CONSTITUENTS OF FOOD
Malnutrition means insufficient and unwholesome feeding. Many
children in our country are malnourished either due to poverty,
parental ignorance and backwardness or because of unhealthy feeding
habits and non-intake of balanced diet
Poor mental and physical condition
Pale, charmless, lazy and always feels drowsy
Easily fatigued with a slight strenuous work
Susceptible to disease and ill-health
Highly irritable and gloomy in nature
Lacks concentration and forgets what he learns
Shows no interest in learning or playing
ROLE OF SCHOOL MANAGEMENT
Should collect funds from various
sources like the State Government, rich
people of the society, welfare agencies
Funds be used to provide healthy,
nutritious food in the mid-day meal
Parents should be given guidance with
regards to diet.
Parents should be told about the value of
good nutrition & the evils of
The teachers should create awareness in
the students regarding the ill effects of
malnutrition through stories and plays
WHY IS FOOD NECESSARY?
All living beings need food to live
Food is necessary to build the body tissue, repair worn out
tissue and to grow
It is necessary to gain strength and fight disease-causing
germs, produce anti-toxins
For the well functioning of all the parts of the body
CONSTITUENTS OF FOOD
Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, salts, vitamins and water are
the various constituents of food
Proteins - to form new tissues and repair worn-out ones
Carbohydrates give heat and energy to the body , maintain
the body temperature
Vitamins control the metabolism.
Water keeps the fluidity of blood, helps in digestion ,
excretion & regulates body temperature
Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur
Chief sources of nitrogen available in the form of
gluten in wheat, legumen in peas & green vegetables
and casein in milk
Two main kinds of proteins – animal proteins and
Animal proteins found in eggs, meat, milk are easily
digestible than the veg proteins found in wheat, peas,
beans, and pulses
Animal proteins are more useful to human body than
the veg proteins because the proteins present in the
human body are similar to those present in animals
Because of their utility in human beings, animal
proteins are called ‘A’ class proteins
Both classes of proteins are helpful for the physical
growth and development of children and youth
They build up new tissues in growing children
They make up for the loss of nitrogenous matter
removed by the excretory system as urea and urine
If proteins are taken in excess they are stored as fat
under the skin
Consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Present in two forms – starch and sugar.
Starch is found in cereals like wheat, maize and rice
and in certain vegetables like potato, sago etc.
Sugar is present in sugarcane, beetroot, sweet
potato, fruits and milk in the form of lactose.
Main sources of heat and energy as they
are used as fuel - called as fuel foods
Changed into glucose during digestion
and reach muscles through blood, where
they are used for generating energy
Remaining glucose is stored in the form
of glycogen in the muscles and used
In cases of pancreatic dysfunction
excess sugar is excreted through urine
and this defect is called diabetes
Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Help as fuel foods
Two types of fats called as animal fats
(butter, ghee etc) and vegetable fats
(mustard, coconut, castor etc.)
Animal fats produce more heat and energy
when compared to vegetable fats
Animal fats contain vitamins A and D that
helps in building bones and teeth
Salts and minerals like chlorides,
phosphates, calcium, iron, sodium,
potassium and iodine are required for the
building up of body tissues
They are directly absorbed by the body and
require no digestion
SALTS & MINERALS
IMPORTANCE OF SALTS
Common salt is an important part of our
tissues and blood and is the chief source of
hydrochloric acid in our stomach and bile
salts in liver.
Calcium salts are major parts of our bones,
teeth, blood and other tissues. Deficiency
of calcium slats in children causes bone
diseases and teeth decay.
Iron is necessary for heamoglobin
formation and deficiency of iron leads to
Sodium and potassium are needed to
maintain the salinity of blood and proper
working of the muscles
Iodine is needed for the proper functioning
of thyroid gland and deficiency of iodine
Essential Interventions to Combat Malnutrition
Related to the consumption and absorption of adequate protein calorie/micro-nutrient
rich foods essential to combat malnutrition, namely:
1. Weighment of child within 6 hours of birth and thereafter at monthly intervals.
2. Timely initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth, and feeding of colostrum to the infant.
3. Exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life.
4. Timely introduction of complementary foods at six months and adequate intake of the same, in terms of
quantity, quality and frequency for children between 6-24 months.
5. Dietary supplements of all children between 6 months – 72 months through energy dense foods made by
SHGs from locally available food material to bridge the protein calorie gap.
6. Safe handling of complementary foods and hygienic complementary feeding practices.
7. Complete immunization and Vit. A supplementation.
8. De-worming of all family members bi-annually.
9. Frequent, appropriate, and active feeding for children during and after illness,
including oral rehydration with Zinc supplementation during diarrhea.
10. Timely and quality therapeutic feeding and care for all children with severe and acute
11. Dietary supplements of iron – rich, energy dense foods made from locally available
food material prepared by women SHGs for adolescent girls and women, especially
during growth periods and pregnancy to fill the protein calorie gap and ensure optimal
weight gain during pregnancy.
12. Anaemia screening for children, adolescent girls and women.
13. Weight monitoring of all adolescent girls and pregnant women.
14. Prevention and management of Micro-Nutrient deficiencies, especially through IFA
supplementation to prevent anaemia in adolescent girls and women.
15. Making available low cost energy foods for the general population.
16. Fortification of common foods.
Nutrition Monitoring and Surveillance :
1. A computerized Central and Block level monitoring systems should be devised
with deliverable targets and time frames
2. An effective concurrent monitoring system through an external agency can also
be established for measuring outcomes, and for effecting changes and mid
3. At the AW level, community based nutrition monitoring and surveillance
through ICDS infrastructure could include growth monitoring of infants and
children and weight monitoring of adolescent girls and women
4. Creating a data base on the nutritional status of children, adolescents and
women in each Anganwadi
5. And The major factor appointing truthful officers and reduce Corruption .
1. Since at least 4% of India’s GDP ($29 Billion) annually is lost on account of
malnutrition, the cost of addressing malnutrition is far below the cost of not
2. It may be noted that the cost of construction of 3 kilometres of rural road is in
excess of the amount required to address the nutrition deficit of the key target
groups in the Block.
3. Investing in human resources development for the future – in the shape of
healthy children, adolescents and adults with higher cognitive and productive
capacity, is an investment that will pay for itself several times over, will
eradicate the curse of malnutrition in the shortest possible time, so that every
Indian is able to reach his or her full physical and cognitive potential, enhance
income generation capacity and contribute to the country's progress.