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Nutrition

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Sherly VM
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MAJ SHERLY V M
 The foods you eat supply your body with the 
carbohydrates, protein and fat, also called macronutrients, 
and the vitamins and minerals, referred to as 
micronutrients, to produce the chemicals that support your 
life. Both healthy and poor diets contain macronutrients 
and micronutrients, but the quantity and quality of each 
component determines the status of your health, strength, 
endurance, longevity and your ability to function. Nutrient-rich 
foods support your body’s natural ability to repair and 
maintain itself, and decrease your risk for life-altering 
illness and disease.
 Nutrition includes all those processes of a living being whereby it takes food, digests it, and utilizes the digested materials 
for (i) its survival, (ii) growth, and (iii) repair of worn-out parts the body. Digested and assimilated materials become the 
food for cells. 
 Nutrition is required for the following purposes. 
 1. Growth: 
 Body cells multiply regularly. They increase in size also. For these processes and to replace damaged and worn-out 
tissues, new protoplasm is continuously required. Food helps in the formation of new protoplasm in the body. 
 2. Release of Energy: 
 Energy is required for performing various life process like ingestion, digestion, absorption, movement, co-ordination, 
secretion, circulation, respiration, etc. energy required for these processes is released by the oxidation of food in the 
protoplasm. 
 3. Formation of Organic substance: 
 Many organic substances like enzymes and hormones are required by the living beings. These are produced from the raw 
materials provided by food. 
 4. Regulating Metabolic Processes: 
 Food is required by the organisms for various other metabolic activities. For maintaining and repairing various parts, the 
food provides basic raw materials. 
 5. Giving resistance: 
 Food is also helpful in building up the resistance against diseases. Nutrition is classified into two types-autotrophic and 
heterotrophic
INTRODUCTION 
 “Some eat to live, 
And some live to eat! 
My function is to cater them all”
Introduction of terms 
 Food : -food is vital for human existence. 
food may be defined as anything eaten 
or drunk , which meets the needs of tissue 
building , regulation and protection of the 
body and its energy needs.
Introduction of terms 
 Diet : - refers to whatever people eat , 
drink each day. 
 The word “ nutrition “ is derived from 
nutricus meaning to suckle.

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Nutrition

  • 2.  The foods you eat supply your body with the carbohydrates, protein and fat, also called macronutrients, and the vitamins and minerals, referred to as micronutrients, to produce the chemicals that support your life. Both healthy and poor diets contain macronutrients and micronutrients, but the quantity and quality of each component determines the status of your health, strength, endurance, longevity and your ability to function. Nutrient-rich foods support your body’s natural ability to repair and maintain itself, and decrease your risk for life-altering illness and disease.
  • 3.  Nutrition includes all those processes of a living being whereby it takes food, digests it, and utilizes the digested materials for (i) its survival, (ii) growth, and (iii) repair of worn-out parts the body. Digested and assimilated materials become the food for cells.  Nutrition is required for the following purposes.  1. Growth:  Body cells multiply regularly. They increase in size also. For these processes and to replace damaged and worn-out tissues, new protoplasm is continuously required. Food helps in the formation of new protoplasm in the body.  2. Release of Energy:  Energy is required for performing various life process like ingestion, digestion, absorption, movement, co-ordination, secretion, circulation, respiration, etc. energy required for these processes is released by the oxidation of food in the protoplasm.  3. Formation of Organic substance:  Many organic substances like enzymes and hormones are required by the living beings. These are produced from the raw materials provided by food.  4. Regulating Metabolic Processes:  Food is required by the organisms for various other metabolic activities. For maintaining and repairing various parts, the food provides basic raw materials.  5. Giving resistance:  Food is also helpful in building up the resistance against diseases. Nutrition is classified into two types-autotrophic and heterotrophic
  • 4. INTRODUCTION  “Some eat to live, And some live to eat! My function is to cater them all”
  • 5. Introduction of terms  Food : -food is vital for human existence. food may be defined as anything eaten or drunk , which meets the needs of tissue building , regulation and protection of the body and its energy needs.
  • 6. Introduction of terms  Diet : - refers to whatever people eat , drink each day.  The word “ nutrition “ is derived from nutricus meaning to suckle.
  • 7. Contd…  Nutrition may be defined as the utilization of food by living organisms.  Nutrition significantly promotes man’s development , his health and welfare.
