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Nutritional and health


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Dr.Saleh From Taishan Medical University

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
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Nutritional and health

  1. Nutrition & Health Date: 24-05-2012 By : MalikTaishan Medical University.
  2. Objectives• Explain the relationship between diet and health.• Distinguish among the six classes of nutrients.• Identify the importance of each type of nutrient.
  3. Your body needs nutrients found in foods.2. Nutrients provide energy and materials for cell development, growth, and repair.2. You need energy for every activity and to maintain a steady internal temperature.
  4. Classes of Nutrients1. Proteins a. Used for replacement and repair of body cells and for growth b. Made up of amino acids c. Found in eggs, milk, cheese, and meat d. Essential amino acids must be supplied by food.
  5. 2. Carbohydrates a. The main source of energy for your body b. Made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; energy holds these atoms together c. Sugars are simple carbohydrates; starch and fiber are complex carbohydrates. d. Sugars are found in fruits, honey, and milk. e. Starches are found in potatoes and pasta. f. Fiber is found in whole-grain breads, beans, and peas.
  6. 3. Fats a. Also called lipids b. Provide energy and help your body absorb vitamins c. Because fat is a good storage unit for energy, any excess energy is converted to fat. d. Classified as unsaturated or saturated based on their chemical structure e. Saturated fats are associated with high cholesterol.
  7. 4. Vitamins a. Needed for growth, regulating body functions, and preventing disease b. A well-balanced diet usually gives your body all the vitamins it needs. c. Two groups: water-soluble and fat-soluble
  8. 5. Minerals a. Are inorganic nutrients b. Regulate many chemical reactions in your body c. Calcium and phosphorous are used most by the body.
  9. 6. Water a. Required for survival. b. Cells need water to carry out their work. c. Most nutrients your body needs must be dissolved in water. d. The human body is about 60 percent water. e. You lose water each day when you perspire, exhale, and get rid of wastes.
  10. Food Groups1. Because no food has every nutrient, you should eat a variety of foods.2. The food pyramid helps people select foods that supply all the nutrients they need.3. Foods that contain the same nutrients belong to a food group.4. Five food groups: a. Bread and cereal b. Vegetable c. Fruit d. Milk e. Meat
  11. DISCUSSION QUESTION:How can the food pyramid help you maintain good health?The food pyramid tells you how many servings of each food group to eat every day. The recommended daily amount for each food group will supply your body with the nutrients it needs.
  12. Do we have anappropriate metaphor for today’s industrial food system?
  13. Nutrient Dilution Effect• Yield enhancing methods tend to decrease nutrient density• Recent studies of fruits, vegetables and wheat show a 5 to 35 percent decline in nutrient density during past fifty years• A few nutrients in meat and milk have decreased by as much as 60 percent.
  14. Cost per nutrient value?• What we need is a food system that calculates the cost of food by its health and nutrient value.• A sobering thought: During the same time that we have reduced the percent of our earned income spent on food to less than 10 percent, we have also increased the percent of our income spent on health care to 16 percent! wikipedia (Gary Schwartz MD, Mayo Clinic)
  15. This is absolutely a must watch by every person who eats at fast- food restaurants. In this documentary one of the most amazing things was examined. What if a person ate only McDonalds food for thirty days? What would happen? Could just thirty days of eating McDonalds food cause any medical problem? Could just thirty days of eating McDonalds food cause a massive weight gain? Could just thirty days of eating McDonalds food cause disease and illness? Certainly no doctor would believe that simply eating McDonalds food for thirty days would cause any medical or health problems. This documentary shows the truth. The man had his blood work tested before, during, and after his experiment. He had his weight checked. In just thirty days, the medical doctors were dumbfounded and astonished by what happened to this mans body. In just thirty days of eating McDonalds food this man gained twentyfive pounds. In just thirty days! But its worse than that. He started at only 185 pounds, so he gained almost 20 percent of his original body weight. No doctor could believe it.
