CS III.2 - H. Tibugari

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CS III.2 - H. Tibugari

  1. 1. Widening Student Participation –Does the Funding Approach Matter? A Case for Botswana, Zambia, Malawi and Zimbabwe Handsen Tibugari handsentibugari@gmail.com IAU 14th General Conference, 11/30/2012
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION& the agenda
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Although:• findings of MDG Report 2012 on Africa indicate economic growth & strides in poverty reduction have positive impact on MDG progress & the agenda
  4. 4. • including achieving targets of: universal primary education and; gender parity at all levels of education & the agenda
  5. 5. • And though enrolments increased 20-fold from 0.2 million in 1970 to 4.5 million in 2008 (SARUA, 2012)• HE in southern Africa faces serious challenges• Access and equity to HE in SADCC are unacceptably low (SARUA, 2008) & the agenda
  6. 6. • Changes in financing HE worldwide in the last decades of 20th & 1st decade of 21st centuries (Johnstone & Marcucci, 2007)• HE costs rising higher than available revenues• Funding strategies must consider that instructional costs of disadvantaged students may be higher (OECD, 2012) & the agenda
  7. 7. HISTORICAL CONTEXT Copper Rice, Fisheries Diamond deposits -25%Diamonds agenda
  8. 8. • Independence, HE in Africa - a priority development strategy (Sayed et al., 2008)• Provided high-level manpower – research, social & economic development• Funding from former colonizing powers• Fruitful links with universities in the north (Mohamedbhai, 2008)• Economic & political crises - neglect & the agenda
  9. 9. • Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe - formerly ruled as a Federation• Salisbury (Harare) capital city• Resources, including educational channelled to Zimbabwe & the agenda
  10. 10. FUNDING STRATEGIES & the agenda
  11. 11. Government Funding & Support• Predominantly funded by governments• Zimbabwe - 95%• Ultimate goal - protecting students – institutions may be less responsive (Mahoney, 2006) & the agenda
  12. 12. Challenges• Dwindling budgets in support of HE• Funding not sufficient to cater for effects of massification (Mohamedbhai, 2008) • e.g.. high student to computer ratios• Overwhelmed Internet bandwidths – slow connectivity• Poor staff remuneration – staff exodus• Inexperienced lecturers – quality of graduates? & the agenda
  13. 13. Research Funding• Global research indicators - sub Saharan Africa poor research output (Mohamedbhai, 2011)• Lowest scholarly scientific publications• Least investment in R & D• R & D dominated by external support – development partners & the agenda
  14. 14. Challenges• Requires active partners• At times there may be no willing external partners• Strained relations with the donor community can scare funders & the agenda
  15. 15. Cost Sharing• Practised mainly by private institutions• Do not receive government subventions• At times run as business enterprises & the agenda
  16. 16. Challenges• May not focus importance of HE in the context of sustainable development (wa Kariuki, 2009)• Sometimes not responsive to (potential) students from poor family backgrounds• Student drop-out and repeat rates can be high• Low graduation rates & the agenda
  17. 17. Recommendations• Governments invest to make universities self- sufficient• Strategic alliances; networks – development partners – other HE institutions• Entrepreneurship – income generating projects e.g. Zambia – University Teaching Hospital & the agenda
  18. 18. Innovation• Engage in research that is relevant to business, industry• Scientific & technological breakthroughs 18
  19. 19. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  20. 20. Muchas Gracias

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