  • 8. HISTORY  The first recorded dietary advice, carved into a Babylonian stone tablet in about 2500 BC, cautioned those with pain inside to avoid eating onions for three days.  Scurvy, later found to be a vitamin C deficiency, was first described in 1500 BC in the Ebers Papyrus
  • 9. HISTORY…  According to Walter Gratzer, the study of nutrition probably began during the 6th century BC.  Food was classified into "hot" (for example, meats, blood, ginger, and hot spices) and "cold" (green vegetables) in China, India, Malaya, and Persia
  • 10. HISTORY  Hippocrates, who recognized and was concerned with obesity, which may have been common in southern Europe at the time, said, "Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food.“  The book that is still attributed to him, Corpus Hippocraticum, called for moderation and emphasized exercise.
  • 11. HISTORY contd..  It is a new field of study , about one hundred years old.  Hippocrates had recognized diet on a component of health - 300 B C.  People began to realize the importance of CHO , LIPIDS and PROTEINS for normal growth and development.
  • 12. HISTORY  Nutrition was officially recognized as an independent field of study in 1928 with the formation of American Institute of Nutrition.  Nutrition research tries to find out the impact of food on our body by examining the progress in allied fields , such as physics, chemistry, biochemistry, immunology
  • 13. DISCOVERY OF VITAMINS  Vitamin A – 1913  Vitamin C - 1919  Vitamin D - 1925  Vitamin K - 1935  Vitamin B2 - 1935  Vitamin E - 1936  Vitamin B1 – 1936  Vitamin B6 - 1936  Vitamin B9 - 1948
  • 14. Definition  Nutrition is defined as the science of food and its relationship to health.  It is the study of nutrients and processes by which they are used by the body.  It is concerned with the part played by nutrients in the body growth , development and maintenance.
  • 15. Contd…  Nutrition is the selection of foods and preparation of foods, and their ingestion to be assimilated by the body.  By practicing a healthy diet, many of the known health issues can be avoided.  The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the perceived palatability of foods.
  • 16. Contd..  Dietitians are health professionals who specialize in human nutrition, meal planning, economics, and preparation.  They are trained to provide safe, evidence-based dietary advice and management to individuals (in health and disease), as well as to institutions.
  • 17. Definition of terms …  Malnutrition : - a pathological state resulting from a relative or absolute deficiency or excess of one or more essential nutrients .  It comprises four forms –  Under nutrition  Over nutrition  Imbalance  Specific deficiency
  • 18. UNDER NUTRITION  A condition which results when insufficient food is eaten over an extended period of time. In extreme cases it is called starvation.
  • 19. Over nutrition  Pathological state resulting from the consumption of excessive quantity of food over an extended period of time.  Eg ; obesity, atheroma and diabetis.
  • 20. imbalance  Pathological state resulting from a disproportion among essential nutrients without the absolute deficiency of any nutrients.
  • 21. Specific deficiency  A pathological state resulting from a relative or absolute lack of an individual nutrient.
  • 22. ROLE OF NUTRITION IN MAINTAINING HEALTH
  • 23.  Nutrition includes all those processes of a living being whereby it takes food, digests it, and utilizes the digested materials for (i) its survival,  (ii) growth, and  (iii) repair of worn-out parts of the body. Digested and assimilated materials become the food for cells.
  • 24. Contd..  Nutrition is fundamental for our own health  Essential for health and wellbeing
  • 25. ROLE OF NUTRITION ..  Nutrition is required for the following purposes.  1. Growth and development  Body cells multiply regularly. They increase in size also. For these processes and to replace damaged and worn-out tissues, new protoplasm is continuously required. Food helps in the formation of new protoplasm in the body.
  • 26.  2. Release of Energy:  Energy is required for performing various life process like ingestion, digestion, absorption, movement, co-ordination, secretion, circulation, respiration, etc. energy required for these processes is released by the oxidation of food in the protoplasm.
  • 27.  3. Formation of Organic substance:  Many organic substances like enzymes and hormones are required by the living beings. These are produced from the raw materials provided by food.
  • 28.  4. Regulating Metabolic Processes:  Food is required by the organisms for various other metabolic activities. For maintaining and repairing various parts, the food provides basic raw materials.
