Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Research and innovation: key inputs for sustainable development

81 views

Published on

Presentation by Dr. Segenet Kelemu, Icipe, 2020-01-28

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Research and innovation: key inputs for sustainable development

  1. 1. www.icipe.org Research and innovation: key inputs for sustainable development Segenet Kelemu Director General & CEO, icipe
  2. 2. www.icipe.org General facts – International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe) • A Center of Excellence in Africa- for research and capacity building for insect science and its application (almost 50 years old) • An intergovernmental organization- Charter signed by 13 countries worldwide • Four major Thematic areas of health research: Plants, animals, humans and the environment • A highly successful capacity building program with 150-180 graduate students annually; 50 interns • >500 staff (42 nationalities) and 100-150 contracted workers • 300 global partners
  3. 3. www.icipe.org icipe’s mission To help alleviate poverty, ensure food security and improve the overall health status of peoples of the tropics by developing and extending management tools and strategies for harmful and useful arthropods, while preserving the natural resource base through research and capacity building. General facts - icipe
  4. 4. www.icipe.org General facts - icipe • Stockholm Convention Regional Centre; • FAO designated center for vectors and vector-borne animal diseases; • A key and lead partner of WHO-AFRO/icipe for vector management; • World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)-designated OIE Collaborating Centre for Bee Health in Africa; • The Centre is 100% solar power; • A member of AIRCA (Association of International Research and Development Centers for Agriculture- 9 non-CGIAR centers)
  5. 5. www.icipe.org How we work Plant • Staple food crops • Horticultural crops • Migrant pests • Insects for food and feed Animal • Tsetse flies • Ticks • Biting flies Plant & Animal Health • Biodiversity and conservation • Bee Health • Commercial Insects and Applied Bioprospecting • Climate change Environment Health Human Health Capacity Building & Institutional Development; BioInnovate Africa; Regional Scholarship and Innovation Fund (cross-cutting) • Malaria research • Leishmaniasis • Zoonotic diseases • Sleeping sicknesss
  6. 6. www.icipe.org Why insects? • Of the 1.4 million described animal species on earth 1 million are insects • They pollinate many of our fruits, flowers, vegetables and other plants • They beneficial - many are predatory or parasitic • Indicators of environmental change • Primary or secondary decomposers • Major role in the food web • Interesting part of landscape and nature • They are harmful - cause damage to crop, livestock and transmit diseases (e.g. mosquitoes, tsetse flies)
  7. 7. www.icipe.org The push-pull technology 1 cereal + 2 perennial companion crops Push-pull encompasses intercropping maize with the legume Desmodium and a border row of Napier grass around the plot; both Desmodium and Napier grass/Brachiaria are perennial fodder plants
  8. 8. www.icipe.org 1= (E)-ß-ocimene; 2= α-terpinolene; 3= β-caryophyllene; 4= humulene; 5= (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7- nonatriene; 6= α-cedrene; 7= hexanal; 8= (E)-2-hexenal; 9= (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol; 10= (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate ; 11= 5,7,2′,4′-tetrahydroxy-6-(3- methylbut-2-enyl)isoflavanone (uncinanone A); 12= 4′′,5′′-dihydro-5,2′,4′- trihydroxy-5′′-isopropenylfurano- (2′′,3′′;7,6)-isoflavanone (uncinanone B); 13= 4′′,5′′- dihydro-2′- methoxy-5,4′-dihydroxy-5′′- isopropenylfurano-(2′′,3′′;7,6)- isoflavanone (uncinanone C), 14= di-C-glycosylflavone 6-C- α-L-arabinopyranosyl-8-C-β- Dglucopyranosylapigenin Khan, Midega et al., 2010, J. Exp Bot 61, 4185–4196 Midega et al., 2015. Ecol Entomol 40(Sup1), 70-81