  16. Conventional foods today• The chemical fertilizers used in the food,• the pesticides used in the food• food is picked early and then gassed,• food is genetically modified and manufactured in an unnatural way,• the processing methods that are used,• the irradiation that was used,• the actual thousands of chemicals that are put in processed food to make it taste better and give it certain textures, preserve it, or specifically designed to get you chemically and physically addicted to the food, increase your appetite and leads to weight gain.
  17. Simple rule: Since our bodies are fromnature we should Eat What Is From Nature!
  18. Rex Russell, M.D. states the following: It has been reported that in the early twentieth century, a people in the Himalayas called the Hunzas had an average life span of 90 years, and often over 120 years.When a medical team led by Dr. Robert Garrison studied the Hunzas in the 1940s, the physicians did not find a single case of cancer, ulcers, appendicitis or colitis. Heart disease and hypertension were unknown among them. The medical experts also found that the Hunza people ate nuts, grains, vegetables, fruits and legumes.The team could only conclude that the Hunza’s life expectancy was based on clean water and exercise ...” In 1949, the Hunzas were incorporated into Pakistan, and their life span has since been shortened because of changes in diet.
  19. Cheap raw materials and labor policy• Cheap raw materials and labor lead to cheap ingredients.• Cheap ingredients lead to adding value by providing volume. – we promote “all you can eat” fare – put lots of cheap ingredients (like high fructose corn syrup) into our food. – emphasis on quantity dilutes nutrient density• That combination may have deleterious health effects.
  20. Proper diet is imperative for extraordinary health, but since the mid-20th century, the standard diethas lost its nutritional power due to factors such as:• Commercial farming methods resulting in mineral-deficient soil; an over-reliance on pesticides, antibiotics, hormones, and other drugs used in raising livestock.• The popularity of fast-food, processed foods, and “junk foods” with chemical additives, unhealthy fats and trans-fatty oils, white flour and refined starches—all with no to low nutritional value.• Environmental pollutants which poison our air, land, water, and food.
  21. Best dietEmphasize a whole-foods diet rich in the highest quality proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals.These are best found in organic fruits and vegetables, complex carbohydrates, nuts, seeds, fiber, pure water, and organic, free- range meat and poultry products.
  22. Macronutrients and MicronutrientsMacronutrients are nutrients required in the highest amounts; micronutrients are essential dietary elements required in only small quantities. Our bodies require the three macronutrients protein, carbohydrates, and fats. – Proteins supply energy and provide the structural components necessary for growth and repair of tissue. – Carbohydrates and fats function to supply energy. – Vitamins and minerals are needed in small quantities (micronutrients), but are essential for normal growth, muscle response, health of the nervous system, digestion, production of hormones, and metabolism of nutrients.
  23. Eat Whole, Organic FoodsConsuming whole foods (unprocessed foods) is key. Organic foods are recommended--foods lacking commercial pesticides, fungicides, antibiotics, and preservatives. This includes food (proteins, carbohydrates, and fats) in its most natural and whole organic state.Proteins• Include healthy proteins--the building blocks of organs, muscles, nerves, enzymes and hormones. Only animal proteins – meat, eggs and dairy, which contain all eight of the essential amino acids--are complete protein sources. Recommended animal proteins are properly raised beef, lamb, buffalo, venison, elk, and other clean red meats; fish with fins and scales from oceans and rivers; chicken, turkey, and other poultry raised in a free-range setting.Carbohydrates• Carbohydrates provide energy needed to drive bodily chemical processes. The simple sugars eaten in Biblical times were highly nutritious fruits and vegetables, raw honey, and sprouted/germinated grains. (Sprouting and germination allows grains to come alive, making nutrition within the seed available.)Fats• Healthy fats are necessary. Here’s why:• Fats are building blocks for cell membranes, hormones, enzymes and neurotransmitters (messages from your brain to your body that make you think, feel and move).• Fats slow down food absorption so you can go longer without feeling hungry.• Fats are needed to absorb and use vitamins A, D, E & K.• Fats help to keep us warm and cushion organs.• The brain is 60% fat, and needs fat for connecting brain cells and making sure signals get through.• It is important to get healthy fats, so include foods such as ocean-caught fish, cod liver oil, and omega-3 eggs. Recommended are ocean-caught fish with fins and scales such as salmon, tuna and sardines, ‘fatty’ fish with high omega-3 levels. Choose grass-fed, free range or organic meats; when animals graze on their natural diet of greens, their diet is automatically rich in these essential fats.