  • 29.  5. Giving resistance to infection  Food is also helpful in building up the resistance against diseases
  • 30. Contd..  Prevents malnutrition
  • 32. NUTRITIONAL PROBLEMS IN INDIA  PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION  LOW BIRTH WEIGHT  XEROPHTHALMIA  NUTRITIONAL ANEMIA  IODINE DEFICIENCY DISORDERS  FLUROSIS  LATHYRISM  OBESITY  CARDIO VASCULAR DISEASES  DIABETES  CANCER
  • 33.  75 percent of preschool children suffer from iron deficiency anemia (IDA)  57 percent of preschool children have sub-clinical Vitamin A deficiency (VAD)  Iodine deficiency is endemic in 85 percent of districts
  • 34. Contd..  11% of Indian population in India are over-nourished  over 30 million people with diabetics in 1985 and by next year (2010) India is projected to have 50.8 million diabetics  India is hence considered as the country with the largest population of diabetics
  • 35. PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION  PEM refers to the deficiency of energy and protein in the body.  1-2% of preschool children in India suffer from PEM.
  • 36. PEM
  • 37. MAIN CAUSES OF PEM  Inadequate intake of food both in quantity and quality  Infections (Diarrhea, Respiratory infections, measles, intestinal worms)
  • 39. 40 30 20 10 0 45 PER CENT
  • 40. CAUSES  Maternal malnutrition and anemia.  Illness and infections during pregnancy,  High parity,  Close birth intervals
  • 41. XEROPHTHALMIA(DRY EYE)  Disease due to deficiency of Vitamin A  Also Called Xeroma  Absence of tears  Xerophthalmia is most common in children aged 1-3 years  Cornea and conjunctiva become horny and necrosed
  • 44. • A sign of Vitamin A deficiency • Collection of dried epithelium, micro organisms etc. forming shiny grayish white spot on the cornea
  • 46. NUTRITIONAL ANEMIA  A Condition in which the Hb content of blood lower than normal as a result of a deficiency of one or more essential nutrients  Primarily due to lack of absorbable iron in the diet
  • 48. IODINE DEFICIENCY DISORDERS (IDD)  IDD refers to a spectrum of disabling conditions arising from an inadequate dietary intake of iodine.  IDD affects the health of humans from fetal stage to adulthood
  • 49.  Endemic Goiter  Cretinism
  • 50. Endemic Goiter • Also called Derbyshire Neck • Enlargement of thyroid gland causing swelling in front part of the neck • Due to lack of iodine in the diet • Goiter belt – Himalayan region • Graded from 0 – 4 • Common among girls than boys
  • 52. Cretinism  Severe form of IDD  Occurs during fetal stage  Interfere with brain development causing brain damage and death  Result in Growth failure, MR, Speech and hearing defects
  • 54. FLUROSIS  Occurs due to consumption of excessive amount of fluorine through drinking water  Two types of flurosis Dental Flurosis Skeletal flurosis
  • 56. LATHYRISM  Disease occur by consuming large quantities of Lathyrus sativus (Kesari dhal)  Lathyrism in human is referred as Neurolathyrism  The disease presents as Crippling disease of nervous system characterized by gradually developing spastic paralysis of lower limbs
  • 57. Dental flurosis  Seen in children 5- 7 years of age  Teeth lose their shiny appearance and chalk white patches develop on them  Changes are called mottling of enamel  In severe cases loss of enamel gives teeth a corroded appearance  Dental flurosis is confined to permanent teeth and develops only during the period of formation
  • 58. Skeletal flurosis  Seen in older adults  Heavy fluoride deposition on skeleton  Manifested as pain numbness &tingling sensation of the extremities, stiffness of neck Genu Valgum  A form of skeletal deformity associated with flurosis  The lower limbs appear as knock kneed due to osteoporosis.
  • 60. Prevention of Flurosis  Keep the drinking water fluorine level below 1mg/lit  Deflouridation of water using Nalgonda Technique (Flocculation, Sedimentation & filtration)  Prevent use of fluoride toothpaste in areas of endemic flurosis  Deficiency of flurin
  • 61. lathyrism  Disease occur by consuming large quantities of Lathyrus sativus (Kesari dhal)  Lathyrism in human is referred as Neurolathyrism  The disease presents as Crippling disease of nervous system characterized by gradually developing spastic paralysis of lower limbs
  • 63.  It contains a toxin called Beta oxalyl amino Alanine (BOAA)  Lathyrus Kesari Dhal) is good source of protein.  It is relatively cheaper.
  • 64. Intervention Removal of toxin  Steeping method ○ Soaking the pulse in hot water for about 2 hours and the soaked water is drained off completely  Genetic Approach ○ Development of low toxin varieties of Lathyrus  Banning the crop ○ The Prevention of food adulteration act in India has banned Lathyrus in all forms
  • 65. OBESITY  Most Prevalent form of malnutrition  Abnormal growth of adipose tissue due to enlargement of fat cells(Hypertrophic),Increase in no. of fat cells (hyperplasic)or Combination of both