  9. 9. Lepidopteran stemborers : 80% yield losses $1.5 billion loss annually Striga : 100 million people affected
  10. 10. Aflatoxin is a potent toxin produced by a fungus: • Immunosuppressive • Growth retardant • Carcinogenic • Lethal • Widespread
  11. 11. January 2018 Fall armyworm: Economic impact on maize: US$6.2 billion annually (CABI, 2017)
  12. 12. www.icipe.org Extent of Fall Armyworm damage in Africa • 37 million ha of maize fields in Africa affected ✓ 3 million ha are large-scale producers ✓ >98% are smallholder family farmers
  13. 13. www.icipe.org Fall armyworm – Life cycle Egg ▪  1500 eggs/female ▪ 2 – 3 days egg period Larva ▪ Six instars ▪ 14 – 30 days ▪ Characteristic marks ▪ Conceals during the day Pupa ▪ Soil pupation, rarely in dry leaf cocoon ▪ 2 to 8 cm depth ▪ 8 – 30 days duration ▪ Susceptible to cold Adult ▪ 7 to 21 days ▪ Up to 3 weeks oviposition period ▪ Prefers undamaged plants Total life cycle 31 – 81 days
  14. 14. Kenya Ethiopia
  15. 15. www.icipe.org The Invasive Alien Plant Problem Spread of invasive alien plant species negatively impacts on • Agriculture (crop losses 25-90%, soil health) • Livestock productivity (20-50%) • Water security • Biodiversity • Bee productivity • Human health Livelihoods of millions of people
  16. 16. www.icipe.org Indirect impact of Parthenium hysterophorus on human health
  17. 17. www.icipe.org Vertically transmitted symbiont of Anopheles Mosquitoes discovered by icipe researchers Microsporidia penetrating embryo in the mosquito’s ovaries Novel maternally inherited microsporidian discovered in Anopheles
  18. 18. www.icipe.org Symbiont has a strong malaria transmission blocking phenotype Absence of malaria parasite in mosquitoes harbouring Microsporidia MB after feeding on infective blood indicates complete transmission-blocking
  19. 19. www.icipe.org Sub-Saharan Africa has high cattle density Globally-Livestock supports Livelihood for 1.3 billion people Alsan, 2015
  20. 20. www.icipe.org Tsetse traps & pastoralists: attractants/repellents …Other animals which are apparently avoided by all tsetse flies as a source of food, except on isolated occasions, include impala, Zebra, wildebeest and waterbuck, all occurring in large numbers in many areas from which collections were made (WEITZ, 1963) • Waterbuck are present in tsetse habitats but not fed upon • Through series of field experiments 5 – component blend (WRB) was identified at icipe.
  21. 21. www.icipe.org Tsetse repellent collar technology Through series of field experiments 4 – component blend (Bett et al., 2015) 1 2 3 3 : : : Saini et al., 2017
  22. 22. www.icipe.org A new dispenser Cost is the reason why we ae going in this direction Okal et al., inprep 40 USD to <5 USD Registered in Kenya
  23. 23. www.icipe.org Odour Collection from zebra Olabimpe Olaide, PhD student
  24. 24. www.icipe.org A meaty planet The Economist, May 4th, 2019 “In the decade to 2017, global meat consumption rose by an average of 1.9% a year and fresh dairy consumption by 2.1%—both about twice as fast as population growth.”
  25. 25. www.icipe.org Insects for food/feed • About 1 million of the 1.4 million described animal species on earth are insects ✓ Insects form part of the traditional diet of at least 2 billion people ✓ More than 2,000 species are reported to be consumed by humans ✓ Insects therefore have a significant role to play in improving food and nutritional security
  26. 26. www.icipe.org Background Source: FAO, 2012; van Huis et al., 2013
  27. 27. www.icipe.org Insect as food 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 %ofedibleinsects Van Huis,2003 icipe, 2014 ~ 470 insect species consumed ~ 256 in Central Africa region ~ 196 in Southern Africa region ~ 100 in Western Africa region