  24. The “dirty dozen.”These are some of the most popular and widespread food products and are the least healthy items you can put into your mouth. Try to avoid them.• Pork products• Shellfish and fish without fins and scales (catfish, shark, eel)• Hydrogenated oils (margarine, shortening, etc.)• Artificial sweeteners (aspartame, saccharin, sucralose)• White flour• White sugar• Soft drinks• Pasteurized, homogenized skim milk• High-fructose corn syrup• Hydrolyzed soy protein (imitation meat products)• Artificial flavors and colors• Excessive alcohol
  25. HFCS?• Since 1980, HFCS has insinuated itself into every nook and cranny of the food industry—McDonalds meal, theres HFCS not only in his 32-ounce soda, but in the ketchup and the bun of his cheeseburger — and some think it as the prime culprit in the nations obesity epidemic.• Soft Drinks Cause Weight Gain in Several Ways Some nutritionists say that consuming high-fructose corn syrup causes weight gain by interfering with the body’s natural ability to suppress hunger feelings. Currently, 64.5 percent of adults over the age of 20 are overweight, 30.5 percent are obese and 4.7 percent are severely obese. According to Dr. Sonia Caprio, a Yale University professor of pediatric endocrinology, “The reality is that there is epidemiological work done in children as well as adults that links obesity and Type 2 diabetes with the consumption of sodas.”
  26. Health eating tips• Drink water• Stay away from sodas• Stay away from hfcs• Stay away from processed foods• Stay away from saturated / trans fats• Natural fats not bad - Mono- and polyunsaturated fats have health benefits and are the preferred dietary fats• Stay away from hydrogenated products• Try to eat as fresh as possible• All natural / organic best choices – usually have no hormones/toxins• Eat to live, not live to eat – never stuff yourself
  27. General health tipsIt’s simple:• Eat right (natural / fresh)• Exercise (being active)(if you do these, you have no need for “fad” diets)
  28. Food for thought• We do live longer, but need the aid of expensive manufactured drugs – usually producing an uncomfortable and prolonged life• Varying genetics plays a role in how different people process things
  29. Simple rule: Since our bodies are fromnature we should Eat What Is From Nature!
  30. Modern World
  31. OLD v/s Modern
  32. Risk Factors of Over EatingHigh Blood pressureHigh CholestrolArthritisRespiratory ProblemsEndomatrial, Breast, Stomach,Colon cancerCoronary Artery DiseaseStrokesObesityDiaebtese
  33. How Much Should people Eat Males Age 20-49 2900 calories/day Age 50-plus 2500 calories/dayFemales Age 20-49 2300 calories/day Age 50-plus 1900 calories/day
  34. Read the Nutrition Facts Label For Total Sugars Plain Yogurt Fruit Yogurt
  35. Food Value Chart Tea/Coffee:75/110 cal • Rice-01cup: 170 cal Orange juice-1cup:40 cal • Salad-01cup: 56 cal Tomato juice-1cup:80cal • Fish/Chicken-2piece:200 cal Cold Drinks-01 glass:75 cal • Cooked veg 1cup:170 cal Banana-01(Sagar type):100 cal • Oil for cooking-3tsf:135 cal Cake-01:70 cal • Potato-01 medium:70 cal Fruit cake-01:270 cal • 4 biscuit(15gm):75 cal Milk-01cup/1glass:80 cal/150cal • Mango-medium 01:80 cal Soup-01cup:100 cal • Boiled egg-01:90 cal Dal-01cup:75 cal • Omelette / fried egg-01:160 cal Ruti/chapati-2small:70 cal • Samosa-01:200 cal Paratha-01:150 cal • Ice-cream-1 cup:400 cal Vegetable-1/2cup:70 cal Toast 2piece:150 cal K. Park