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  2. 2. MALNUTRITION  Malnutrition means insufficient and unwholesome feeding. Many children in our country are malnourished either due to poverty, parental ignorance and backwardness or because of unhealthy feeding habits and non-intake of balanced diet  Poor mental and physical condition  Pale, charmless, lazy and always feels drowsy  Easily fatigued with a slight strenuous work  Susceptible to disease and ill-health  Highly irritable and gloomy in nature  Lacks concentration and forgets what he learns  Shows no interest in learning or playing MALNOURISHED CHILD
  3. 3. ROLE OF SCHOOL MANAGEMENT  Should collect funds from various sources like the State Government, rich people of the society, welfare agencies etc  Funds be used to provide healthy, nutritious food in the mid-day meal scheme  Parents should be given guidance with regards to diet.  Parents should be told about the value of good nutrition & the evils of malnutrition  The teachers should create awareness in the students regarding the ill effects of malnutrition through stories and plays
  4. 4. WHY IS FOOD NECESSARY?  All living beings need food to live  Food is necessary to build the body tissue, repair worn out tissue and to grow  It is necessary to gain strength and fight disease-causing germs, produce anti-toxins  For the well functioning of all the parts of the body
  5. 5. CONSTITUENTS OF FOOD  Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, salts, vitamins and water are the various constituents of food  Proteins - to form new tissues and repair worn-out ones  Carbohydrates give heat and energy to the body , maintain the body temperature  Vitamins control the metabolism.  Water keeps the fluidity of blood, helps in digestion , excretion & regulates body temperature
  6. 6. PROTEINS  Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus  Chief sources of nitrogen available in the form of gluten in wheat, legumen in peas & green vegetables and casein in milk  Two main kinds of proteins – animal proteins and vegetable proteins  Animal proteins found in eggs, meat, milk are easily digestible than the veg proteins found in wheat, peas, beans, and pulses  Animal proteins are more useful to human body than the veg proteins because the proteins present in the human body are similar to those present in animals  Because of their utility in human beings, animal proteins are called ‘A’ class proteins
  7. 7. PROTEINS  Both classes of proteins are helpful for the physical growth and development of children and youth because  They build up new tissues in growing children  They make up for the loss of nitrogenous matter removed by the excretory system as urea and urine  If proteins are taken in excess they are stored as fat under the skin  Consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.  Present in two forms – starch and sugar.  Starch is found in cereals like wheat, maize and rice and in certain vegetables like potato, sago etc.  Sugar is present in sugarcane, beetroot, sweet potato, fruits and milk in the form of lactose. CARBOHYDRATES
  8. 8. CARBOHYDRATES  Main sources of heat and energy as they are used as fuel - called as fuel foods  Changed into glucose during digestion and reach muscles through blood, where they are used for generating energy  Remaining glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in the muscles and used when required  In cases of pancreatic dysfunction excess sugar is excreted through urine and this defect is called diabetes mellitus
  9. 9. FATS  Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen  Help as fuel foods  Two types of fats called as animal fats (butter, ghee etc) and vegetable fats (mustard, coconut, castor etc.)  Animal fats produce more heat and energy when compared to vegetable fats  Animal fats contain vitamins A and D that helps in building bones and teeth  Salts and minerals like chlorides, phosphates, calcium, iron, sodium, potassium and iodine are required for the building up of body tissues  They are directly absorbed by the body and require no digestion SALTS & MINERALS
  10. 10. IMPORTANCE OF SALTS  Common salt is an important part of our tissues and blood and is the chief source of hydrochloric acid in our stomach and bile salts in liver.  Calcium salts are major parts of our bones, teeth, blood and other tissues. Deficiency of calcium slats in children causes bone diseases and teeth decay.  Iron is necessary for heamoglobin formation and deficiency of iron leads to anemia  Sodium and potassium are needed to maintain the salinity of blood and proper working of the muscles  Iodine is needed for the proper functioning of thyroid gland and deficiency of iodine causes goitre
  11. 11. Essential Interventions to Combat Malnutrition Related to the consumption and absorption of adequate protein calorie/micro-nutrient rich foods essential to combat malnutrition, namely: 1. Weighment of child within 6 hours of birth and thereafter at monthly intervals. 2. Timely initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth, and feeding of colostrum to the infant. 3. Exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life. 4. Timely introduction of complementary foods at six months and adequate intake of the same, in terms of quantity, quality and frequency for children between 6-24 months. 5. Dietary supplements of all children between 6 months – 72 months through energy dense foods made by SHGs from locally available food material to bridge the protein calorie gap. 6. Safe handling of complementary foods and hygienic complementary feeding practices. 7. Complete immunization and Vit. A supplementation. 8. De-worming of all family members bi-annually.
  12. 12. 9. Frequent, appropriate, and active feeding for children during and after illness, including oral rehydration with Zinc supplementation during diarrhea. 10. Timely and quality therapeutic feeding and care for all children with severe and acute malnutrition. 11. Dietary supplements of iron – rich, energy dense foods made from locally available food material prepared by women SHGs for adolescent girls and women, especially during growth periods and pregnancy to fill the protein calorie gap and ensure optimal weight gain during pregnancy. 12. Anaemia screening for children, adolescent girls and women. 13. Weight monitoring of all adolescent girls and pregnant women. 14. Prevention and management of Micro-Nutrient deficiencies, especially through IFA supplementation to prevent anaemia in adolescent girls and women. 15. Making available low cost energy foods for the general population. 16. Fortification of common foods.
  13. 13. Nutrition Monitoring and Surveillance : 1. A computerized Central and Block level monitoring systems should be devised with deliverable targets and time frames 2. An effective concurrent monitoring system through an external agency can also be established for measuring outcomes, and for effecting changes and mid course corrections 3. At the AW level, community based nutrition monitoring and surveillance through ICDS infrastructure could include growth monitoring of infants and children and weight monitoring of adolescent girls and women 4. Creating a data base on the nutritional status of children, adolescents and women in each Anganwadi 5. And The major factor appointing truthful officers and reduce Corruption .
  14. 14. Concluding Observations: 1. Since at least 4% of India’s GDP ($29 Billion) annually is lost on account of malnutrition, the cost of addressing malnutrition is far below the cost of not addressing it. 2. It may be noted that the cost of construction of 3 kilometres of rural road is in excess of the amount required to address the nutrition deficit of the key target groups in the Block. 3. Investing in human resources development for the future – in the shape of healthy children, adolescents and adults with higher cognitive and productive capacity, is an investment that will pay for itself several times over, will eradicate the curse of malnutrition in the shortest possible time, so that every Indian is able to reach his or her full physical and cognitive potential, enhance income generation capacity and contribute to the country's progress.