  28. 28. www.icipe.org Demand for feed Feed production must increase by 70% to be able to meet the global demand in 2050 ✓ Annual global turnover and sale of feed = US$350 billion ✓ Feed represent 60-70% of production cost ✓ Fishmeal & Soybean: expensive– from $0.65 in 2013 to $1.44/kg in 2015
  29. 29. www.icipe.org Insects and carbon footprint 25 kg feed 1 kg beef Oonincx et al. 2010, 2012 40% consumed 80% consumed 2.2 kg feed 1 kg cricket meat
  30. 30. www.icipe.org Nutritional profile – crude protein 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Macrotermessubhylanus Ruspoliadifferens Spodopteralittoralis scalygrab BSF5-Hermetiaillucens Schistocercagregaria Melanoceramenippe Bactroceriadorsali Ceratitiscosyra RicemothPupae Gynanisamaiya Achetadomesticus Anaphepanda Calliphoravomitoria Periplanetaamericana Gryllusbimaculatus BombyxMoriPupae Bunaeaalcinoe Ruspolianitidula Gonimbrasiabelina Fishmeal Cottonseedcake Sunflowermeal CrudeProteinContent(%DM) Insects Versus Other Protein Samples Out of 30 insect species and instars analysed, 96% outperformed fishmeal
  31. 31. www.icipe.org Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) with wings, freeze-dried without wings, freeze-dried with wings, fried without wings, fried 0,00 0,50 1,00 1,50 2,00 2,50 3,00 3,50 4,00 mg/100g Masaka Mbarar a Kabale Hoima Kampala ❑Edible insects have high amount of Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) ❑Recommended daily allowance of Vitamin B2 is 1.5mg/day
  32. 32. www.icipe.org Zeaxanthin 0,00 2,00 4,00 6,00 8,00 10,00 12,00 14,00 mg/100g with wings, freeze-dried without wings, freeze-dried with wings, fried without wings, fried Masaka Mbarar a Kabale Hoima Kampala ❑Zeaxanthin is one of the most common carotenoid alcohols ❑It is critical to ensure good eyesight ❑Winged samples of edible insects had higher levels of Zeaxanthin ❑High levels of Zeaxathin were observed in saturniid caterpillars compared to others
  33. 33. www.icipe.org Zinc 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 mg/100g with wings, freeze-dried without wings, freeze-dried with wings, fried without wings, fried Masaka Mbarar a Kabale Hoima Kampala ❑Very high levels of zinc are observed in edible insects as compared to conventional sources ❑Red meat considered to be a good source of Zinc has only 4.8 mg/100g ❑While Required daily allowance of Zinc per day ranges from 8 – 12 mg
  34. 34. Global Edible Oils Market: According to a report by Persistence Market Research, the global edible oils market is expected to increase from $83.4 billion to $130.3 billion by 2024. The global skin care products market size was valued at $134.8 billion in 2018. The global omega 3 market size is projected to reach $3.77 billion by 2025 registering a compound annual growth rate of 7.4%, according to a report by Grand View Research, Inc
  35. 35. www.icipe.org YIELDS OF OILS FROM SELECTED EDIBLE AND NON-EDIBLE INSECTS
  36. 36. www.icipe.org OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS IN SELECTED PLANT AND EDIBLE AND NON-EDIBLE INSECT OILS
  37. 37. www.icipe.org VITAMIN E CONCENTRATIONS IN SELECTED PLANT AND EDIBLE AND NON-EDIBLE INSECT OILS
  38. 38. www.icipe.org ANTI-OXIDANT FLAVONOIDS DETECTED AND THEIR CONCENTRATIONS IN SELECTED PLANT AND EDIBLE AND NON-EDIBLE INSECT OILS
  39. 39. www.icipe.org Our products
  40. 40. www.icipe.org Netherlands Directorate- General for International Cooperation. Donors directly providing financial support to icipe Acknowledgement
  41. 41. International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology P.O. Box 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya Tel: +254 (20) 8632000 E-mail: icipe@icipe.org Website: www.icipe.org Thank you facebook.com/icipe.insects/icipe twitter.com/icipe linkedin.com/company/icipe Support icipe: www.icipe.org/support-icipe

×