Addressing water-related health risks in agroecosystems
Addressing water-related health risks in agroecosystems Eline Boelee - Water Health, the Netherlands & Delia Grace - International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), KenyaWORLD WATER WEEKHealth and Food Security ILRI29 August 2012, Stockholm INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Water management in agroecosystems• Agroecosystems – more ecosystem services than production of food, feed, fibre• Crops, livestock, fish, trees• Water management for o Increased production & productivity o Risk reduction, incl. climate change adaptation o Multiple uses, functions & services Stockholm, 29Aug2012 ILRI INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Health risks associated with agricultual water management• Insect-transmitted diseases, e.g. malaria, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever• Water-based diseases, e.g. schistosomiasis• Water quality issues, e.g. o Fecal contamination: bacteria, (rota)virus, parasites o Chemical contamination: pesticides, fertilizer, antibiotics o Harmful algal blooms Stockholm, 29Aug2012 ILRI INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Example 1 - malaria• Water storage for livestock and irrigation increased malaria transmission in Ethiopia ILRI INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Example 2 - cyanobacteria• Small reservoirs in West Africa for livestock and irrigation, but also fish & bricks• Agricultural intensification with high use of pesticides and urban waste as fertilizer• Harmful algal blooms of toxic cyanobacteria restrict water use for dairy & domestic uses Stockholm, 29Aug2012 ILRI INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Example 3 - avian flu• Agriculture in wetlands in SE Asia: rice & ducks• Water bodies attract migratory birds with low-pathogenic strains of influenza• Poultry keeping near wild bird resting sites increases risk of virus entry• Spill-over to backyard flocks• Virus enters high density, industrial poultry farms which favours increase in pathogenicity• Ducks act as reservoir hosts maintaining infection ILRI INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Higher risks with mixed systems• Animals and people and water• Half of world’s food production from mixed crop-livestock farmers• Ever increasing demand for food o Especially animal products• Most recent pandemics and emerging diseases are zoonotic: resulting from close human - animal interaction Stockholm, 29Aug2012 ILRI INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE
The Livestock Revolution: strongly increased demand for meat and milk as income grows 5 4 consumption of meat China Log per capita Trend 3 2 1 India 04 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Log per capita GNP ILRILivestock to 2020: The Next Food Revolution, a joint IFPRI, FAO, ILRI study. N A T I O N A L INTER LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Zoonotic food-borne Low income 2.4 million disease High income 1 million ZoonosesDiseases recently emerged from animals Zoonoses & recently emerged from animals Infectious and respiratory causes Non infectious/resp 0 100,000,000 200,000,000 300,000,000 400,000,000 500,000,000 9 ILRI Life years lost from sickness and death (DALYS) INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Better opportunities with integrated systems• Higher productivity / drop, surface, animal…• Attention to regulating and supporting ecosystem services o Water flow regulation o Water purification o Nutrient cycling o Biodiversity o Disease controlo Comprehensive land and water management at landscape level Stockholm, 29Aug2012 ILRI INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE
How: integrative approaches EcoHealth One Health Incentives Values Animal health Preferences Human Human Culture VPH Health health Ignorance One Medicine Governance Rule-breaking Agroecosystem health Societies, cultures Economies, institutions ILRI Policies INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Agroecosystem as entry point• Interventions at farm level o Adapted water management practices o Livestock management o Closed cycles in aquaculture o Integration of systems• Followed up along value chain / risk pathways o Field-to-fork o Boat-to throat o Landscape approach• Support at policy level o Intersectoral collaboration: agriculture (water, Stockholm, 29Aug2012 crops, ILRI fish, animals/veterinary, trees), health, environment INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Addressing water-related health risks in agroecosystems THANK YOUEline Boelee – email@example.com Delia Grace – firstname.lastname@example.org ILRI ILRI I N T E R N AT I O N A L L I V E S T O C K R E S E A R C H I N S T I T U T E INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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