophe Apostrophe is an exclamatory rhetorical figure of speech, when a speaker or writer breaks off and directs speech to an imaginary person or abstract quality or idea. In dramatic works and poetry written in or translated into English, such a figure of speech is often introduced by the exclamation "O".
  • 9. Examples: 1. "To what green altar, O mysterious priest, / Lead'st thou that heifer lowing at the skies, / And all her silken flanks with garlands direst?" 2. "Then come, sweet death, and rid me of this grief." "Is this a dagger which I see before me, The handle toward my hand? Come, let me clutch thee! I have thee not, and yet I see thee still."
  • 10. Hyperbole Hyperbole is the use of exaggerations as a rhetorical device or figure of speech. It may be used to evoke strong feelings or to create a strong impression, but is not meant to be taken literally. Hyperboles are exaggerations to create emphasis or effect. As a literary device , hyperbole is often used in poetry, and is frequently encountered in casual speech.
  • 11. Examples: 1. "The bag weighed a ton.“ Hyperbole makes the point that the bag was very heavy, though it probably doesn't actually weigh a ton.
  • 12. Euphemism A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant.
  • 13. Examples: Euphemisms are used for dissimulation, to refer to taboo topics (such as disability, death) in a polite way, and to mask profanity. Some euphemisms are so commonly used as to be standard usage: 1. "pass away" for "die".
  • 14. Antithesis Antithesis is used when two opposites are introduced in the same sentence, for contrasting effect.
  • 15. Examples: 1. Many are called, but few are chosen. 2. Rude words bring about sadness, but kind words inspire joy. 3. Man proposes, God disposes. 4. Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice.
  • 16. Epigram An epigram is a brief, interesting, memorable, and sometimes surprising or satirical statement.
  • 17. Examples: 1. Some can gaze and not be sick But I could never learn the trick. There's this to say for blood and breath; They give a man a taste for death. — A.E. Housman 2. Little strokes Fell great oaks. — Benjamin Franklin
  • 18. Oxymoron An oxymoron (plural oxymora or oxymorons) is a figure of speech that combines contradictory terms.
  • 19. Examples: 1. “And faith unfaithful kept him falsely true.“ 2. “The silence whistles”.
  • 20. Irony The expression of one's meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect.
  • 21. Examples: 1. THE RIME OF THE ANCIENT MARINER Water, water, every where, And all the boards did shrink ; Water, water, every where, Nor any drop to drink 2. JULIUS CAESAR, WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Yet Brutus says he was ambitious; And Brutus is an honorable man.
  • 22. Pun The pun, also called paronomasia, is a form of word play which suggests two or more meanings, by exploiting multiple meanings of words, or of similar-sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect.
  • 23. Examples: Puns in Romeo and Juliet 1. “it is the unkindest tied that ever any man tied.” 2. “winter of our discontent” was “made glorious summer by this Son [son] of York.” (Richard III)
  • 24. Metonymy Metonymy is a figure of speech used in rhetorical in which a thing or concept is not called by its own name, but by the name of something intimately associated with that thing or concept.
  • 25. Examples: 1. “Hollywood" is used as a metonym (an instance of metonymy) for the U.S. film Industry, because of the fame and cultural identity of Hollywood, a district of the city of Los Angeles , California , as the historical center of film studios and film stars.
  • 26. Synecdoche Synecdoche is a figure of speech in which a term for a part of something is used to refer to the whole of something, or viceversa.
  • 27. Examples: 1. By William Shakespeare “Friends, Romans, countrymen: lend me your ears" 2. From "Ozymandias" by Shelley Tell that its sculptor well those passions read Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things, The hand that mocked them.
  • 28. Onomatopoeia Onomatopoeia is word that phonetically imitates or suggests the source of the sound that it describes.
  • 29. Examples: 1. water plops into pond 2. splish-splash downhill 3. warbling magpies in tree 4. trilling, melodic thrill
  • 30. THE END MADE BY :- RICHA AGRAWAL CLASS :- XII-B SUBJECT :- ENGLISH PPT